فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 49 (بهار و تابستان 1393)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/02/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • حسین شایسته، عبدالحسین خسروپناه* صفحات 5-16
    بررسی سیر تاریخی کاربرد معنوی و عرفانی از موسیقی، علاوه بر صحه گذاردن بر قدمت تاریخی «موسیقی عرفانی»، کاشف از تفاوتی است آشکار میان نگاه عرفان اسلامی و عرفان های دیگر به موسیقی. موسیقی عرفانی در عرفان اسلامی، حاصل سیطره تفکرات عرفانی و شهودی بر عالم ادبیات و در پی آن، آمیختگی «عرفان ادبی» با عالم موسیقی است. واسطه پیدایش این نوع موسیقی، در حقیقت عرفان ادبی است. از آن جا که «موسیقی عرفانی»، واگویه عواطف و تخیلات صافی عارفانه است، ارمغان آن می تواند تداعی احساسات معنوی و عارفانه ای باشد که برای غیر سالکان و کسانی که با آسمان عرفان بیگانه اند نیز، شیرین و الهام بخش باشد. از این جهت، موسیقی عرفانی سبب بروز نوعی از عرفان گروی گردیده که می توان آن را «عرفان موسیقایی» نامید. در این مقاله کوشیده شده است تاثیر مبانی عرفانی بر فرم و محتوای موسیقی تبیین گردد. از آنجا که محتوای این اثر، بن مایه ای فلسفی- عرفانی دارد، به مقتضای این محتوا، روش اعمال شده در پژوهش آن نیز طبیعتا عقلی و با ابزار مطالعات کتابخانه ای و به صورت تطبع در آثار بزرگان و صاحبنظران دانش موسیقی، فلسفه و عرفان بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: مبانی عرفانی، موسیقی، عرفان ادبی، موسیقی عرفانی، عرفان موسیقایی
  • محمدرضا آزاده فر صفحات 17-24
    بررسی آرای ارائه شده توسط فلاسفه و عارفان نشان می دهد، آنها در برخی دیدگاه ها دارای اشتراک نظر هستند و در برخی باورهای دارای دیدگاهی متفاوت می باشند. تلقی کردن موسیقی به عنوان یکی از بخش های حکمت نظری و دانستن آن به عنوان یکی از شاخه های علوم وسطی، موضوعی است که اگرچه بحث اصلی متکلمان در زمینه موسیقی را شامل می شود، توسط عرفا نیز به نوعی مورد تایید قرار گرفته است. از زمینه های دیگر که بین فلاسفه و عرفا مشترک است، انتساب موسیقی به افلاک است. پیروی از اندیشه تشبیه و خیال از اصلی ترین زمینه های تفاوت دیدگاه فلاسفه و عرفا است. مطالعه حاضر در زمینه باورپذیری دیدگاه های فلسفی و عرفانی اندیشمندان ایرانی توسط جوانان موسیقیدان ایرانی در یک جامعه آماری 400 نفری نشان می دهد، جوان امروز ایرانی برخلاف پیش داوری هایی که او را فاقد نظر و بی تفاوت می انگارد در زمینه آرای مختلف واکنش های متفاوتی از خود نشان می دهد. نتایج همچنین حکایت از رنگارنگ بودن و تنوع دیدگاه های جوانان در زمینه موضوعات فلسفی و عرفانی دارد. به نظر می رسد ساختار ذهنی و درونی جوان ایرانی به هر نوع هنوز تحت تاثیر اندیشه های سترگ عرفانی و فلسفی نیاکان خود است، هرچند در دنیای پیرامون در مورد بروز، پرورش و بهره گیری از آن با کاستی مواجه باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: فلسفه و موسیقی، عرفان و موسیقی، نوازندگان جوان ایرانی، موسیقی افلاک، اوقات تغنی، جامعهشناسی موسیقی ایران
