فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 20 (بهار 1393)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/03/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • محمدمهدی عزیزی، سمانه زارع استحریجی صفحات 1-22
    به کار گیری اصول برنامه ریزی کاربری اراضی شهری (مکانیابی مناسب کاربری ها با توجه به وجود گسلها و مناطق پرخطر، همجواری و تناسب کاربری ها با یکدیگر و...) می تواند ضریب آسیب پذیری سکونتگاه های انسانی را در مقابل زلزله کاهش دهد. شهر تهران بر روی چهار گسل اصلی به نام های گسل شمال تهران، شرق تهران، ری و ملاصدرا قرار گرفته است که گسل های شمال تهران و ری از نظر قدرت تخریب در تهران از اهمیت بیشتری برخوردارند. قرارگیری منطقه یک شهرداری تهران روی گسل شمال تهران و وجود شیب های تند و بلند مرتبه سازی های پی در پی و غیر اصولی موجب افزایش میزان آسیب پذیری در مقابل زلزله می گردد. جهت کاهش این آسیب پذیری در پژوهش حاضر، ارزیابی سازگاری پهنه های کاربری زمین در طرح تفصیلی منطقه یک شهر تهران در ارتباط با محدوده گسل شمال تهران با اهداف بررسی شاخص های تاثیر گذار بر میزان آسیب پذیری کاربری های شهری، شناسایی پهنه های آسیب پذیر و تعیین میزان آسیب پذیری آنها و ارائه راهکارهایی به منظور کاهش آسیب پذیری پهنه های کاربری های شهری در برابر زلزله صورت گرفته است. در تحقیق حاضر روش تحقیق توصیفی - تحلیلی و تکنیک های Cat PCA و Cluster Analysis به کار برده شده است. یافته های تحقیق حاضر حاکی از آنست که افزایش مقدار شاخص هایی نظیر تراکم ساختمانی، تعداد طبقات و فاصله از فضاهای عمومی موجب افزایش میزان آسیب پذیری پهنه های کاربری می گردد و در مقابل افزایش مقدار شاخص هایی نظیر فاصله از گسل، سازگاری پهنه های کاربری با یکدیگر و با زمین واقع شده در آن موجب کاهش میزان آسیب پذیری می گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: برنامه ریزی کاربری زمین، زلزله، طرح تفصیلی منطقه یک تهران، گسل شمال تهران
  • مسعود صفایی پور، بهار حبیبیان صفحات 23-44
    تحقیقات نشان می دهد پارکها یکی از مهمترین فضاهای فراغتی در شهرهای مختلف هستند و در ابعاد مختلف زیست محیطی، زیبایی شناختی، کالبدی، اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فراغتی بر محیط شهری تاثیر می گذارند. شهروندان در قالب اجتماعات مختلف فراغتی شامل فردی، خانوادگی و دوستان و همسالان به پارک می روند و عوامل مختلفی در دو گروه کلی فردی و محیطی بر شکل گیری این اجتماعات و فراوانی هریک از آنها در هر پارک تاثیرگذارند. این تحقیق تاثیر دو عامل محیطی شامل مطلوبیت فضای داخلی و مطلوبیت مکان را در پارک های شهر اهواز بر شکل گیری اجتماعات فراغتی در آنها بررسی می کند. تحقیق به شیوه توصیفی-تحلیلی انجام شده و داده های مورد نیاز از طریق مطالعات کتابخانه ای، شیوه پیمایشی از طریق پرکردن پرسشنامه از مراجعه کنندگان به پارکها و ثبت مشاهدات میدانی از تعداد اجتماعات فراغتی در پارکهای مورد مطالعه گردآوری شده است. سه پارک دولت، سیاحتی و شهروند در مقیاس عملکرد شهری به عنوان نمونه جهت تحقیق انتخاب شده و تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از طریق نرم افزارهای تحلیل آماری (Excel، SPSS) انجام شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد مطلوبیت مکان پارکها و نیز مطلوبیت فضای داخلی پارکها بر شکل گیری اجتماعات فراغتی در آنها موثر است و در نمونه های مورد مطالعه، مطلوبیت بیشتر مکان پارک و فضای داخلی موجب شده تا گروه های خانوادگی بیشتری در پارکها حضور پیدا کنند و ضعف این عوامل موجب بیشتر شدن حضور گروه های دوستان و همسالان شده است. در پایان تحقیق راهکارهایی نظیر ایجاد فضاهای متنوع و چند کارکردی در پارکها، پویا نمودن فضای پارک شهروند و خارج نمودن آن از بن بست ارتباطی جهت افزایش مطلوبیت فضایی پارکها و تامین نیازهای گروه های مختلف فراغتی در آنها ارائه شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: پارک، فضای فراغتی، اجتماعات فراغتی، مطلوبیت فضای داخلی، مطلوبیت مکان، عوامل محیطی، اهواز
  • رضا خیرالدین، مهدی رازپور * صفحات 45-66

    یکی از مناطق مرزی کشور که اخیرا بنا به وجود اقتصاد غیررسمی مرزی، حوزه جذب توریست تجاری خود را به سرتاسر کشور گسترش داده و دچار تحولات فضایی و کالبدی شدیدی شده است منطقه مرزی بانه در استان کردستان است. جریان گسترده سرمایه مالی در نتیجه دو عامل اقتصاد غیررسمی و توریسم تجاری، سبب بوجود آمدن رونق هایی مقطعی در مقیاس های کلان و خرد منطقه شده است. گستردگی عواقب فضایی ناشی از این روند در تحولات شهر و منطقه بانه باعث شد تا تحلیل کیفیت آن بصورت چندمقیاسی دنبال گردد. روش های مرسوم برنامه ریزی به دلایل مختلف پاسخگو و کارآمدی لازم جهت بررسی و تحلیل اینچنین مسائلی را در مناطق مرزی نخواهند داشت. لذا در این مقاله الگوسازی و تبیین رویکردی واقع بینانه و عمیق با رویکرد تحلیل استراتژیک فضایی چند مقیاسی دتبال شد. بدین منظور شناخت جریان های فضایی و اقتصادی اخیر منطقه با روش توصیفی و تحلیلی انجام شد که طی آن مصادیق پژوهش از طریق مصاحبه های رو در رو و تصویری با عوامل بومی، عکسبرداری، پیمایش میدانی و بازدید از نواحی صفر مرزی مستند شدند. با فرض منطقه مرزی بانه به عنوان یک سیستم منطقه ای، فرصت ها و چالش های توسعه منطقه به عنوان مسائل درونی و بیرونی سیستم با استفاده از تکنیک SWOT مورد شناسایی و تحلیل استراتژیک قرار گرفتند. در پایان راه کارهایی به منظور هدایت فرآیندها و رونق های مقطعی اخیر و رهیافت منطقه به توسعه پایدار منطقه ای مشخص شد.

