فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 44 (پاییز و زمستان 1390)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1390/10/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • مهدی ازهری راد، علی شیخ مهدی، رضا افهمی صفحه 5
    شالوده های فلسفی پایداری که افلاطون و ارسطو بنا کردند، علاوه بر دنیای فلسفه، در رویکردهای نظری به هنر نیز تاثیراتی بر جا گذاشت. این مقاله درصدد است این تاثیرات را در حوزه ی فلسفه ی فیلم بررسی کند و با تقسیم سینما به دو جزء تصویر و حرکت، و دنبال کردن این دو جزء در هنرهای یونان باستان و توجه به شکل گیری فلسفه ی هنر افلاطون و ارسطو در مواجهه با این هنرها، دیدگاه صاحب نظران معاصر، یعنی یان ژاروی و کریستین متز را در زمینه ی ارتباط اندیشه-های این دو فیلسوف بزرگ با فلسفه ی فیلم ارزیابی کرده تا به رهیافتی نو در نگرش به صورت های افلاطونی و ارسطویی فلسفه فیلم دست یابد. گذر از ساحت فلسفه با تاکید بر هستی شناسی و شناخت شناسی، به نظریه ی هنر و از آنجا به فلسفه-ی فیلم توسط روش توصیفی-تحلیلی امکان پذیر شده است. نتیجه این پژوهش روشن می سازد که صورت افلاطونی فلسفه ی فیلم، تنها با تاکید بر وجه تصویری، واقعیت شکل گرفته بر پرده ی سینما را وانموده ی واقعیت اصیل قلمداد می-کند و بر این اساس سینما یکی از نظام های وهم آفرین خواهد بود. اما صورت ارسطویی، با توجه بیشتر به وجه حرکتی و کنش دراماتیک سینمایی، امکان بازنمایی واقعیت اصیل را، به شرط تبعیت از قواعد ژانر، فراهم می داند.
    کلیدواژگان: افلاطون، فلسفه ی فیلم، ارسطو، حرکت، تصویر
  • اکرم بهرامیان، سید مصطفی مختاباد امرئی، محمد جعفر یوسفیان کناری صفحه 13
    این مقاله قصد دارد تا با بهره گیری از برخی آموزه های نقد ادبی مدرن و به ویژه تمهید «چندآوایی» میخاییل باختین به مقایسه ی گزیده متونی از ادبیات و درام معاصر ایران بپردازد. چندآوایی به عنوان ظرفیت بالقوه متن برای تولید و تکثیر معنا این امکان را به خواننده می دهد تا با نگرشی نو رمان ها و نمایشنامه های ایرانی را تحلیل نماید. هدف اصلی این تحقیق کشف جلوه های چندآوایی در دو نمونه مطالعاتی نمایشنامه داستان دور و دراز... و رمان اسفار کاتبانمی باشد. این مقاله با اتخاذ رویکردی توصیفی-تحلیلی سعی دارد تا با مطالعه ی موردی دو اثر مذکور نشان دهد که چگونه آموزه هایی از رویکرد بینامتنی باختین قادر است علاوه بر تحلیل رمان در کالبدشکافی درام ایران نیز مفید باشد. با شرح مختصری از پیشینه مطالعاتی رویکرد بینامتنی در نقد ادبی، تحقیق حاضر سعی می کند به معرفی و دسته بندی برخی از مهم ترین جلوه های چندآوایی موجود در آثار مذکور بپردازد. عملکرد شاخص های تحلیلی معتبری در حیطه ی قرائت های بینامتنی نظیر پارودی، چندزبانی، فرازبان های داستانی و نمایشی و نیز چندروایت گری، از این حیث امکان مقایسه تطبیقی نمونه ها را فراهم آورده است. مقاله حاضر، در نهایت نشان خواهد داد که پاره ای از آثار ادبی و نمایشی دو دهه ی اخیر ایران واجد پیوندهای نظری قابل انطباق با گفتارهای نقادی مدرن می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: ادبیات معاصر ایران، چندآوایی، ابوتراب خسروی، محمد چرمشیر، بینامتنیت و درام