  • حمید عسکری رابری صفحات 25-36
    این مقاله برای نخستین بار به مطالعه «تنظیم آوازهای محلی ایرانی برای کر» در تاریخ موسیقی نوین ایران می پردازد. اهمیت بررسی این قالب موسیقایی در طرح مسائل متعددی است که فرایند «تنظیم» را مستلزم فعالیت پیچیده آهنگسازی ساخته، و آن را از صرف یافتن صداهای متناسب با آواز محلی (هارمونیگذاری) فراتر برده است. در پژوهش حاضر با تکیه بر تحلیل نمونه های آثار آهنگسازانی همچون روبن گریگوریان، سرگئی آغاجانیان، ثمین باغچه بان، محمد تقی مسعودیه و حمید عسکری، ضمن نشان دادن ویژگی ها و امکانات این گونه «تنظیم»، به تبیین دستاوردهای هنری آهنگسازان در این قالب پرداخته شده است. این تحلیل ها عمدتا مرتبط با فرم، ساختار، هارمونی، پلی فونی و کلام می باشند. این پژوهش نشان می دهد که آهنگساز چگونه با نگرشی زیباشناسانه موفق به آفرینش چنان تابلوی رنگین صوتی می گردد که هم حیاتی نو به آواز محلی بخشیده و هم بعنوان یک اثر خلاقانه مستقل قابل مطالعه است. قالب «تنظیم آوازهای محلی برای کر»، راه حل های جدیدی در فرهنگ موسیقی یکصدایی ایران عرضه نموده و از این طریق در عرصه موسیقی ملی، رهیافت های نوینی بویژه در زمینه هارمونی مدال، الگوهای پلی فونیک و اسلوب های ساختاری و آوایی نوین ارائه کرده است.
    کلیدواژگان: تنظیم، آوازهای محلی، کر، موسیقی ایرانی
  • علی کاظمی صفحات 37-46
    در این مقاله تلاش بر این است که بر پایه ی 5 آوانگاری از اجراهای برخی اساتید آواز ایران با رهیافتی تطبیقی- تحلیلی و با استفاده از مفاهیم شنکر در آنالیز موسیقی، قسمتی از نقش های متنوع تحریرها در موسیقی دستگاهی بررسی شود. تحلیل این نمونه ها، که همگی از درآمد دستگاه چهارگاه انتخاب شده اند، صرفا با تکیه بر تحریرهای بخش آغازین این اجراها انجام خواهد شد. در این بررسی، با تکیه بر مبحث سیر نغمگی، نشان داده خواهد شد که تحریرها، به عنوان مهم ترین عنصر تزئینی در موسیقی دستگاهی، در بستر مدی که در آن اجرا می شوند، معنا پیدا می کنند و ما با توجه به این بستر است که می توانیم نحوه عملکرد تحریرها را توضیح دهیم. نیز با تکیه بر تحلیل نمونه ها و ترسیم نمودارهای آنالیزی، تلاش خواهد گردید نحوه شکل یافتن صورت و پیکره گوشه ها، و به تبع آن دستگاه های ایرانی، به واسطه تحریرها، که می تواند کمک شایانی باشد برای درک ما از ساز و کار گوشه ها و دستگاه ها، بازنمایی شود. گسترش و بسط یک صدا و نیز یک سلول مدال خاص؛ کمک به گذار از نغمه ای به نغمه دیگر و نیز از سلولی مدال به سلول مدال دیگر و نیز پرداخت انواع فرودها در موسیقی دستگاهی، از جمله مهم ترین نقش های متنوع تحریرها به شمار می آیند.