    کلیدواژگان: اقتصاد غیررسمی، توریسم تجاری مرزی، تحولات کالبدی فضایی، تحلیل استراتژیک
  • منصور حقیقتیان، هابیل حیدرخانی صفحات 67-88
    مفهوم سرمایه اجتماعی در دوسه دهه گذشته در مباحث مربوط به توسعه اقتصادی و اجتماعی جوامع بسیار مطرح شده است. یکی از حوزه هایی که می تواند متاثر از سرمایه اجتماعی باشد توسعه و به ویژه توسعه شهری است. توسعه شهری در ابعاد عینی بیشتر ناظر بر بالا بردن سطح زندگی عمومی از طریق ایجاد شرایط مطلوب و بهینه در زمینه های فقر زدایی، تغذیه، بهداشت، اشتغال، آموزش و چگونگی گذران اوقات فراغت است. با توجه به اهمیت موضوع در این پژوهش با استفاده از روش میدانی،تکنیک پیمایش و ابزار تحقیق پرسشنامه به دنبال پاسخ به این سوال اصلی هستیم که چه رابطه ای بین ابعاد مختلف سرمایه اجتماعی و توسعه شهری از دیدگاه شهروندان شهر کرمانشاه وجود دارد؟ جامعه آماری پژوهش حاضر شهر کرمانشاه است که تعداد 380 نفر از شهروندان 18 سال به بالای این شهر به عنوان حجم نمونه مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. در جهت پاسخگویی به سوال اصلی این پژوهش به بررسی و تحلیل ابعاد مختلف سرمایه اجتماعی چون اعتماد اجتماعی، انسجام اجتماعی، مشارکت اجتماعی، آگاهی و تعامل اجتماعی به عنوان متغیرهای مستقل و رابطه آن با تحقق توسعه شهری به عنوان متغیر وابسته پرداخته شده است. نتایج تحقیق حاکی از ان است که بین تمامی متغیرهای مستقل تحقیق با متغیر وابسته رابطه مثبت و مستقیم معناداری وجود دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: سرمایه اجتماعی، توسعه شهری، اعتماد اجتماعی، انسجام اجتماعی، مشارکت اجتماعی، آگاهی اجتماعی، تعامل اجتماعی
  • احمد تقدیسی، مسعود تقوایی، محمدرضا بسحاق صفحات 89-104
    توسعه پایدار و مستمر هر کشوری وابسته به پایداری نظام کشاورزی است. بنابراین دست یابی به یک نظام کشاورزی پایدار، یکی از سیاست های مهم بخش کشاورزی کشورها است. از اینرو پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی وضعیت شاخص های ذهنی کشاورزی پایدار در مناطق روستایی شهرستان ازنا صورت گرفته است. روش تحقیق در این بررسی از نوع توصیفی- تحلیلی و پیمایشی بوده که با استفاده از جمع آوری آمار و اطلاعات از طریق روش های میدانی بدست آمده است. جامعه آماری این تحقیق، سرپرستان خانوارهای مناطق روستایی شهرستان ازنا می باشد که با استفاده از فرمول کوکران نمونه ای به حجم 239 نفر از بین آنها به روش نمونه گیری طبقه ای انتخاب گردید. به منظور سنجش ضریب اعتبار پرسشنامه آزمون پیش آهنگی انجام گرفت که ضریب اطمینان آلفای کرونباخ آن بیش از 76/0 درصد بدست آمد. نتایج حاصل از طریق تجزیه و تحلیل های آماری در نرم افزار SPSS نشان می دهد که 5/12 درصد از شاخص ها در گروه کاملا پایدار، 75/18 درصد در گروه پایدار، 75/43 درصد در گروه تا حدی پایدار، 25/6 درصد در گروه ناپایدار و 75/18 در گروه بسیار ناپایدار قرار گرفته اند.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه پایدار، کشاورزی پایدار، شاخص های ذهنی، مناطق روستایی شهرستان ازنا
  • مصطفی قدمی، مریم شعبانی صفحات 105-126
    بیشترین تغییرات کاربری زمین ناشی از توسعه گردشگری به دلیل ساخت و سازهای انجام شده به صورت خانه های دوم، شهرک ها و ویلاها است. این مساله پیش از پیش در ایران و بالاخص در محدوده مورد مطالعه وجود داشته است. بیشترین اراضی که مشمول این تغییرات می شوند زمین های زراعی و باغات است. برای کاهش این تغییرات باید مطالعاتی جدی انجام و آینده این اراضی بررسی شود. هدف از انجام این تحقیق، بیان سناریو های تغییرات کاربری زمین در بخش مرکزی شهرستان نوشهر به عنوان یک مقصد مهم گردشگری است. روش تحقیق از نوع توصیفی و آینده پژوهی است که در آن از مصاحبه با متخصصان و کارشناسان بخش گردشگری و کاربری اراضی استفاده شده است. سپس سناریو های تغییرات کاربری اراضی نوشته و تشریح شده است. نتایج نشان می دهد که سناریو حاکم در محدوده مورد مطالعه، سناریو تخریب است به طوری که این منطقه در یک افق بلند مدت، تغییرات شدید کاربری اراضی را به دنبال دارد و وضعیتی بحرانی پیدا خواهد کرد که با به کارگیری استراتژی هایی نظیر مدیریت یکپارچه کاربری زمین می توان به پایداری رسید.
    کلیدواژگان: تغییرات کاربری اراضی، تحلیل سناریو، گردشگری
  • رحیم حیدری چیانه، صفیه حاضری*، راضیه تیموری، توحید احمدی صفحات 127-142

    چند سالی هست که پروژه پارکهای بانوان در برخی مادرشهرهای ایران جهت رفاه حال بانوان ایرانی به اجرا درآمده است. با توجه به اینکه نیمی از شهروندان را بانوان تشکیل می دهند، در دهه های اخیر در کشورهای توسعه یافته و نیز در حال توسعه از جمله ایران، توجه به نیازهای ویژه بانوان از سوی برنامه ریزان شهری مطرح شده است. پارکها و فضاهای سبز مختص بانوان، به عنوان یکی از مهمترین مراکز خدمات رفاهی و تفریحی بوده است که علاوه بر جنبه بهداشتی و روانی، در توسعه پایدار شهری و بهبود کیفیت زندگی بانوان از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار است. پژوهش حاضر بر آنست تا میزان موفقیت این فضاهای مختص بانوان را از دیدگاه آنان، مورد سنجش قرار دهد. روش تحقیق کاربردی- تحلیلی و پیمایشی است که با تکمیل 140 پرسشنامه در 3 پارک بانوان شهر تبریز انجام پذیرفته است. برای تحلیل داده ها از نرم افزارهای Spss و Excel استفاده شده است. یافته های پژوهش نشان دهنده موفقیت بالای پارک بانوان بوده است. نتایج به دست آمده نشان دهنده موفقیت نسبی پارک های بانوان در مقابل وجود ضعف هایی است که در این پژوهش در راستای از میان برداشتن این ضعفها پیشنهاداتی ارائه شده است. همچنین روابط بین خصوصیات شهروندان با میزان رضایت آنان از پارکهای بانوان مرد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته، یافته ها بیانگر وجود رابطه معنادار بین سن افراد، وضعیت تاهل و شغل آنان با میزان رضایتمندی از پارک بانوان است.

    کلیدواژگان: پارک های بانوان، میزان موفقیت، اوقات فراغت، کلان شهر تبریز
  • محمدرحیم رهنما، روح الله اسدی صفحات 143-162
    در این مقاله با گذری به رویکرد نظری و مفاهیم حکمروایی خوب، ضمن بر شمردن دیدگاه های مختلف در مورد آن، به ذکر شاخص ها، اهداف و کنشگران مطرح در عرصه حکمروایی خوب مبادرت ورزیده شده است. ضرورت بررسی وضعیت شاخص های حکمروایی خوب شهری در شهر مشهد با ویژگی های خاصش، و با در نظر داشتن مشکلات متعدد، هم در عرصه مدیریتی و رسمی و هم در بین گروه های ذینفع(شهروندان و سایر بخشها) اجتناب ناپذیر می نمود. در این راستا با هدف تعیین وضعیت شاخص های حکمروایی خوب در شهر مشهد به توزیع پرسشنامه، به تعداد 384 عدد، در بین شهروندان و تعداد 32 پرسشنامه در بین کارشناسان شهرداری و شورای شهر اقدام گردیده و با روش توصیفی و تحلیلی به تحلیل وضعیت، پرداخته شده است. نتایج بدست آمده نشان می دهد که در بین شاخص های 9 گانه لحاظ شده، از نظر شهروندان بهترین وضعیت را شاخص مشارکت (به معنای تمایل شهروندان به مشارکت و مسئولیت پذیری شان در تهیه طرح-های شهری) و بدترین وضعیت را عامل عدالت با میانگین 1.6 و مسئولیت و پاسخگویی با 1.8 داشته است. از دید کارشناسان نیز شاخص-های پاسخگویی، با میانگین 3 بهترین وضعیت و جهت گیری توافقی با میانگین 2.2 نامناسب ترین حالت را نشان می دهند. مقایسه میانگین شاخص ها در مناطق مورد مطالعه نیز حاکی از یکسان بودن میانگین شاخص هاست؛ به جز شاخص قانونمندی و بینش راهبردی که در آنها تاثیر مناطق بیشتر است.