  • مهدی پوررضاییان، حبیب الله آیت اللهی، حسین فرخی صفحه 25
    قصه های قرآن مجید، به سه گونه متفاوت بیان شده اند که هر کدام آنها از ویژگی های دراماتیک برخوردارند؛ نخست قصه هایی که پردازش پیوسته و ساختاری محتوایی نزدیک به تراژدی، بر اساس تعریف ارسطویی دارند و در یک روند کامل روایت می شوند. مانند قصه «یوسف»، دوم قصه هایی که بصورت پراکنده در سوره های متفاوت قرآن ارائه شده اند و دارای خصوصیات تراژدی هستند، مانند «داستان آدم و حوا». سوم قصه هایی که دارای بن مایه نزدیک به درام هستند، مثل داستان «نوح و کشتی اش». شخصیت پردازی و تعلیق، مهم ترین عناصر نمایشی در قصه های قرآنی به روشنی آشکارند. همه قصه ها طوری بیان شده اند که خواننده را تا پایان ماجرا به انتظار نگه می دارند و همه ابعاد روانی، اجتماعی و اعتقادی فردسان ها به خوبی نشان داده شده است. بیان این ابعاد کاملا باورپذیرند. در این مقاله با روش توصیفی تحلیلی به بررسی شخصیت پردازی و تعلیق، در پنج نمونه از قصه های قرآن با عناوین «آدم»، «ابراهیم»، «نوح»، «صالح»، و «یوسف»، پرداخته شده و در این راستا به این نتیجه رسیده ایم که ویژگی های قصه های قرآنی و محتوای نمایشی آنها با داشتن عناصر درام و برخورداری از دو عنصر شخصیت پردازی و تعلیق، می تواند زمینه های بسیار گسترده ای برای نگارش نمایشنامه و دیگر آثار نمایشی بوجود آورد.
    کلیدواژگان: قصه های قرآن، نمایشنامه، شخصیت پردازی، تعلیق
  • محمد شهبا، محمد طبرسا صفحه 35
    این مقاله به دلالت معنایی میزانسن در سینمای هنری ایران و بررسی این دلالت معنایی در جنبه هایی همچون صحنه، نورپردازی، حرکت دوربین وچیدمان بازیگر می پردازد تا به شناخت هر چه بیش تر جنبه های معنایی تکنیک در این نوع سینما و تجزیه و تحلیل بهتر سینمای هنری ایران یاری برساند. در آغاز، مسئله پژوهش بیان می شود و بر این نکته تاکید می گردد که میزانسن، که از عناصر اصلی ایجاد معنا در فیلم است، چندان مورد توجه منتقدان ایرانی نبوده است. پس از طرح کلیاتی درباره میزانسن و اهمیت مساله، بر لزوم پژوهش هایی تاکید می شود که پیش درآمدی بر نظریه سازی در سینمای ایران خواهند بود. در همین بخش آغازین، اصطلاحات کلیدی این پژوهش نیز تعریف می شوند. بخش بعد به پیشینه میزانسن می پردازد و علاوه بر ارائه چند تعریف از اصطلاح «میزانسن» از دیدگاه نظریه پردازان پرآوازه، چهارچوب ادبیات تحقیق با توصیف و توضیح جنبه های مختلف میزانسن مشخص می شود. در پایان بخش آغازین، رابطه دلالت معنایی و تصویر تبیین خواهد شد. در بدنه اصلی مقاله، دلالت معنایی میزانسن از چهار جنبه صحنه پردازی، نورپردازی، حرکت دوربین و چیدمان بازیگر در فیلم هایی از عباس کیارستمی، سهراب شهیدثالث و ابراهیم گلستان بررسی می شود. در نتیجه گیری پایانی، یافته های مقاله جمع بندی شده، محدودیت های تحقیق بیان گردیده، و برای پژوهش های بعدی پیشنهادهایی ارائه می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: سینمای هنری ایران، میزانسن، عباس کیارستمی، ابراهیم گلستان، سهراب شهیدثالث