    کلیدواژگان: تحریر، گوشه، موسیقی دستگاهی، سیر نغمگی، آواز ایرانی
  • نغمه ثمینی، بهروز محمودی بختیاری، محمد باقر قهرمانی، شیوا مسعودی* صفحات 47-58
    دلقک، شخصیتی از ژرفای فرهنگ عامیانه کشورهاست که محبوبیت مردمی به آن جایگاهی ماندگار بخشیده است و آن را به الگویی ثابت، فراتر از زمان و مکان تبدیل کرده است. او هوشمندانه خود را با افق اجتماعی روز هماهنگ ساخته و جایگاه خود را در میان فرهنگ مردمی ثابت و استوار نگاه داشته است. شناخت بهتر مفهومی چون دلقک نیاز به مطالعاتی تبارشناسی در چگونگی شکل گیری و گونه شناسی در بررسی نمونه های موجود دارد. دلقک سنتی نمایش های ایرانی در سه گونه بقال بازی، سیاه بازی و خیمه شب بازی را می توان ادامه گروه های اجتماعی دانست که تبار آیینی، اجتماعی و تاریخی او به نظر می رسند و به شکلی کلی با محور «دیگری» مشخص شده اند. بلاگردان از نظر آیینی، خنیاگر، کولی و نیرنگ باز (عیار) از نظر تاریخی و دلقک های میدانی و دربار از نظر اجتماعی، تبارهای دلقک سنتی ایرانی هستند. جستجوی تباری ویژگی های دلقک های نمایش سنتی در گروه های تباری، هم چنان که آنها را ژرف و چند لایه می سازد، افقی برای مطالعه ادامه کارکرد دلقک سنتی ایرانی تا امروز به دست می دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: دلقک، دیگری، بقال بازی، سیاه بازی، خیمه شب بازی
  • مهدی نجفی سیاهرودی، سید مسلم علوی* صفحات 59-70
    صنعت سینما همواره از نظر قدرت فرهنگ سازی و اثراتی که از نظر نگرشی و رفتاری بر افراد جامعه می گذارد، شایسته توجه و برنامه ریزی های اثربخش تری است. متاسفانه این صنعت در ایران جهت جذب مخاطبان در سال های اخیر چندان موفق عمل نکرده است و سرمایه گذاران، تمایل خود را به سرمایه گذاری در این صنعت از دست داده اند. این ناکامی ریشه در عوامل مختلفی دارد که با شناخت دقیق و برنامه ریزی در جهت رفع آنها می توان این روند را دگرگون کرد. از این رو و به منظور بررسی علل رویگردانی مخاطبان از سینما، مطالعه ای در شهر رشت میان 470 نمونه صورت گرفت. در تحلیل روایی از روش محتوایی و در سنجش پایایی از دو روش کرونباخ و دو نیم کردن استفاده شد. یافته ها نشان داد که دلایل رویگردانی مخاطبان از سینما به 7 عامل تقسیم می شوند و مخاطبان در سه خوشه قرار می گیرند. خوشه اول بیشتر ناشناخته بودن کارگردان و تهیه کننده و خوشه دوم قیمت بالای بلیت را علت رویگردانی خود می دانستند. خوشه سوم که بزرگترین خوشه از مخاطبان به شمار می رود، عواملی همچون نامناسب بودن فضای فیزیکی سینما را در رویگردانی از سینما موثر می دانند.