    کلیدواژگان: حکمروایی خوب شهری، شاخص، مشهد، وضعیت
  • سید هادی زرقانی، محمد جواد رنجکش، منصوره اسکندران صفحات 163-182
    همگام با جهانی شدن و با رشد فنآوری اطلاعات و توسعه شبکه های ارتباطی، شهرها درفضایی متشکل ازجریانها به بازیگران اصلی حوزه ارتباط واقتصاد جهانی تبدیل شده اند. تمرکز و همگرایی حوزه های مختلف درشهرها نشان دهنده حرکت سریع جهان به سمت شهری شدن و توسعه هرچه بیشتر کلانشهرها و تبدیل آنها به شهرهای جهانی و در نهایت جهان شهرها است. دراین فضا، شهرها باارتقاء جایگاه اقتصادی، سیاسی، فن آوری، فرهنگی و زیر ساختی خود از توان، نفوذ و اعتبار کافی برای اجرای فعالیت های دیپلماتیک برخوردار می شوند و درراستای فعالیت های خود شکل نوینی از دیپلماسی را نمایان می سازند که از آن با عنوان دیپلماسی شهری یاد می شود. این مقاله از حیث ماهیت و روش، توصیفی-تحلیلی است و تلاش دارد به شیوه اسنادی و در چارچوب بحث دیپلماسی شهری، نقش و کارکرد شهرها را به عنوان بازیگران جدید روابط بین الملل مورد بررسی و تجزیه و تحلیل قرار دهد. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد که شهرها با ایفای نقش فراملی خود در زمینه های امنیت، توسعه، اقتصاد، فرهنگ، شبکه سازی، و حضور در سازمان های بین المللی به بازیگرانی فعال در عرصه روابط بین الملل تبدیل شده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: شهر، جهانی شدن، دیپلماسی شهری، روابط بین الملل
  • فاطمه گریوانی، محمدطاهر احمدی شادمهری، محمدعلی فلاحی صفحات 183-202
    اندازه گیری شاخص های فقر و مطالعه عوامل تعییین کننده آن یکی از ابزارهای اصلی تجزیه و تحلیل مساله فقر و یاری کننده سیاستگذاری های مربوط به آن است. هدف این مطالعه، بررسی عوامل مهم و موثر در رفاه خانوار و وضعیت فقر در مناطق شهری استان خراسان شمالی است. استان خراسان شمالی جزو استان های محروم کشور است که در سال 1383 با تقسیم خراسان بزرگ به استانی مستقل تبدیل شد که تاکنون مطالعه ای جامع در زمینه فقر این استان صورت نگرفته است. در این مطالعه از خط فقر مطلق، برای محاسبه خط فقر جهت شناسایی خانوارهای فقیر از خانوارهای غیر فقیر استفاده شده است. خط فقر مطلق بر پایه ی داده های هزینهای 162 کالای مصرفی استخراج شده از داده های 717 خانوار نمونه طرح هزینه و درآمد خانوارهای شهری استان خراسان شمالی در سال 1389 برآورد می شود. به منظور بررسی عوامل تعیین کننده ی فقر در سطح خرد، تاثیر متغیرهای بارتکفل، جنس و سن سرپرست خانوار، مخارج آموزشی و مخارج بهداشتی سنجیده شده است. نتایج نشان می دهد که تمامی متغیرهای توضیحی الگو به جز سن سرپرست خانوار، بر فقر مناطق شهری استان موثر هستند. علاوه براین، نتایج حاکی از آن است که چنانچه خانواری بتواند خود را به سطح متوسط مقادیر توضیحی الگو برساند به احتمال 6/78 درصد بالای خط فقر قرار گرفته و از گروه خانوارهای فقیر خارج می شود. بر اساس نتایج مدل، احتمال قرار گرفتن خانوارهای زن سرپرست نسبت به خانوارهای مردسرپرست در گروه فقیر بیشتر است و بنابراین، لازم است سیاستگذاران توجه بیشتری به این قشر از جامعه در سیاست های فقرزدایی خود نمایند.
    کلیدواژگان: خط فقر، فقر مطلق، فقرشهری، تعیین کنندهای فقر، الگوی توبیت
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  • M.M. Azizi, S. Zare Estehriji Pages 1-22
    Extended abstracts 1- Introduction The role of urban plans to reduce or increase urban vulnerability against earthquake is very important. Urban detailed plans are including the most important part of the urban planning include land use planning. The deal of projects with the issue of earthquake vulnerability، it is important to reduce damage that caused by natural phenomena. In the detailed plan of the first region of Tehran، according to studies، the Urban Land use zoning has been suggested. 2- Theoretical bases Among the various levels of effective physical planning to reduce urban vulnerability against earthquake، is the Urban planning. Assessment of damages or injuries directly or indirectly related to undesirable urban planning and design. So what makes a disaster event earthquake in cities، in many cases is inappropriate urban planning. So reforming of urban planning Status can decrease the urban Vulnerability against earthquake. One of the techniques that can reduce the damage caused earthquakes in urban planning and urban areas، is urban land use planning to decrease the damage caused by the earthquake. 3- Discussion In the theoretical study and selection criteria، the proposed land use zoning in the detailed plan of the first zone of Tehran has been evaluated. Thus، each of the indicators، including the density of building، number of floors، access to urban open spaces، access، compatibility between land uses، the location of a zone In association with fault Frontages، the distance with industrial land uses، the distance with Towers of Power، For each area rated and After determining each indicators to analyze the situation in earthquake-affected areas، the Cat Pca method is used. Next، with using SPSS software and the Cluster Analysis، all zones were divided into four groups. Then، for naming categories to four categories including low vulnerability، moderate vulnerability، very high vulnerability، refered to the data rates of each indicator for each zone، and it was divisions and ultimately produced vulnerability map against the earthquake. 4- Conclusion A total of analysis can be conducted to conclude that: - If the building density is less، the Vulnerability will be less. - If the height of buildings is less، the Vulnerability will be less. - If the user access to the open spaces in urban areas is more، the Vulnerability will be less. - If Adjacent land uses are Compatible with each other، the Vulnerability will be less. - If the Distance of land use zones with faults is more، the Vulnerability will be less. - If the Distance of land use zones with industrials land uses is more، the Vulnerability will be less. - If the Distance of land use zones with Towers of Power is more، the Vulnerability will be less. 5- Suggestions This study was conducted according to the principles of research and analysis، land use strategies to reduce vulnerability to earthquake zones provided: - Decreasing the occupied land uses. - Keeping the balance between population density and building density. - Decreasing building density. - Creating hierarchy of open spaces. - Providing adequate and safe open spaces. - Creating a hierarchy of urban streets. - Designing wide streets. - Locating high density user areas outside of boundary faults.