  • سعید کردمافی صفحه 47
    گستره های نغمگی(به عنوان یکی از ارکان اساسی ساختار مد) در موسیقی قدیم ایران انواع و تعاریف متعددی دارند. گونه هایی چون جمع، جنس، بحر، ذوالاربع، ذوالخمس و... از انواع سلول های نغمگی مندرج در رسالات موسیقی حوزه ی اسلامی اند. تعیین نقش درون ساختاری نغمات، سیرملودیک خاص و برخی عوامل دیگر، تبدیل هر سلول نغمگی- از جمله سلول های مذکور- به یک فضای صوتی- موسیقایی متعین (مد)، با تاثیر زیباشناختی خاص را ممکن می سازد. نوشتار حاضر تعدادی از این مفاهیم و مصادیق آنها را در موسیقی قدیم و امروز ایران بررسی می کند. یکی از مهم ترین سلول های نغمگی مطروح در رسالات قدیم موسیقی«جمع» است. این مقاله می کوشد تعاریف مهم-ترین رسالات مکتب منتظمیه بغداد و شاخه فارسی زبان آن و همچنین وجوه تمایز تعاریف این مکتب و مکتب اسکولاستیک بغداد (مهم ترین مکتب تئوریک پیش از منتظمیه) در مورد مفهوم «جمع» و «جموع ناقصه» را بررسی کند و نشان دهد در میان تعاریفی که موسیقی دانان مکتب منتطمیه از سلول های نغمگی ارائه داده اند، بیش از هر مفهوم دیگری، تعریف مفهوم «جمع» است که معنای تئوریک«مد»یا «سلول مدال» را در ذهن متبادر می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: رسالات قدیم موسیقی، جمع، جموع ناقصه، مکتب منتظمیه، مد
  • بهروز محمودی بختیاری، محمودی بختیاری، زهرا خسروی صفحه 55

    مردپوشی به معنی پوشیدن لباس مردانه توسط زنان، یکی از شاخه های مخالف پوشی است که برای پنهان کردن موقتی هویت زنانه، استفاده از امتیازات هویت مردانه، یا از بین بردن تقابل میان مرد و زن توسط زنان به خدمت گرفته می شود که در طول تاریخ و در فرهنگ های مختلف دستمایه بسیاری از آثار ادبی و هنری قرار گرفته است. در مقاله حاضر کارکرد مردپوشی زنان در دوحکایت «قمر الزمان» و «علی شار و زمرد» از هزار و یک شب و چهار کمدی «دو نجیب زاده ورونایی»، «هر طور شما بخواهیدش»، «شب دوازدهم» و «تاجر ونیزی» از شکسپیر بر اساس نظرات پساساختگرای سیکسو و و نظرات پسافمینیستی باتلر بررسی می شود. این نظریه که ریشه در آراء پساساختگرایان دارد، جنسیت را به عنوان برساخته ای فرهنگی، امری اعتباری می داند که توسط گفتمان حاکم تولید و حمایت می شود. بر اساس یافته های بررسی پیش رو، زنان مرد پوش مذکور اگر چه به اهداف خود می رسند و حتی به صورت تصادفی به بالاترین مقام ممکن متن می رسند، با این حال پس از فاش شدن راز خود برای رسیدن به جایگاه مطلوب خویش در گفتمان حاکم بلافاصله دوباره زن پوش می شوند و سعادت خود را در گرو پذیرش نقش خود در تقابل مرد/ زن قلمداد می کنند.