    کلیدواژگان: صنعت سینما، رویگردانی مخاطبان، عوامل بوم شناختی، عوامل رفتاری
  • محمدعلی صفورا، کامران افشار مهاجر، فاطمه حسینی شکیب* صفحات 71-82
    تولیدات انیمیشن به سه دسته عمده، انیمیشن تجربی، انیمیشن سینمایی و انیمیشن تلویزیونی تقسیم می شود. با توجه به گستردگی رسانه تلویزیون، انیمیشن تلویزیونی بازار وسیعی را به خود اختصاص داده است. این تحقیق بر این پیش فرض استوار است که عدم شناخت نسبت به «عناصر ساختاری»، تفاوت ها، ویژگی ها و کارکردهای انواع انیمیشن، باعث عدم برقرای ارتباط با مخاطب می گردد. براساس نظریه ساختارگرایی، با برقراری ارتباط بین اجزا (عناصر بیانی)، می توان به یافتن «معنی (پیام)» و دلالت هایی که در یک فیلم وجود دارد، رسید. بنابراین، فیلم و روایت آن را، نوعی ساختار یا به بیان دیگر، شیوه ای خاص برای تلفیق اجزا و پدید آوردن یک کل می توان تلقی کرد. هدف از این تحقیق، ارائه مدل و الگویی جامع، با توجه به نظرات فرنیس، بوردول و دیگران، برای بررسی عناصر ساختاری (نظام های نشانه شناسی) و تحلیل متن انیمیشن تلویزیونی است. بنابراین، شناخت و چگونگی عناصر ساختاری انیمیشن تلویزیونی، مسئله این تحقیق می باشد. این تحقیق برای رسیدن به نتیجه و طراحی الگویی جامع، عناصر ساختاری را، به عناصر ساختاری- بیانی ویژه انیمیشن، عناصر ساختاری متن دراماتیک (فیلمنامه)، عناصر ساختاری طراحی بصری، عناصر ساختاری طراحی صوتی و عناصر ساختاری تدوین تقسیم و با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی آنها را بررسی نموده است.
    کلیدواژگان: انیمیشن، انیمیشن تلویزیونی، انیمیشن ایران، عناصر ساختاری، تحلیل متن
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  • Hossein Shayesteh, Abd-Ol-Hossein Khosropanah* Pages 5-16
    In addition to endorsing the historical significance of ‘mystic music’، a survey of the spiritual and moral bearings on music، exemplifies the major differences that exists on views about music، between Islamic mysticism and other forms of spirituality. Mystic music، as viewed in Islam، is a consequence of ethical revelations made on music through literature. The close interaction with literary mysticism is thus the fundamental milieu for the development of mystic music. In light of the fact that mystic music is a consequence of the sublime transcendence associated with mysticism، its outcome could resonate the mystical esteem and morale not so frequently practiced by the layman. As a result، mystic music cultivates a sense of spiritual union which fosters the establishment of ‘musical mysticism’. This article aims to explain how the foundations of mysticism influence form and content in music. Intrinsically، music does not have any effect other than exciting emotions. Its tone is merely repeating human emotions، causing passivity in the human soul and the excitement of emotions in others. The perception of music، like all the other branches of art، is dominated by human subjectivity. This means that the structure and content of music is directly aligned to the cultural conceptions، emotions، thoughts، and attitudes of its creator. Taking into consideration the works and research findings of other scholars and theoreticians in the field of music، philosophy، and mystics، this article has made an attempt to substantiate the reciprocal relationship between the content of music and the sensations practiced by its creator. An important common parameter between music and mysticism is seen in their language of expression in which virtue، feeling، inspiration، and inner emotions are all expressed in the context of ’union and separation’ the metaphor for the passion of the soul which exists in every language. Mystical perceptions and the resulting feelings of the human soul can influence both the form and content of music on two principles. Primarily، because music is a volitional action it can be a source of hemicellulose knowledge. Secondly، the need for a congruity between cause and effect encourages one to perceive that music، being an effect of the human soul، must search its congruence in its cause. Mystical perceptions and the resulting feelings in human soul can influence both the form and content of music based on two principles. First is the origin of music which is in volitional human actions; Second is the need for congruity between cause and effect. The mystical music has caused some kind of orientation towards mysticism that may be called “musical mysticism «. In this brief article – which is extracted from the author''s dissertation entitled» Explanation of Philosophical and Theological Foundations of Music«، it has been tried to explain how mysticism foundations influence the form and content of music.