    Keywords: Land use planning, earthquake, detailed plan of first zone of Tehran, North of Tehran fault
  • M. Safaeepoor, B. Habibian Pages 23-44
    Research shows parks are one of the most important leisure spaces in towns and cities and affect urban space in different aspects such as environmental، aesthetic، fabric، economical، social and leisure aspects. City dwellers go to parks as different leisure gatherings including individuals، families and friends and coevals so that international management and direct meaningful utilization of these groups in addition to quality scale up of urban parks can lead to more satisfaction of stakeholders. 2-Theoretical bases Leisure gatherings are groups including one or more persons that spend their leisure time alone or together. These gatherings encompass individuals، families and friends and coevals. Many different factors in two major types of individual and circumferential affect forming of these types of gatherings and frequency of each one in urban parks. Individual factors include age، gender، education level، economic level، culture and personal tact and circumferential factors include local desirability، spatial desirability، climatic condition and frequency of other leisure spaces. This research considers the effects of two circumferential factors including local desirability and spatial desirability of city parks on forming of leisure gatherings there. 3-Discussion Research is performed with a description-analytical method and data is collected from library studies، survey method with questionnaires from park visitors and observation register of number of leisure gatherings in understudy parks. Three parks include Dolat، Siahati and Shahrvand in urban function scale selected as samples for research and analysise of data is done with statistical software (SPSS، excel). Spatial desirability is assessed through 3 social and 13 fabric subfactors and local desirability is evaluated through 3 subfactors and it was observed that Dolat Park has the best situation in local desirability and Siahati Park is the best in spatial desirability. Results of statistical test show there is a relationship between local desirability with predominate leisure groups of parks and also between comparative ranking of parks about the presence of individuals، families and friends and coevals with predominate leisure groups of parks. Also about spatial desirability with mentioned factors the relationship is confirmed. 4-Conclusion The results show there is a relationship between local desirability of parks and so spatial desirability of parks with forming of leisure gatherings in them، and in understudy samples، more spatial and local desirability have led to more family presence in parks and deficiency of these factors has amplified the presence of friends and coeval groups. So we oughtn''t to consider parks just as expletive objects of vacant places in cities that developed in non-filled landuses by case and independently and appropriate goal-making and social direction should be in ascendency of urban management''s aims about urban parks. 5-Suggestions Attention to teenagers'' and youths'' leisure requirement via development of multifunctional and various spaces in parks، make Shahrvand Park more dynamic by utilizing of sport spaces and creating culture spaces around it and make Shahrvand Park out of connection-build situation to increase its local desirability of it are suggestions to increase parks'' desirability and direct leisure gatherings of them.
    Keywords: park, leisure space, leisure gatherings, spatial desirability, local desirability, circumferential factors, Ahvaz
  • R. Kheyroddin, M. Razpour Pages 45-66

    Extended abstract 1-Introduction Informal economy and its spatial consequences are such important issues in border regions of Iran. The existence of some conditions such discrimination and inequality in employment opportunities and income، lack of minimal indicators of life quality، migration and goods smuggling in border regions has prompted border residents to diversify their business according to their border position and test new ways of their livelihood in contrast with formal rules of center. These activities have profound impacts on the economic، social، cultural، physical and spatial structure of border regions that can be a source of opportunities and challenges in the course of development of border areas. 2- Theoretical bases According to the theoretical foundations in informal economy studies، The hidden economy of Bane city is an informal economy that tax evasion، failure of registering trade in national accounts، ignoring legal forms of trade، ignoring institutional financial rules، failure to report to the governmental statistical center، evade the payment of transaction costs، lack of licensing of commerce are seen in it. This study is investigating spatial consequences of informal economy in Bane border region. Tourism in Bane is a capacity and existent trade-based potential. In scientific studies، tourism has an important role in regional development that can prepare required beds and infrastructures of efflorescence and regional sustainable development by noticing to this industry especially in regions such as Bane city that is located on the edge of the country and far from the relation of development. Monetary and goods flows related to border in Bane on a one hand and border commercial tourism on the other hand have been two key and mutual factors in recent evolution of Bane that are major motivations of frontiersman’s economic activities، capital accumulation and development of border region. 3- Discussion Spite of regional development planning in Iran، these plans have been rarely had positive and stimulating regional sustainable function، especially in border regions. Regional development plans have always made investigation and reorganization of spatial evolutions and spatial development planning of border regions difficult and challenging by top-bottom look، non-reliance on native context of development and lack of adequate recognition of society on the one hand and also using traditional methods of development researches، ignoring theoretical approaches and methods of scientific knowledge on the other hand. Bane، in Kurdistan province، is one of the border regions that have been exposed to a wide trade and goods exchange. By noticing to difference between domestic currency backed by government and foreign currency، importing cheap informal goods to Bane has caused its absorption domain of commercial tourism to extent throughout the country، so that، according to the head of cultural heritage of Kurdistan province، 1438500 commercial tourism visited Bane in the first four months of 1388. It is so clear this massive population exchange for buying and selling informal imported goods can have extensive spatial and physical consequences. Examples of research were obtained through library and field studies. This study is descriptive and analytical because its mission is recognizing and conducting recent spatial and economic mobility which created due to boundary situation and providing situation of absorption of informal commercial tourism. For this aim، face to face interviews with local actors، photography، field survey and visiting border were done. Analyzing the quality of spatial consequences must be considered in macro and micro scales of region because of its expansion. In this research، the impacts and consequences of commercial tourism and border informal economy on urban and regional evolutions of Bane city are determined and analyzed such as clearing the position of Bane border region in flows of border informal commodity exchanges، extending the domain of functional impacts of Bane city on national and international levels، functional-spatial impacts of border economy and commercial tourism and its multi-level consequences in Bane region such as changing the role of city from administrative- political to services-commercial role، increase of income and turnover and high potential of capital accumulation، reflecting the impact of region’s political evolutions on trade and economic relations in the region، the process of development and efflorescence of Bane city especially in border villages and the emergence of new luxurious construction in the area due to informal trade earnings. Despite the instability of these developments، some opportunities have been provided for Baneh City development which requires correct planning and management. 4- Conclusion Recent evolutions and efflorescence of Bane due to new relations in Bane border region is considered as opportunities for sustainable development as well as threat that needs more careful planning. Instability of this efflorescence is the main challenge. The changing government policy of government and local decision making institutions concerning the border regions، fluctuations of exchange rate، getting out capital from region، lack of turnover management and more importantly، lack of defined process for how to use capital flow and spent it to create basic infrastructures of regional development are the main challenges that propel recent efflorescence of Bane border region toward instability. 5- Suggestions Due to the possibility of changing the policies of center and related local decision-making institutions and the lack of permanent border income، it cannot be seen the income of this trade as a sustainable economy. Therefore، strategic planning will be the basic requirements of the regional development of Bane city. In order to achieve to this end، by regional strategic analysis and identifying Strengths، weaknesses، opportunities and treats points and the intersection between pairs of them together، some strategies were proposed in 4 category (planning، offensive، defensive and the critical) to steer Baneh city to sustainable development. Highlights • We investigate informal economy and commercial tourism effects on spatial- physical changes of Baneh border region • We use spatial strategic analysis by multi-scale approach • We documented the research instances through face to face and video interviews with local agents، photography، field traversal and visits of border region • We recommend some strategies to steer recent trends and instability developments toward sustainable regional development.