    کلیدواژگان: پسافمینیسم، مردپوشی، هزار و یک شب، کمدی های شکسپیر
  • مهدی صائبی، سیدمحسن هاشمی صفحه 65
    این مقاله با مطالعه علل ساختاری رشد سینمای جدید کره جنوبی از جنبه های گوناگون زیبایی شناسی آن و با بیان و تحلیل تاثیراتی که این سینما از سینمای جهان و به خصوص هالیوود گرفته، در جستجوی آن است که عواملی را که سینمای جدید کره جنوبی مستقیما بر روی سینمای جهان و مجددا به خصوص سینمای هالیوود تاثیر گذاشته است، بیابد. هدف اصلی این پژوهش آن است که بررسی کند چگونه سینمای جدید کره جنوبی و عموم فیلم سازان آن، با مهارت هر چه تمام تر اصول فیلم سازی تماشاگرپسند هالیوود را گرفته و با تغییر شکل آنها و کره ای کردنشان که همانا با افزودن عناصر بومی فرهنگ کره ای که مخصوصا از تئاتر سنتی کره ای می آید، محصولاتی بوجود آوردند و توانستند همین اصول تغییریافته را این بار با نام خود به سینمای جهان عرضه کنند و مورد توجه قرار گیرند که آمار بالای فروش فیلم های کره ای گواه این مدعاست. به منظور دستیابی دقیق تر به اهداف این جستار، بازه بررسی ها به چهار عنصر فیلم سازی که به نسبت مهم تر از دیگر عناصر هستند و سینمای جدید کره جنوبی هم در آنها بسیار موفق عمل کرده محدود می شود. روایت و داستان گویی، تدوین، موسیقی و بازیگری چهار بخشی هستند که بر پایه آنها مهم ترین تاثیرات سینمای جدید کره جنوبی بر سینمای جهان مورد بررسی قرار می گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: سینما، روایت، دارسی پکت، کره جنوبی، انحراف ژانر
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  • Mehdi Azhari Rad, Ali Sheikh Mehdi, Reza Afhami Page 5
    Strong philosophical structures that Plato and Aristotle had established, in addition to being important in the history of philosophy, also left a great impact on the theoretical approaches to art. This article is going to follow the impact to field of philosophy of film. On this purpose, cinema is divided into two parts, image and motion, and features of these two parts have been surveyed in the arts of ancient Greek, and also have been noticed to the formation of philosophy of art of Plato and Aristotle in the relation to these arts. In this way the views of two contemporary scholars, Ian Jarvi and Christine Metz, that relation between the thought of these two great philosophers to the field of philosophy of film, evaluated to achieve the new approach from Platonic and Aristotelian form of philosophy of film. The question of present article is what is the relation between theories of Plato and Aristotle about realistic visual art and the drama of the narrative, and the philosophy of film? Question of the nature of the film is the most fundamental issue in philosophy of film that of course is divided into many questions that we noticed to the relation between film and the concept of reality. The descriptive-analytical method is used for this article. The theoretical framework of this research is based on the concept of "intentional arc" in Phenomenological approach, which says about connection between the subjective and objective. The result of this study makes clear that both Film theorist's view, Jarvi and Metz, is faced with the shortcomings, Including lack of attention to how formation the philosophy of art of Plato and Aristotle, and also because of incomplete interpretation the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle (they have not noticed to the horizons of two great philosophers). According to the result of this study, from the perspective of Platonic form of philosophy of film, the cinematic image is the simulacra of true reality which belongs to the world of imaginations, and because of cinema continuing realistic visual arts it cannot be a true copy of the original. But this philosophical attitude has not noticed of the motion component of cinema and therefore this attitude is incomplete. Indeed, for Plato, motion and situations created by it, will not create a new concept and cannot bring out images from the world of imagination. On the other hand Aristotelian form of philosophy of film, with an emphasis on dramatic action in film, has more attention to the motion component of cinema, and has not noticed about cinematic image. And it believes that the film through the adherence to the verisimilitude, in other words, follow the rules of the genre, can represent true reality. Of course this does not mean that the film in any way represent reality, but according to this attitude to the cinema, it is possible the representation of true reality in film.