    Keywords: Mystical Foundations, Literary Mysticism, Sufi Music, Musical Sufism
  • Mohammad Reza Azadehfar Pages 17-24
    Most Islamic philosophers consider music as one the four elements of mathematics following Aristotle’s quadrivium: arithmetic، geometry، music، and astronomy. However، the philosophers usually avoid engaging the issues related to what music really does when perceived by man and how it can improve the life of man on earth. At the same time، Sufists and mystics manly focus on the later issue. Based on theosophical view، music has something in connecting the God and his creator، while in philosophical view it is mainly a subject which can be studied like other mathematical issues. To investigate the place of philosophical and theosophical way of looking at music among the contemporary Iranian youngsters a filed study conducted for this project. A survey including 5 questions which addressed the main issues in traditional philosophical and theosophical views toward music provided and some 400 music students from three rejoins of Iran including Tehran، Isfahan and Gilan participated in this study. The average age of subjects were 21 and were nearly half girls and half boys. Result of this study reviled that some 72% of subjects believe that music is relatively comparable to the order of cosmos. The result also showed that some 15% of the subjects think that such comparisons are nonsense، which is a relatively considerable percentage among Iranian musicians. Although، I could still find supporters for idea of cosmos-music relation in this study، when I came to investigate if youngsters believe in mystical idea that human is such an instrument in the hand of God، I found 31% believed that such idea is acceptable if one is in right mood of his connection with God. Some 31% disagreed with this idea. This study showed that there is still a strong believe that music is a media for communication between the man and his creator. Only 16% believe that music is a result of physical vibration and is incapable of delivering any message from God. A huge percentage of participants (62%) believed that music has a higher status than visual arts in theosophical activities (the idea came from Ibn Arabi’s theosophical view). Relating different traditional tunes to the certain time and places (Oqat-e Taghanni) nearly some 60% in one way or another believed that such an idea could take place even though some updates have to be included on ancient treatises. The examination of way of thinking of young Iranian musicians on mystical and philosophical ideas regarding music showed that they have different believes on different issues and there is no way of generalizing the fact that if they believe on old philosophical and theosophical facts as a general rule. For instance، while majority of them do not believe that they “act as an instrument in the hand of God”، a considerable percentage of them believe “God can communicate with human through music.” The study also revealed that there is a diverse ideology on every single philosophical or theosophical issue among the youngsters. In other words، the society is very colourful in ideas and believes.
    Keywords: Philosophy, Music, Theosophy, Music, Iranian Youth Music Performers, Music of Cosmos, Appropriateness of Music, Occasion, Sociology of Iranian Music
  • Hamid Askari Rabori Pages 25-36
    This Study shows that how each composer creates a colorful choral folksong picture، gives an individual interpretation and new life to a folk melody، and also makes an independent musical work. The present article studies the choral arrangement of the Iranian folk songs as a creative musical genre of the modern Iranian music. The importance of this genre involves in several challenges which make the arrangement a complex occupation. Hence، the job engages not only with finding sounds accordance with folk song- harmonization-but also relates to diverse usage of all musical means such as harmony، rhythm، polyphony، musical texture and formal structure. Iranian music in the early twentieth century، was faced with important challenges. On the one hand، it was necessary to collect and preserve national music، and on the other hand، to have a proper treatment with the above mentioned issues which at last led the course to the development of a professional music making trend. Analyzing the features of Iranian traditional monophonic songs has not inclusively given account here but it is worth mentioning that microtones in Iranian Muqams (modes) has caused a wide range of musical intervals that can enhance the musical language. This does not mean to make use of all these intervals in harmonic set، which may cause some limitations on choosing polyphonic patterns. Once needed، the composer prudentially applied tempered model of folk songs in choral arrangements. The present study، which is a new survey of the field is based on analyzing the selected works of Iranian composers in A capella choral arrangement genre: Ruben Grigoriān (Damkol، Korashim)، Sergey Aghājāniān (Massom massom، To bio)، Samin Baghcheban (Ah dilbar)، Mohammad Taghi Masoudieh (Khurde kija) and Hamid Askari (Gole gandom). The related analyzing comes about in relation to the form، structure، polyphony and word. Roben Grigorian (1915-1991)، with his tonal inclination influenced by the classical harmony can be considered as the founder of the choral arrangement of the Iranian folk songs. Sergey Aghājāniān (1929-2006)، with his developed tonal attitude affected by Komitas، has created affluent arrangements. Samin Baghcheban’s (1925 – 2008) understanding of the choir and its performing capacity has led him to create unique works، worth to mention for current research. The arrangements of Mohammad Taghi Masoudieh (1927-1988)، gain their significance from his status as an ethnomusicologist. As a composer، Hamid Askari (b. 1969) has always been engaged with the arrangement of Iranian folk songs. Regarding to the recent attempts done by Iranian composers، he has found it worthy to bring an example of his arrangement which sheds light on the subject. The scientific review of the choral arrangements attributed to different composers enable us to trace the evolution of the genre in the light of stylistic striving and artistic-aesthetical problems of the national music school. The article’s conclusions highlight the significance of the Iranian folk song arrangements for choir، as a musical genre، for the development of the polyphonic pattern، modal harmony and rhythm، new structural and phonic techniques which in general have enriched Iranian music.