    Keywords: Informal economy, border commercial tourism, physical spatial evolution, strategic analysis
  • M. Haghighatian, H. Heidarkhani Pages 67-88
    Extended abstract 1-Introduction Today، in addition to human، economic and physical capitals، another capital namely، social capital refers to another type of capital that is related to the social and economic development of communities. Whereas the concepts of physical and human capitals refer to the tools and ideas that increase individual productivity، the concept of social capital refers to the characteristics of social organization such as social networks، social norms، and trust that facilitate mutual cooperation and coordination in the pursuit of mutual benefits. One area that could particularly be affected by the development of social capital is urban development. Urban development in its more objective aspect relates to the raising of the standards of life by creating favorable conditions in the areas of poverty reduction، nutrition، health، employment، education and leisure. Therefore، this article''s main question is as follows: What is the relationship between the different dimensions of social capital and citizens'' views on urban development in the city of Kermanshah? 2- Theoretical Bases James Coleman sees social capital as the participation of actors in social structures which can be beneficial to some and not to others. Putnam considers trust، social norms، and participation in social networks as the three essential aspects of social capital. In his research on urban development in Italy، he found that those areas that had higher levels of social capital enjoyed higher levels of urban development as well. Two projects are of utmost importance in the area of urban management. These are urban development، and urban participation. Due to the emergence of «increasing urban growth»، «increasing urbanism»، and «complication of urban system»، a rethinking of economic، social، political، cultural، and legal structures of the city is needed. Urban development seeks to accomplish this aim through the participation of people and the strengthening of urban economy and its political، social، and cultural life. And it is in this regard that social capital can be of great use. 3- Discussion This is a quantitative research of the field research type which used a questionnaire to gather the needed data. Research population consisted of all the residents of the city of Kermanshah who were 18 years old or above، of which، based on Cochran formula، 380 individuals were selected as the sample. The sampling method was multi-stage: stage one was cluster sampling and in stage two، simple random sampling was used. The research instrument had face validity and its reliability alpha coefficient was above the 0. 70 threshold. The data were then processed using the SPSS software. 4- Conclusion In this research، different dimensions of social capital such as social trust، social solidarity، social participation، social interaction، and social awareness were considered as independent variable and residents'' views on urban development was considered as the dependent variable. The results showed that the mean for social capital was 3. 82، which was above the expected mean of 3. Of the different aspect of social capital، social trust had the highest mean (4. 04)، and social interaction had the lowest mean (3. 66). The mean for urban development was at the medium range (3. 07). The results also showed that there was a direct and positive relationship between urban development and social trust (r=0. 477)، social solidarity (0. 179)، social participation (r= 0. 593)، social awareness (r= 0. 214)، and social interaction (r= 0. 369). 5- Suggestions - The enhancement of urban social and cultural facilities in order to promote the spirit of cooperation and collaboration - The mass media especially national and local television can broadcast programs that increase social capital - The provision of programs and activities that encourage the participation of different strata and classes of people - The indigenization and utilization of mechanisms and programs that other developed urban areas have made use of. - Paying more attention to local traditions and customs and strengthening those aspects that promote trust and cooperation in place of putting emphasis on competition and rivalry.
    Keywords: social capital, urban development, social trust, social solidarity, community involvement, social awareness, social interaction
  • A. Taghdisi, M. Taghvaei, M. R. Bosshagh Pages 89-104
    Extended abstract 1-Introduction Sustainable and continuous development of each country is depended to Sustainable of agricultural system. As food security، environmental security، improved economic status and overall survival and the life of the country will be possible to achieve a sustainable agriculture. Assess the sustainability of agriculture in rural areas as the focus of a significant share of the farmer population and the threats facing the sustainable development of agriculture، to be realistic plan for improving agricultural sustainability in action. In the direction Azna Township that has regions such as climatic and geographical conditions and farming as the main source of income and employment opportunities، appropriate development in rural regions is provided. Given the importance of farming activities and its close relationship with rural development in mind is the fact that the current extent of agricultural activity is sustainable? And the region''s agricultural activities have been positive changes in terms of sustainability or not? Nature of agricultural sustainability is so that it can not be evaluated only according to objective indices. Since data for all indicators of agricultural sustainability can not be to collect as an objective and quantitative، therefore، should be given to collecting data mental indicators. In this study we tried to assess mental indicators of sustainable agriculture and meantime to consider the status of indicators compared to previous approaches towards the sustainable development of agriculture to offer. Theoretical Basics Generally، all single definition of sustainable agriculture that is accepted is very difficult. Agricultural policies in sustainable agriculture and natural resources to produce the maximum sustainable production in the short term and long-term continued to be pushed. Land of the Brandt report، entitled «Our Common Future» in 1987 and its culmination in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro will provide different definitions of sustainability and sustainable agriculture. Some experts and others looked on from the vision of sustainable ecological agriculture، ecological aspects of the term assurance beyond mere knowledge and its receptor in the areas of ethics، sustainable development، sustainable rural communities and institutions as well. Thus، sustainable agriculture to balance economic، ecological and rural cultures together is emphasized. Discussion Indicators to measure the attitude of farmers towards sustainable agriculture in the region، all 16 indicators، using Likert five-level range (too high 5، high 4، medium 3، low 2، very low 1) have been investigated. For this purpose، all the indicators together in the first phase of the study and obtained a total score for each individual. This score reflects the degree to implement the principles of sustainable agriculture and for agriculture. Therefore، the data entered by the cluster analysis and were classified in five groups and clusters obtained are named according to their scores. After this stage of research to identify indicators of sustainable agriculture in the region، all 16 index into the cluster analysis and were classified in five categories. Because of the nature of continuity in time، the concept of sustainability is hidden، so the trend is positive or negative changes in each of the past to be more precise evaluation of the indicators to be obtained. The Wilcoxon test was used to assess changes in each index. Finally، the four rural district study area to examine the issue of whether there is a tendency to the same conditions for sustainable agriculture، the Kruskal-Wallis test was used. Conclusion The results of cluster analysis shows that the activities carried 10/8 percent of farmers in a highly unstable، unsustainable in 32 percent، 30/4 percent in somewhat sustainable، 15/2 percent in the sustainable group and 11/6 percent in the group have been quite sustainable. Also evaluate the stability of each of the indicators in sustainable agriculture، 12/5 percent of the indicators in a sustainable، sustainable at 18/75 percent، Somewhat sustainable at 43/75 percent، 6/25 percent in the unstable group and 18/75in the group are very unstable. Therefore with due attention to average obtained from the index، we can say; the farm level، crop rotation (mean 4/12 of max 5) and stable indicators of tillage (average 1/77 of maximum 5) of the unstable region. The results of the Wilcoxon test the parameters of the only indicators of pesticide use than in the past has had a negative process. This index is significant at the 5 percent level of past and present، farmers use chemical pesticides. Lack of suitable alternatives in this index، the most important factor in the spread as much of it. Finally، Kruskal Wallis test results showed that the four rural district study area and applying the principles of sustainable agriculture، there is no balance and coordination in the East Silakhor rural district is compared to other Azna township rural district. Suggestions • According to the indicators of minimum tillage، crop and forest use of chemical fertilizers used in this study are quite unstable it is therefore imperative that the information about damages caused by excessive use of fertilizers، the use of minimum tillage and bed in order to use most of the crop is the forest. • Index of use of chemical pesticides has a negative process in this study for the purpose it is necessary to conduct scientific studies to provide suitable alternatives to farmers found. Otherwise، you should see more use of chemical pesticides and low quality products in the coming years. • Given the weak condition of other rural district in the East Silakhor rural district are. Therefore، in order to avoid regional imbalances and mismatches are of particular interest. This is especially good at protecting the quality and quantity of water in the rural district with other rural district show a large difference. • Finally، it is recommended to encourage farmers to high-performance، As the farmer، Those farmers will be introduced as a template That are both sustainable agricultural yield per unit area and time factors are too high. Way to motivate more positive attitudes toward the use of sustainable practices by farmers will be done.