    Keywords: Motion, Aristotle, Image, Philosophy of Film, Plato
  • Akram Bahramian, Mostafa Mokhtabad Ameree, Mohammad Jafar Yousefian Kenari Page 13
    Drawing upon some teachings of modern literary criticism and Michail Bakhtin’s notion of polyphony, the article tries to compare selected Iranian contemporary literary and dramatic texts. Polyphony, as the potential capacity of a text to produce and reproduce meaning, gives the reader the chance of analyzing the dialogical and narrative patterns of Iranian novels and dramas in a new perception. Today intertextual approach eliminates the borders between written and non-written texts (film, play, and painting) and interweaves the arts. Influenced by social polyphony the Iranian society encounters today, some Iranian authors have tried to experience polyphony and plurality in their fictions and dramas. The article selects the novel of “Asfar-e Kateban” by Aboutorab Khosravi and “Safare Dour va Deraz-e Sultan” by Mohammad Charmshir as its cases of study. In a descriptive-analytic approach to these cases of study, the article tries to examine how Bakhtinian intertextuality helps to analyze novels and dramas in the Iranian literature. The research is aimed to answer the question “how the Iranian authors have created polyphony and plurality in their texts and what effects they have used. Providing an overview of the history of intertexual approach to literary criticism, this study introduces and categorizes some of the most important polyphonic effects in these texts. Reliable analytic devices in intertextual reading such as “parody, heteroglossia, metalanguage, metadrama in fiction and drama, multi-narration and join of literary - historical personalities” pave the way for comparative analysis of these cases of study and help to prove the theory of the article. These effects effectively increase the reading capacities of the two cases. Finally, this study discusses that theoretically, some of the literary and dramatic works of the late two decades in Iran are readable in modern criticism and ignoring some methodological points, are capable to be analyzed based on contemporary narration. So it can be said that polyphony gives the Iranian authors more opportunities to reach various phones in their works. The comparative analysis of the novel of “Asfar-e Kateban” and the drama of “Safar-e Dour va Deraz-e Sultan” proves that intertextual effects are used in both works. It shows because of the similarities between literary and dramatic languages, polyphonic effects are not only readable in fiction but also in dramatic texts. On the other hand, more analysis also reveals that “Asfar-e Kateban” (by Khosravi) refers simultaneously to several books and stories in its narrative pattern. In the drama of Dastan-e Dour va Deraz-e Sultan (by Charmshir) some references to the Iranian prominent cultural works (Hossein Kord Shabestary, Amir Arsaln-e Namdar), Iranian old literature (Shahname by Ferdowsi) and distinguished contemporary plays (Hamlet and Othello) are seen. The analysis of literary and dramatic linguistic styles of the cases shows some of the most important polyphonic effects are used in these texts. The interaction of dramatic and literary languages in these works considerably helps to promote them to metafiction and metadrama. The research shows the cases of study are readable with respect to intertextual and polyphonic effects.
    Keywords: Polyphony, Mohmmad Charmshir, Iranian Contemporary Literature, Intertextuality, Drama, Aboutorab Khosravi
  • Mehdi Pour Rezaeean, Habibolah Ayatollahi, Hossein Farrokhi Page 25
    Undoubtedly, holy books are fundamentally and substantially different from that of written by mankind. These celestial words have categorized such holy books as the artistic and literary masterpieces of its kind. In fact, most of the language rules based on verse and literary beauty had token from aforementioned books.The method of storytelling in Holy Quran is in the way which by reading the stories, readers get to know holy notions that invite them to obey piety, godliness and living in a decent way. In these stories the mere purpose is not only to publicize technique and structure in their absolute concept but the main objective is to introduce humane and moral values to the readers. The stories of the Holy Quran have been narrated in three different ways so that each story enjoys dramatic features. In the first place, there are stories containing a steady process, tragedy-like concept based upon Aristotle definition and are narrated in a full episode; the story of “Joseph” is a case in point. Secondly, such stories that have been narrated here and there in various chapters of the holy Quran comprising tragic features such as the story of Adam and Eve. Thirdly, stories involve drama-like theme e.g. the story of Noah and his ark. Fascination in these stories is due to act of creating, suspense and act of processing characters in an intellectual way. Holy Quran’s stories are benefitted from dramatic