    Keywords: Arrangement, Folk song, Choir, Iranian Music
  • Ali Kazemi Pages 37-46
    In this article، according to the 5 transcriptions of Iranian vocal masters، we try to observe some of various functions of tahrir in Iranian classical music with comparative - analytic method and Schenkerian analysis. The goal of usage Schenkerian analysis is to interpret the underlying structure of tahrirs by showing hierarchical relationships among tones، and also drawing the graphs of reduce analysis as the fundamental lines of tahrirs. Tahrir is the main ornament in Persian singing and instrumental music. In summary، tahrir is a falsetto break or cracking of the voice in the form of the grace note above، and between the notes of، the melody line. According to the research، the tahrir is not only an ordinary ornament، but rather it must be known as a Structural function in Iranian classical music. These transcriptions are selected from the early segment of dastgâh-e châhârgâh. Generally، dastgâh is one of the twelve multi-modal cycles in Iranian classical music، and also early segment of each dastgâh classically named darâmad. These transcriptions are from the records of Seyyed Ahmad khân، Soleimân Amirqâsemi، Abolhasan Eqbâl Âzar، Rezâqoli Mirzâ Zelli and Abdollâh Davâmi. In this study we will explain the mechanism of tahrir based on melodic progression (seyr). The melodic progression is one of the complicated characteristics of eastern mode that refers to the how the combination of the tones and progression the melody. Indeed، the how motion of tones in tahrir-s is dependent of the seyr. In this article we will use 3 terms for explained the mechanism of tahrir-s into the texture of gushe-s (The dastgâh is composed of many melodic segments with various lengths which are called gushe): tahrir-sentence، tahrir-phrase and tahrir-motive. The tahrir-sentence is a musical sentence that is only based on tahrir. The tahrir-phrase is intermediate concept that is between the tahrir-sentence and tahrir-motive. The tahrir-motive is fundamental component of a tahrir-sentence; in other words، the tahrir-motives articulate and fractionate a tahrir-sentence. Virtually، each tahrir-sentence is composed of a number of tahrir-phrase and tahrir-phrase is composed of a number of tahrir-motive. Apart from following the logic of movement and stillness، the method of separation the tahrir-motives، sometimes follow the rising and falling melody and sometimes follow the pause on the important tones of the mode (such as the shâhed note that is the center around which the melody evolves and rest note on which the melodic segments comes to rest) and sometimes follow the pause similar to staccato. Based on study of transcriptions and analysis charts، we will try to indicate that the gushe-s how to get in shape by the tahrir-s. Hereupon، this investigation can be helped us to perceive the mechanism of gushe-s. Some functions of tahrir that can be enumerated are: development and expansion of a tone or a specific modal cell; help to move from one tone to the other tone; help to modulation and also help to return to the primary mode and concluding the sentence، phrase or gushe which is called forud in dastgâhi music.