    Keywords: sustainable development, sustainable agriculture, mental indicators, village regions of Azna township
  • M. Ghadami, M. Shabani Pages 105-126
    Extended abstract 1-Introduction Rural areas of central part of Noshahr have experienced extensive land use change especially agricultural lands (farms and gardens) in recent years (Ghadami etal، 2010) and are expected to continue in future. Because Noshahr is a tourist destination and many tourists have visited here since 1991، so as a result of building many accommodations such as second homes and villas and penetration of land speculation، land use change and environmental pollution have happened extensively (ghadami etal، 2010; Badri etal،2010). This problem has been intensified due to lack of regulatory laws and government support of agriculture sector. So، the future of these lands and their destructive consequences are uncertain. It needs to be applied more accurate tools and methods to understand land use system complexity، effective factors on land change، predict these lands'' future and achieving sustainable land use management. So، scenario analysis was applied. 2- Theoretical bases Scenario planning consists of two main parts: first، scenarios are developed through a systematic process of picturing and rehearsing future situations; second، strategic planning is based on the outcome of scenario development (Von der Gracht &Darkoe، 2010:47). Scenario analysis has become a commonly applied toolin environmental assessment for evaluating future environmental problems and assessing policies to resolve these (Patel، Kok & Rothman، 2007:551). A number of large scenario studies have been conducted at the global level aimed at unraveling the impacts of human activities on natural resources and climate (Verburg etal، 2006). The development and exploration of scenarios are valuable tools to study the potential human impacts on the environment and to generate future policy recommendations. 3- Discussion Land use change has been happening due to widespread tourism development growth. One of tourism activity which caused this problem is constructing second homes. Demand increase of second homes makes penetration of land speculation and increase of land price. In addition، many other factors such as lack of government support of agriculture sector، low income of this sector influence farmer''s attitude which persuaded him to sell his lands. In other words، many factors (24 variables) cause land use change. It was applied scenario analysis for surveying future of these lands، so that three scenarios were developed that all factors were used in three scenarios. Among scenarios، destruction scenario by score of 24/73822 is a dominant scenario in this region. 4- Conclusion The most important factor which caused destruction scenario is penetration of land speculation. Lack of government support of agriculture sector makes this problem severe so، farmer sells his lands. On the other hand، second homes and villas have been built here due to flows of many tourists. So it''s profitable for land and accommodation investors. The corruption، lack of organizations'' coordination which involved in land use management، inefficiency of management mechanism، the role of inheritance law and successive land share، inefficiency of cultivated land protection law، The role of real estate registration law، The role of municipality in unauthorized construction in urban places، The role of transfer property system based on preliminary agreement، The way of implementation of land use laws and other factors cause land use change and consequently destructive scenario. 5- Suggestions The following strategies are recommended for reducing critical and undesirable factors and preventing land use change: 5-1- Implementation of integrated land use management mechanism which can coordinate three main decision makers’ sectors; The executive، Legislature and The judiciary، efficiently and effectively by establishing zonal civil organization، 5-2- Land use laws amendment and provision of long term land use document for The Case، 5-3-Codification and implementation of strategic regional development plan with government emphasis in agriculture and tourism sector، and with cooperation of the community and private sector.
    Keywords: land use change, scenario analysis, tourism
  • R. Heydari, S. Hazeri, R. Teimouri, T. Ahmadi Pages 127-142

    Extended abstract 1-Introduction Establishment of appropriate spatial and structural places for using all classes of the societies the public services and facilities is necessary for development of the societies. In this relation، women parks are valuable for using opportunities for cultural، artistic، social and sport activates. Women problems were considered during continues failure of theories based on economic growth and advent of new approaches in process of development by emphasize on human growth and social justice (Khani، 2008، p، 65). advent of feministic viewpoints in humanity sciences especially geography is a new trend and it has been expanded by consideration of social justice by geography scholars. This viewpoint tries to empower women and consider their needs and increase women quality of life. Green space is one of the effective factors on quality of life (Khani، 2008). 2-Theoretical bases Most of the women is housewife in Iran (%69. 2) and their main responsibility is to raise the children and observe the olds، so they encounter with more responsibility and pressure (Ahmadi Khorasani،2001،136). most of the women are depended on social welfare plans، thus reduction and elimination of these plans increase their burden (Ronayian،2003،1-2). since parks and urban green spaces are place for peace of the citizens and the individuals refer to theses places in order to get ride of daily problems، so security and welfare are the main factors in attract of the citizens in parks. In this relation women parks are important because of providing opportunities for sport، rest and physical and mental health for women. Also، prevention of social deprivation by availability of possibilities for all women and elimination of social difficulties، making calm places in the city in order to promote women mental health are other functions of women parks. Theses parks are equipped with recreational، welfare and educational possibilities in addition to preservation of green space and park usage and it indicates that Iranian urban women can restore their physical and mental power after social and family tiredness and they can improve their social and family functions as mother and wife in family and as employee in work plac. 3-Discussion The findings show that most of the visitors are youth (%84). Also most of the women go to three park by their fiends and individuals by the same age. Most of the women go to parks inured to promote their physical and mental and their family quality in all seasons. The motivation of going to the special parks and participation in differ activates indicate the need to special places in order to empower physical and mental power. These information aid decision makers in offering strategies conformed to women needs. And the responses show that (%51) of women go to women only parks because those parks are special for women. The result shows need of women to the special parks in the cites and it can be referred to the succeed of women parks. Pleasure and joyfulness is motivation of the most of the respondents. They feel happy when they are in the park. The effects of women parks have been investigated by considering six questions in this research. In this research the respondents were asked to show their agreement or disagreement in some view points that they are shown in following graph. Graph (1): The effect of women only parks In this research there is a relationship between age of women and feeling to use women parks and their satisfaction. The young people tend to be in the special parks and they feel satisfaction and being in the park promotes their occupational and family performance and become calm in the parks. The successfulness factors and Unsuccessfulness factors from women point of view are shown in following 1 table: Table (1): successfulness and unsuccessful factors Reply (percent) Unsuccessfulness factors Reply (percent) Success factors List 5 The man guards in the park 30 Training classes 1 34 corrupted Sports equipment 11 using sport facilities 2 9 Lack of recreation facilities for children 15 Suitable environment for recreation 3 20 lack of sufficient welfare facilities 9 liberty and security 4 21 Lack of adequate indoors for the cold season 35 All options 5 11 Poor sanitation 6 According to variables measurement the independent variables are in qualitative level and dependent variable (women satisfaction) is in interval level، so Liker test and F parametric statistics tests (analysis of variance) were used. The data were analyzed according to tests of mean difference of the relationship among age، marital statue، income، and occupation، place of residency (Tabriz ten areas) and satisfaction level of women parks. There is a significant difference between martial statues and satisfaction level (p=0. 00) in study of the relationship between marriage and satisfaction level. It means that the satisfaction level is different between single and married women. 60 percent of users of theses parks are married women. From this among 85 percent pointed to success of women parks. According to T test measured for women occupational statues in both house wife and occupied states and based on Leven test by assumption of equal variances and significant =0. 012 there is a significant difference in occupation and being housewife and satisfaction level. 54percents of the users was housewife that 80 percent satisfied. According to the investigations of 140 respondents eighty percent was in age group of 15-45 years. There is a significant difference based on the analyses on age and satisfaction level. The young people tend to go to the parks and they are satisfied beige in the parks. The relationship between studies and satisfaction level and according to significant =0. 05 there is no significant relationship between these two variables. Also there is no significant relationship between income and satisfaction level based on significant =0. 389. 3- Conclusion and Suggestions According to the investigation most of the women are satisfied being in the parks and they know parks as place for promotion of mental and physical performance. need to repairmen of the sport facilities and lack of sufficient facilities causes to unsatisfaction. It is hoped that by elimination of these barriers the optimal place is provided for spending of free time and holding educational cultural artistic and sport courses and etc by related organizations and construction of special parks in all areas of the city in order to meet needs and promote mental and physical health and as a result provide welfare and peace of family beside feeling of liberty and security.