elements, character development, the unraveling of a complication. Possessing conciseness, symbolism, ambiguity are other features of mentioned stories. In the story of Adam’s creation, various stages of suspense have been created about Adam’s destiny from the moment of his creation up to Adam’s fall and the rest of his life on earth. There is different suspense in the story of Edris such as when he faces death, heaven and hell. Another example of suspense is in the story of Saleh, the prophet who has confliction with his tribe and in each second there are many conspiracies against him and his miracle (the she-camel). In the story of Abraham, there is sequential suspense such as Abraham birth, his passing through fire, the sacrifice of Ishmael by Abraham and finally in the story of Joseph there is a set of dramatic suspense from his childhood up to his kingdom. Characterization and suspension are clearly considered as the most essential dramatic elements in Quran stories. All the stories are narrated in a way that the reader waits with bated breath to the end, shedding light on mental, social aspects as well as characters’ beliefs; it’s believable to express these aspects.Using analytical and descriptive methodology, this article examines the characterization and suspension of five characters of Quran’s stories such as Adam, Abraham, Noah, Saleh, and Joseph. It has been concluded that the feature of Quran stories and their dramatic context enjoying dramatic elements, along with characterization and suspension rudiments can pave the way for writing a wide range of plays and other works in this regard.
    Keywords: Character Development, Suspense, PlayWright, Quran's Stories
  • Mohammad Shahba, Mohammad Tabarsa Page 35
    This article, entitled “Semantic Implications of mise-en-scene in the Iranian Art Cinema”, deals with semantic implications in different aspects of mise-en-scene such as scenery, lighting, camera movement, and blocking. The main objectives of this article are, firstly, providing a better understanding of the semantic aspects of such techniques, and, secondly, providing a more through way to analyze Iranian art films. Beginning with problem statement, we argue that mise-en-scene, as an important aspect of creating meaning in (art) films, has not been fully analyzed by Iranian film critics. This fact, coupled with a manifest presence of mise-en-scene elements in the work of Iranian prominent filmmakers, clearly demonstrates the importance of this research. Bearing in mind that art films do not follow the popular stances, we discuss that this kind of cinema always puts forward questions about what goes on in any given society. In better words, art cinema is portrays the filmmaker's concerns and thoughts about the society s\he lives in. for example, Iranian filmmakers such as Ebrahim Golestan, Sohrab Shahid Sales, and Abbas Kiarostami, have deployed the film medium to reflect upon Iranian cultural and social atmosphere. Considering all this, the main question of this article is: what are the semantic implications of mise-en-scene in the Iranian art cinema, concerning scenery, lighting, camera movement, and blocking? At first some definitions of the term "mise-en-scene" are introduced, including some definitions provided by Brian Henderson and David Bordwell. The terms "semantic implication" and "art cinema" are also briefly discussed, taking upon Ernst Lindgern's and David Bordwell's definitions of the terms. Then, a discussion follows on the importance of the issue and on the necessity of research on the subject that would yield theorizing about Iranian cinema. In the first section of the article, the key terms of the research are also defined. In section two, different aspects of mise-en-scene are explained, and a brief background summary is presented regarding the history of mise-en-scene in cinema. Furthermore, some prominent previous research on the subject and the definition of the terms are discussed. Towards the end of the first section, semantic implications in the four main aspects of mise-en-scene – that is, scenery, lighting, camera movement, and blocking – are explained. The main body of the paper, however, deals with semantic implications of the four main aspects of mise-en-scene in a corpus of films made by three prominent Iranian filmmakers: Abbas Kiarostami, Sohrab Shahid Sales, and Ebrahim Golestan. These films include Brick and Mirror (Golestan), Still Life (Shahid Sales), And Life Goes On (Kiarostami), Where is the Friend's Home? (Kiarostami).For the purpose of clarification, many pictures, taken from the actual frames of the films, are included in the text. In the final section, the findings of the article are listed and further explained. Diversity of the semantic implications of mise-en-scene in Iranian art cinema, demonstrates the powerful usage of this cinematic device in the works of the selected Iranian filmmakers. Considering the limitations of this research, suggestions for further research are also made at the end of article.