    Keywords: Iranian Classical Music, Tahrir, Gushe, Schenkerian Analysis, Melodic Progression (Seyr)
  • Naghme Smaini, Behrooz Mahmoodi Bakhtiari, Mohammad Bagher Ghahramani, Shiva Massoudi* Pages 47-58
    The clown is a special character which has arisen from the depth of folkloric culture، and beside his similarities in many cultures، he has some specific characteristics that distinguish him from one culture to another. The popularity of the Clown has established him as a lasting and powerful social pattern. He cleverly coordinates himself to current social conditions and maintains his place in folkloric culture constantly. The complete recognition of clown requires genealogical and taxonomical studies. In genealogical studies، the state of clown formation will be studied in diachronic and synchronic methods and in taxonomical studies various kinds of clowns will be recognized in a variety of places and times. In this research، the genealogy of Iranian traditional clown has been considered. Clown has an important role in the Iranian traditional humorous theater that has a clownish central character who moves the play forward. The Buyer character in Baghāl-Bāzi، Siāh (black) in Siāh-Bāzi and Mobārak in Kheime-Shab-Bāzi are the most important Iranian traditional theatre clowns. These traditional clowns are placed in the middle point of the two phases of the history of clowns in Iranian theatre: one from the beginning to the established and well known traditional types and one from there to clown-like characters in contemporary theatre. In researching the first phase، we aim to find out what character samples in society have brought about the clown as an effective character whose powerful shadow has never left the Iranian dramatic arts. It seems that the clown، based on «the other» as the main feature of clown، in the traditional humorous theatre has been the continuation of specific character groups. It is realized that these descends can be separated on the basis of ritual، social and historical views. The scapegoat is considered as a ritual descend of clown، and also، the minstrel، gypsy and trickster are his social descends and court jester and public fool represent his historical descends. These characteristics can be seen in the Buyer، Siāh and Mobārak. The scapegoat is our starting point which is an ancient pattern for «the other» and which is related to the clown. The specific example of Iranian scapegoat is Mire-Norouzi that runs a joyful carnival. But the definite descends are social and historical ones، whose qualities can be clearly seen in the Iranian traditional theatre clown. The minstrels who are called Gusān and go back to Sassanid dynasty، Gypsies who settled in Iran ages ago with their beliefs and manners، and tricksters that are known as Ayyārān and their tales in folkloric literature have been very popular، alongside court jesters and public fools play important roles in generating the Iranian traditional clowns. Features such as singing and improvisation from Gusāns، rebellion and marginalization from gypsies، and trickery and cross dressing from Ayyārān، awareness and frankness from court jesters and public fools are depicted in the clowns. This genealogy research finds the clown to be a deep and multi-layer dramatic character and provides a suitable base for further studies in the Iranian contemporary theatre.
    Keywords: Clown, the Other, Baghāl Bāzi, Siāh Bāzi, Kheimeh Shab Bāzi
  • Mahdi Najafi Siahroudi, Sayyed Moslem Alavi* Pages 59-70
    cinema as a social environment provide a basis and special situation in which people can gather together، experience a different relationship and can find a new thinking or behaving approach via watching the movies. By going to cinema people in addition to utilize their leisure time effectively، they gradually shape their attitudes and behaviors based on what they have seen and heard. This understanding evokes the individuals to change their life style and interact with others in kinds of free dialogs. So cinema is an effective tool to influence our life and on the other hand it can be affected by social، economic and marketing factors in a society. Regarding to what we mentioned above، Cinema industry due to its ability to cultivate a culture and as an obstacle against cultural attack is of so much importance. Cinema demand is under the impact of numerous factors. It is price elastic and positively related to income. TV plays the role of movies substitute and the relation between cinema and video consumption is ambiguous and sometimes some variables that are related to movies quality exert a positive or negative influence on cinema attendance. On the other hand، cultural factors and specially marketing factors can affect cinema demand considerably. For example when the availability of cinema (proximity of cinema place to audiences)، quality of films (using sophisticated technologies of file making، employing famous actors/ actresses and so on) and the advertising costs increase، the number of cinema attendants can goes higher simultaneously. Unfortunately، this