    Keywords: recreation, Women Only Parks, evaluate success, Tabriz
  • M.R. Rahnama, R. Asadi Pages 143-162
    Extended abstract 1-Introduction In the present paper while studying theoretical approach and concepts of good governance، different perspectives as to it and indices، goals and salient actors in the context of good governance are considered. Studying indices of good urban governance in Mashhad with its special characteristics and considering different problems both in managerial and formal areas and among stakeholder groups (citizens and other sectors) is inevitable. So، considering the goal of determination of governance indices in Mashhad، 384 questionnaires were distributed among citizens and 32 among employees of municipality and municipal council and analyzed by descriptive and analytical method. Weakness in municipal management and organizational structure of the municipal building to make up routines and procedures have and development activities in contexts of social، economic and physical infrastructure is built around. Therefore be paid to change in the field of urban management and the technical knowledge and Equip management with day and the important role that it has been and it is one of the tasks. Over more than three decades of Islamic revolution And new requirements and come with pre-existing inefficiencies in the field of urban management context that it can be used as a «model of urban government» named، Change in the nature of this model is felt. It seems that now، «urban good governance» can respond to issues and problems in developing countries، especially Iran 2- Theoretical bases Increasing urban population and escalating demands of citizens practically-centeral - oriented of governments in responding to the needs of citizens who were challenged. Social and political theorists to the theoretical perspectives in order to restructure the political system of governance sought and urban regime theory to explanation the structure of power over others، especially in local government pay. Regime theory in order to achieve a very sophisticated understanding of the governance (Capacity for collective action to achieve public policy goals). This theory is important in this where not only the importance of internal links and dependence on government business will be emphasized، The voluntary sector and other concerned groups will also be involved in their analysis the same thing with the concept that the mind is governance. Regime theory، the nearest urban theory approach is governance and it provides the necessary theoretical foundation. Although this foundation، regardless of structural considerations and not political economy analysis and Forecasting of power need to be treated. 3– Discussion In order to track targets in the investigation 9 index good governance، according to the criteria proposed by the UN، has been determined and assessed. these indices are: Participation، Rule Of Law،Transparency،Responsiveness،Orientation Consensus،Equity،Effectiveness & Efficiency Accountability، Strategic Vision. The variables were selected to measure each of the indicators. In view of citizens the governance of nine indicators، most of the operating partnership and strategic vision، both the average is 2. 5. With the items related to these two factors can be realized following Citizens، in partnership with a mean score of 3. 26 showed their great interest among all items that were rated relatively high and show the willingness of citizens to participate. It also plans to prepare and urban citizens consider themselves responsible for، rate this episode so obtained is equal to 3. 10. The citizens of this has been criticized the process of preparing and implementing their plans are not Poll. rate this item which is equal to 1. 46. A total of 2. 5 points with Bynsh strategic partnerships with the highest score among the indicators is allocated to. It should be noted that the participation of citizens in some kind of mental approach has been evaluated، objectivity and citizen participation، is not considered Citizens، in the case of strategic vision، to announce plans for the future of the city are pretty favorable، So a score of 2. 76 is equal to the related items. And with regard to existing and future problems in the design by officials، the score is equal to 2. 37. In this case، the mentality of the citizens towards the strategic vision of the authorities has been. The citizens of the worst operating condition of justice، with an average 1. 6 and 1. 8 have a aAccountability. Experts see indicators of accountability، and responsiveness and the mean of 3 and 2. 9 respectively show the best position. The orientation consensus shows poor agreement with the average 2. 2. Such that the most important current problems and coordination between the various disagreements Mashhad city messenger service Overall، the results of the questionnaires are citizens and experts the mean good governance in Mashhad is equal to 2. 32 less than the theoretical mean value (2. 5) and represents the state of chaos governance is good. And a significant T-TEST test indicators in the 95% confidence level، shows. The first hypothesis was confirmed in this study. Comparison of three regions studied show remember that the average index in the two study areas are not uniform. Looking back we find the F value in these two indicators، the region is it mean they are noticeably different study areas. But in other indicators، is equal in all three regions. In the second hypothesis، based on a non-equal mean good governance indicators in regions 1، 3 and 9، Mashhad، which was rejected. 4– Conclusion The results indicate the inappropriateness of the overall average index governance in Mashhad. So mean governance is equal to 2. 32 which the theoretical mean (2. 5) is also less. Indicators of citizen participation (willingness to participate) and strategic vision are best and justice and accountability have the worst. Indices based on the experts، accountability responsiveness and being responsive to the best. And orientation consensus of an agreement between the governance is in the worst situation. But the positive points that were obtained from questionnaires can be pointed to the willingness of citizens to participate the enthusiasm with which the opinions of citizens have been ignored by city officials. Confirmatory study areas is also average compared to the same indices. And suggests a lack of suitable areas of the lord of the citizens. 5– Suggestions Including suggestions for improvement lord be presented include: Creating the necessary infrastructure، including laws and regulations to determine the presence of all stakeholders in the process of preparing and implementing urban design urban- More attention to underserved areas and to hear their voices and move towards creating an atmosphere of justice services- Consensus of local units in order to achieve integrated management of urban and inter organizational coordination- The appropriate units for responding to citizens transparency and build confidence by providing information and their information
    Keywords: urban good governance, index, Mashhad, situation
  • S.H. Zarghani, M.J. Ranjkesh, M. Eskandaran Pages 163-182
    Extended abstract 1-Introduction Along with the information technology development and communicational networks advancement، cities have changed into the main actors of global communication and world economy areas on the space of flows. Concentration of different areas in the cities indicates the rapid movement of the world towards the urbanization and more developments of metropolises and their changes to the global cities and eventually to the world cities. In this context، cities achieve enough influence and reliability to do diplomatic activities، promoting their economic، political، technological، cultural and infrastructural positions. They reveal a new form of diplomacy in their activities which it is named in modern diplomacy world as the “city diplomacy”. Although diplomacy always has been applied by diplomats or other government representatives who have been introduced to other states، we can find promotion and development of traditional diplomacy as the result of emerging some developments such as relations improvement due to technology development، respect to public thoughts and extension of common interest meaning. In this area we deal with increasing intervention and presence of officials، organizations and local institutions as the new actors in international interactions. 2- Theoretical Bases: 1-2- International environment development: In modern world، examination and analysis of international relations and diplomacy entails accurate examination of flexible views and their logical analysis of international environment. However، diplomacy either traditional or modern has been influenced by changes in international environment and its developments. All over the 20th century، this environment was affected by nation-stats. This continued to the end of 20th in Fordism Economy format but extend development of capitalism regime caused to change the Fordism to the post-Fordism and modern societies take place in institutional status in which other actors apart from government were allowed to act widely. Addition to theory and social- economic structures developments، globalization and capitalism based on consumption create values beyond the definitions of nation- stats، so market environment and cultural- social phenomenon go over the national borders and challenge the modern government. Under such conditions، all economy، political and even cultural areas are developed. These developments lead to power transformation from government to institutions and international on top and local governments and civil society in bottom of international environment and it allow other subnational actors such as cities to present. 2-2- Diplomacy development and city diplomacy formation: Diplomacy changes with the change of global structures. Fading governance of national stats، development of communications technology، presence of non-governmental actors and increasing public knowledge in global level are the most basic factors that play a role in diplomacy developments. In the modern world، formal diplomacy is not able to recognize، manage and provide all citizens needs in international interactions by itself since citizenship interdependence between nations has been extended and society needs experts especially in urban issues to overcome all numerous problems which are common between all nations and to profit their local opportunities. In this context، cities achieve enough influence and reliability to do diplomatic activities through promotion of their economic، political، technological، cultural and infrastructural positions. They reveal the new form of diplomacy in their activities which it is named “city diplomacy” in modern diplomacy world. 3- Discussion City diplomacy and subsequently city foreign policy have various dimensions and functions. These dimensions can be extrapolated from five functions of diplomacy: facilitating communication، negotiating agreements، gathering information، preventing conflicts and symbolizing the existence of an international society. City diplomacy has also six dimensions as follows: - Peace- building and security: Certainly، threat elimination of interests of a state is the first aim of all diplomatic communications and security is the most basic interest of a state. Despite the fact that many would not see it as cities’ core task، in recent years، conflict resolution has turned into an important dimension of city diplomacy. Perhaps the most convincing argument for their involvement is that the root victims of conflicts are most often local and local governments and cities are members of political groups that feel more responsibility for protection of other citizens and contribution to development and peace-building. Second، cities do not possess arms، given that arms are a state monopoly. In this situation، cities have a tendency to solve the conflict through non-military. Totally، it can be said that City diplomacy includes three distinct functions in peace-building and security dimension. 