    Keywords: Abbas Kiarostami, Ebrahim Golestan, Mise, en, Scene, Sohrab Shahid Sales, Iranian Art Cinema
  • Saeid Kordmafi Page 47
    Ambits of tones (as one of the most important elements of mode structure) in Old Iranian music have multiple kinds and definitions. Middle Eastern Musicologists have always tried to explain and devise tones ambits, because ambits of tones and structure of mode are irrefrangible. Generally purpose of division of ambits to their components is explanation of melodic modules and their combination. Some musicologists explain more clearly relationship between these two elements: ambit of tones and mod. Jam’, Jens, Bahr, ZolArba’, Zol Khams ZolKol, ZolkoleMarrateinetc, are some melodic modules in musical treaties of Islamic realm. Defining the function of tone structure, special melodic demeanors, and some other musical elements, make it possible to convert a melodic module (such as mentioned melodic modules) into a sonic-musical atmosphere with definite aesthetic effects. This article studies some of these concepts and ideas and their implication in old and contemporary music of Iran. Despite the importance of tetrachords and pentachords as a most fundamental melodic module in Middle Eastern music, the smaller cells than tetra chord and larger cells thanpentachordcan also be used. In contemporary music in Iran, there are some melodic modules which have 3, 6 or 7 tones. Different treaties have diverse information about their modal futures. In systematist treaties, the term that includes all of these cells (trichord, tetrachord, pentachord, ZolKoletc) are JAM’. Jam’ is one of the most significant melodic modules in old treatises of Middle Eastern music. After some theoretical changes, this concept had been particularly closest word to Mode in systematist school and music section of DorratolTaj (one important book of mentioned musical school). Research problem of this article is “what is the relationship between jam’ and theoretical concept of Mode?” Qotboddin e Shirazi defined “PARDE” as a melodic module with practical potential. After that he distributed treats of “PARDE” to concept of jam’. This is a useful step to reach to an exact definition of Jam’. Qotboddin e Shirazi believed that a melodic module needs at least 3 notes. Study of modal units in contemporary practice of Iranian music justifies their hypothesis. Surely some melodic modules needs rather than three notes for transmission of modality. This comparative method can lead contemporary music in Iran (Dastgahi music) to be theorized base on its traits. At the end, it indicates thatJamis closest concept to theoretical idea of Mode and Modal Module among definitions of systematist At first, the article studies definitions of main treaties of systematist school and its Persian branch. In addition, it focuses on differences between definition of Jam’ and “Jomou e Naghese”, in this school and scholastic school (chief school before systematist). Furthermore, it tries to find implications of Jam’ in practice of contemporary Iranian music. As a result, this research includes a comparative study between definitions in old treaties and sonic objectivity of Dastgahi music. Comparative study can assess accuracy of our understanding aboutjam’.