industry in Iran despite of its potential capabilities was not succeeded in recent years so that most of investors believe investing in this industry is not rational and can''t bear a fruit. Regarding to this issue and in order to study the causes of customer’s avoidance of cinema، 470 individuals from Rasht city are selected. To test the validity، face validity approach is used while for testing the reliability of questionnaires two approaches including cronbach’s alpha (81 percent) and split half approach (72 percent) are applied. These tests have confirmed the validity and reliability. Statistical Findings show that the main causes of cinema avoidance would be categorized into 7 factors including many variables such as unavailability of cinemas، the lack of good facilities، weak scenarios، the low quality of role playing of actors and actresses، bad advertising، illegal broadcasting of films، high price of thickets، downloading movies by internet at home and so on. Based on other analytical tests، respondents are divided into three clusters. First cluster members believe that an unknown director or producer is the reason of cinema avoidance while the members of second cluster argue that the high price of tickets is the main cause. Furthermore، third cluster as the biggest cluster takes this view that the unsuitability of cinema facilities and equipment could be effective. It’s suggested to equip Iranian cinemas with the advanced technologies of showing movies، making films based on socially relevant scenarios، employing well known stars and decrease the price of tickets.
    Keywords: Cinema Industry, Customer Avoidance, Demographic Factors, Behavioral Factors
  • Mohammad Ali Safoora, Kamran Afshar Mohajer, Fatemeh Hosseini Shakib* Pages 71-82
    In a very general classification، films can be divided into three groups including fiction، nonfiction (i. e. documentary، experimental….) and animation. Animation، as one major member of the three is a hybrid medium and art form which employs the expressive elements of other arts; that is it hybridizes and utilizes elements of dramatic arts (mainly cinema) and fine arts (painting، graphic design، etc.). Thus it may be said that to study these ‘structural elements’ and utilizing them in an appropriate manner in TV animation production would mediate the ideal effect and message to the viewer. It is possible to group animation productions into three major groups of short experimental animation، feature-length and TV animation. Nowadays، TV animation production comprises the majority of the animation produced in the world since the massive number of TV channels throughout the globe has made such kind of animation highly demanded and marketed. In a very general outlook، it may be said that most TV animations as cheap and fast products have shared properties such as flat perspective، simple color pallets، and simple forms in designing characters as well as limited animation which is mostly mass produced with low budgets. The structural elements of the three different categories of animation mentioned before، while sharing many factors، are different and diverse dependent on the specificities of each medium. Each، have different properties in terms of their scripts، formal structures and so on; visual elements (such as color، form، texture and…) and also other determining factors (such as composition، lighting and so forth)، aural elements (such as music، dialogue، and sound effects) and the animation script properties differ dependent on the type of medium as well as the target audience. This research is based on a hypothesis that ignoring the mentioned ‘structural elements’ as well as not considering the differences، properties and functions of the diverse range of animations would result in the production of weak and inefficient works which will eventually fail to communicate with the target audience or the intended message. Based on structural theories، it is possible to uncover the ‘message’ and significations of a work by creating practical relationships among its structural elements. Thus it is possible to consider a film and its narrative as a ‘structure’ or in other words، a specific way to synthesize the building blocks to create a coherent whole. In this research، the theories of Bordwell and Thompson، Esslin، Furniss and others who have proposed theoretical models to study and deconstruct structural elements of a dramatic text based on the concept of mise-en-scene are used to create a new method with consideration of novel relations to come to a comprehensive model by which to analyze animation texts، especially to examine the structural elements of TV animation productions. To reach such a model، the structural elements are divided into the structural/expressive elements specific to animation، dramatic text (screenplay)، visual design، sound design، and structural elements of editing، and the properties of each will be studied in depth in the paper.
    Keywords: Animation, TV Animation, Iranian Animation, Structural Elements, Content Analysis