1) Raising awareness at the local level on the particular situation، and other forms of giving support at the local level. 2) Political pressure to ensure that these political pressures promote campaigns for peace. 3) Cooperation in supporting cooperative projects between cities، exchanging knowledge، and attaining funds for concrete projects. - Development: Local institutions and societies often play an important role in development. Emerge the activities differ and can range from international loans and building schools to information and technology- sharing and promoting democracy through improved local governance. Diplomatic status of this kind of development is different. Sometimes there is direct contact between the mayors of involved cities، while at other times contacts may run via civil servants or citizen’s organizations which administer international contacts on behalf of city governments. Development assistance is sometimes also provided through associations of municipalities or a civil servants on behalf of a city’s government. An example of such a new channel is the involvement of cities in the millennium towns in this campaign، hundreds of cities in the developed and developing world are united to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger، achieve universal primary education and promote gender equality. - Linked to global economy and economic growth: Trade globalization and investment to communicate financial relations has been considered as a very important factor of national and international economy security. Therefore، promotion of city diplomacy is necessary for development. It appears that there are two ways by which city diplomats can ensure economic gains for their city: first، they can attract tourists، foreign companies، international organizations and international events to their cities; and second، they can export their services and knowledge or enter into partnership agreements with other cities. - Cultural exchanges: Analysis of partnership agreements between cities shows that culture nowadays still plays an important role in diplomacy of cities، also outside city- twinning projects. Allowing young people from cities in different cultures to interact with one another through sports، organizing cultural visits for officials from other cities and setting up guidelines to promote cultural development are a few examples of the scope of cultural dimension of city diplomacy. Part of the boarder dimension of cultural relations are the diplomatic activities that focus on exchanging values relating to for example، freedom of speech، religion and sexual orientation. - Networks extension and international cooperation development: Scale of inter-city relations and urban networks also promoted to global level as the result of elimination of transnational relations problems under globalization process. More recent are the diplomatic efforts geared towards international cooperation between cities more and more. International networks in general seem to be replacing the international society of states on the diplomatic stage and cities contribute to this phenomenon. - Representation and membership in international organizations: The representative dimension of city diplomacy may come closest to what people have in their mind when thinking of city diplomacy، as it encompasses all of those activities that are aim at representing the city at international organizations. The aim of city diplomacy in the representative dimension is to participate in and influence decision- making at the supra- national level. 4-
    Conclusion
    As mentioned earlier، it seems that cities participate in almost every stage of international politics as a result of globalization، technology development and emerging common problems of society which require cooperation of all actors in international area either transnational actors like international organizations or sub-national actors such as local governments and civil society and their associated institutions. In modern world، cities are changing and will continue to change current diplomatic process. It becomes increasingly clear that traditional diplomatic structures have to be altered in order to include non-state actors and to protect local interests. These changes، subsequently reveal need to effective diplomatic relations that logically pass the city diplomacy channel because of compatibility to local conditions. This paper uses explanatory method and tries to analyze function and role of cities as the new actors of international relations in documentary method and city diplomacy based framework. Results of this study indicated that cities have been turned into an active actors in international area، playing transformational role in security، development، economy، culture، networking and representation in international organizations. 5- Suggestions: Given mentioned results and on the base of the resulted conclusion from the study، it can be suggested that more authorities are devolved to city council of metropolises regarded municipal potential in local and regional levels. And opportunities should be provided to gain more interests for citizens through city diplomacy channel، using unique capabilities of touristy cities for cultural communicating and removing barriers in foreign investment that is possible only by attracting foreign investors’ trust and guaranteeing of their capital and investment security in our country.
    Keywords: City, Globalization, City Diplomacy, International Relations
  • F. Grivani, M.T. Ahmadi Shamehri, M.A. Falahi Pages 183-202
    Extended abstract 1-Introduction Analysis of poverty determinants in order to study welfare by household traits is effort to study how a particular variable would affect on poverty situation، ceteris paribus. Poverty is a social phenomenon with which human society has been inflicted in all eras and is well known as a universal phenomenon causing the poor not to have a correct perception from their abilities and capacities. The resultant empirical model of the determinants of poverty provides insights as to how a particular household characteristic affects its poverty status conditional on the level of other household characteristics that are also potential determinants of poverty. On the other hand، different provinces are different by total governing economical conditions so compiling programs of combating with poverty requires close recognition of detail properties of poor groups and taking poverty eradication policies along with regional or provincial directions. Among provinces of Iran، northern Khorasan having 863 villages is one of provinces its rural population has been more than urban one in recent years based on censuses of Iran bureaus of census however based on comparative report of Iran provinces in 2010 issued in Mars 2012 by census and data office، 400،000 from 839،000 of its total population reside in rural and non-residential areas indicating emigration growth of villagers to urban areas. So، recognizing poverty correctly، its aspects and identifying its determinants in this province can be a good guide for compiling poverty programs and using resources optimally throughout the province. With this purpose in mind، this research aims at studying the properties of household which are identified as important and effective factors in household welfare and poverty situation. The results of the study can be used by policymakers in order to promote society welfare. 2-Theoretical bases Sen (1981) considers poverty as deprivation from basic capabilities rather than only low income. It is of note that privation is a relative concept having different definitions in different times and places. Atkinson (1989) considers two concepts for poverty. In the first concept، poverty means lack of availability of certain subsistence facilities according to which if total expenditure of consuming particular goods by a person is lower than a particular limit، he is considered poor. The second one is the right of having socio-economic facilities and if one’s income is lower than a known level، they aren’t available for him. 3-Discussion In this research poverty determinants in urban areas of Northern Khorasan province were studied. First absolute poverty line was estimated based on cost data of 162 goods extracted from data of 717 families of sample of cost and income of urban families plan in 2010. The effect of variables of support load، sex and age of family supporter، educational and sanitary costs of family were studied using estimated poverty line and Tobit model in order to study poverty determinants in detail. Having calculated poverty line، effective factors on poverty line have been studied by using Tobit model. Dependent variable، household income (expenditure)، is zero for household being under poverty line and more than zero for those above of poverty line. Regression equation of this model is: Where variables are following: POV: poverty line، DEP: pure dependency ratio. GEN: gender of guardian، AGE: age of household guardian، EDU: household educational expenses، HEL: household health expenses، HAP: the place in which household reside which is one for rural and two for urban. Tobit model has been used to study the effect of respective variables on absolute poverty line. Using of Tobit model is the most important differences of this study from other studies in Iran. Tobit model was developed by Tobin in 1958 and has been used widely by economists for measuring the effect of changing explanatory variable on poverty (McDonald and Moffitt، 1980). Considering annual poverty line for a typical household in the urban in 2010 was calculated 14491151 Rial، so 559 household of total sample household are under poverty line. As seen، 24% of population urban area of Northern Khorasan is considered poor. The value of statistic LR is -10874. 418 ruling out null hypothesis that all variable coefficients studied are zero. Indeed it can be said that at least one of explanatory variables has significant effect on probability of poverty creation. Square correlation coefficient (r2) is 0. 404 indicating good performance of model. 4-Conclusion To find development obstacles، in this research absolute poverty line has been estimated based on calorie need in 2010 to provide a required ground for poverty eradication in the urban area in province of Northern Khorasan. To study in detail the factors affecting on poverty، poverty is defined as a censored dependent variable. If household expenditures are under poverty line (being poor)، the value is zero and if household expenditures are above poverty line this variable takes real values of expenditures. To measure poverty determinants، Tobit model has been used. 5-Suggestions Due to inequality of employment system، women are more vulnerable to unemployment and poverty than men. So poverty affects on female guardians more severely and they experience poverty more than their male counterparts because of limited availability to education، employment and health. training plans on rural jobs such as farming and animal husbandry to increase efficiency and productivity of female guardians of rural household and plans to insurance cover of female guardian should be prioritized of supporting female guardians. Since pure dependency ratio has direct effect on household poverty and pressure of dependency ratio in the household is sensible and heavy for employed members and guardian، it is suggested that employment system of the country should design a variety of models of dividing household labor considering proficiency and ability level according to Iranian culture as a solution to balance this problem in household and considering that employment is one of big economic subject. Health expenses are considered an investment affecting on household welfare by increased efficiency and productivity. This reflects the importance of government health support shelter and especially state health insurance covering low income people. Public education has positive effect on income from job by increasing productivity of low income people leading to their improved position in labor market.
    Keywords: poverty line, Absolute poverty, Urban Poverty, Determinants of poverty, Tobit model