    Keywords: Systematist School, JAM, JOMOU e NAGHESE, Pod Treatises of Music
  • Behrooz Mahmoodi, Bakhtiari, Zahra Khosravi Page 55

    Cross-dressing (as dressing like a man by a woman) is one of types of transvestism, in which the woman resorts to in order to temporarily hide her feminine identity, and by entering the world of men, tries to defend her rights, or stand for the rights of others. This phenomenon has been present in many literary works, and in different cultures. This essay attempt to consider four of Shakespeare’s comedies, As You Like It, The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Merchant of Venice and The Twelfth Night and two stories of One Thousand and One Nights, " Ghamar ol-Zaman" and "Ali Shaar and Zomorrod". This study intends to find out the function of cross-dressing as a technique of plot progressing in drama and story. The function of women's gender disguises in all the above mentioned texts has been studied on the basis of Michel Foucault's ideas on "self", "the other" and "power", as well as Helene Cixous's ideas, who believes that in the light of her “binary opposition” theory, masculinity is more privileged, while blighter place is given to femininity. In this view, woman is regarded as the “other” of the man. Moreover, Judith Butler's theory about performance completes the framework of this assay. According to This idea "gender" is the constructed like the others aspect of culture that dominant discourse creates and supports it. In Butler's belief gender is performance- related. In all the texts chosen for this study, heroines deliberately dress up as a man with womanly characteristics and move to new and powerful places in binary oppositions wherein they can show their aptitude and intelligence. One Common factor of all these texts is the knowledge and wit that the women demonstrate when they dress up as a man. So their abilities is not essential but has to do with credibility, therefore their gender is credible and superficial. This is because of these women are aware of old and new position and they seek their old and original position with their new achievement. "Zomorrod" and "Malake Bodoor"_Cross-dressed women in One Thousand and One Nights- proved their “royal” abilities as the supreme position in these texts without casting doubt on themselves. Also, Portia in Merchant of Venice plays the role of a judge, and Viola, Julia and Rosalinda are the heroines with very reliable personalities, although they do not have superior positions. These cross-dressed heroines look for an opportunity to let out their secret and at the end of all stories. All of them redress up as a woman to obtain the real happiness, because they perceive to be a woman and playing role of a good woman in the mentioned opposition is the height of felicity. In other words, they try to reveal their femininity identity as a gender role to achieve favorite position after experience of transrvestism and playing the role of men.

    Keywords: post feminism, One Thousand Nights, One, Cross, dressing, Shakespeare's Comedies
  • Mahdi Saebi, Seyed Mohsen Hashemi Page 65
    This research entitled “New South Korean Cinema” deals with a kind of genre bending in new film industry of South Korea; A wide-ranging analysis of one of the world's most important contemporary film industries, New Korean Cinema adopts a cross-cultural and multi-dimensional perspective and provides a comprehensive overview of the production, circulation and reception of modern South Korean cinema. This research describes various aspects of this new film industry and analyzes that. Despite its rise in the global market, recent political progress, and a surging interest worldwide, Korean films are relatively unknown and rarely studied. This new work begins by investigating the history, industry structure, and trends of filmmaking in Korea, going on to examine how Hollywood films have affected both Korean mainstream and nonmainstream film industries in terms of both means of production and narrative. Moreover, the authors analyze the ways in which Korean films of recent years have represented the modernization process in Korea itself, as well as the ideological implications that arise from the cinematic constructions of Korean imagination. More than a mere chronological account of Korean cinematic history, Korean Film attempts to consider the films as a popular cultural form that have a life beyond their theatrical runs: stars, genres, and key movies become part of any culture's identity, and in their narratives and meanings can be located evidence of the ways in which a culture makes sense of itself. Korea has never before been given such an extensive treatment of this central idea, and here for the first time, the nation's culture and cinema are merged into one discussion that both reflects and shapes our understanding of it. The introduction explains a short cultural history of South Korea of 1980s. After that the important elements that global cinema and New Korean cinema impress each other are explained in different aspects; Like Narrative, Acting, Editing and Music of film. It explains how New Korean Cinema gets some other elements of global cinema especially from Hollywood and gets back these elements to global cinema again especially Hollywood with a lot of changes. Although a large number of these changes is domestic in South Korea and fit on native desire and global audiences. In fact, the authors consider such issues as government censorship, the market's embrace of Hollywood films, and the social changes which led to the diversification and surprising commercial strength of contemporary Korean films. The current boom being enjoyed by Korean cinema is less of an extraordinary circumstance, than a case of the industry finally reaching its natural state. Since its earliest beginnings, Korean cinema has been hampered by Japanese colonization, national division, civil war, authoritative military governments, strict censorship, and highly restrictive, distorting film regulations. Only in the 1990s did Korean cinema finally enjoy a supportive government, a stable economic environment and a sensible film policy. Although the amazing commercial boom that has powered the film industry in recent years may well fade to more modest levels, and be one of powerful cinema industry of the world.
    Keywords: Darcy Paquet, Genre Bending, Cinema, Narrative, South Korea