Evaluation The Impact of Social Networks on Political Participation, Case Study: Mazandaran University
IntroductionToday's , political participation in electoral participation as the most significant political development of nations has become inevitable. This would show more sensitive in third world countries. Governments are also obliged to accept the legitimacy of political participation. On the other hand, the high level of political participation implies developed culture and political culture development. As religious perspective, political participation and sensitivity to destiny of society and ourself, not only is a right, but also it is a duty emergence and good value to students and the public .Therfore , examines the role, place and functions of students in the political system and the need to take advantage of the capabilities of students in the government could be one of the inevitable political and social development. Electoral behavior, especially in the last decade, has seriously been on the agenda of concerned researchers in the Islamic Republic of Iran.Thus, the main question now is whether there is relation between the use of social networks and political participation or not? And if there is a relationship between the use of social networks and political participation,what is the impact of social networks usage on political participation of students leavel?. Despite the importance of the issue in our country, research that has been done in the area of political participation, less investigated the relationship between the networks and the impact of social capital on electoral behavior. Requires sociological analysis in this area , led to study this subject .
Materials And MethodsThis research survey was conducted using questionnaires. Statistical Society was Mazandaran university students. In this research, cluster with probability proportional to size cluster sampling and based on a sample of 287 students were examined. The study was correlational studies and its design according to the method of data collection is after contract type .
Networks social capital in this research is studied in three dimensions, structural features, interactive and functional . In the cognitive dimension of networks social capital, the size of the network is considered as an indicator of this dimension. The size of the network is people who interact informally with them in their relationships and communication network that were asked as open questions in the distance measurement. In interactive aspect of networks social capital, frequency of exposure and intimacy in the relationship are considered as an index and the following factors of this dimension. The frequency of contact is active communication with each member of their network and that they are in touch with them from time to time. Electoral behavior: In this study, Cronbach's reliability coefficient of the scale was 0/79 percent and in order for the electoral behavior of spectators, medium and active 0/77, 0/72 and 0/74 percent is obtained. Studies on the validity of the test on the same sample and internal consistency coefficient shows that this questionnaire benefit from high reliability and validity. To enhance the accuracy according to Iran ,electoral behavior based on Mylbrs Leicester (1965) was divided to three behaviors : spectatorial (Such as voting, setting up a political debate, trying to convince others to vote for a particular species, etc.), average behavior (such as attending a meeting or political rally, a donation to a political party or candidate, contact with political authorities, etc.) and active behaviors (such as spending time in a political propaganda campaign, active membership in a political party, to collect financial aid for political purposes, etc.)
Discussion of Results and
ConclusionsCorrelation of social network and electoral behavior Variable Correlation Spectatorial Average Active Electoral behavior structural Pearson Correlation
Table 1. Correlation (Pearson)shows each networks social capital with electoral behavior . As can be seen in all aspects of networks social capital, all correlation with the level of electoral behavior (p>0/01) is significant. The highest correlation is related to interactive dimension with the whole electoral behavior but the lowest correlation is related to the relationship between average dimensions of electoral behaviors and structural dimension. Structural characteristics (size and composition), interactive (frequency of contact, relationship intimacy) and functional network (interactive tool support and resources), were assumed to affect their electoral behavior.Within the characteristics of the network, network size is very important. The number of people who knows the person associated with them, is an expression of social capital. According to the results, it can be said that the spectatorial behavior with regard to the number and quality of communication in the network is the highest. In general networks social capital and its features (Structural- interactive and functional) involves at the level of electoral activities and relationships and resources on the network can be a precursor to building and strengthening trust between people. The results shows that with higher social capital, means that social capital including a valuable collection of mutual trust between individuals, there will be more kinship networks and social interaction and voluntary organizations, Campaign, political communications, and membership in political groups . In this way, political participation and social capital have reciprocal network and enhance each other in higher levels in the society. In fact, social networks, decrease communication and information costs and create better opportunities for political participation.Therfore, the new group will strengthen and democratic participation are increased. Such connections to direct the political culture of the society in order to match the political system are able to motivate, mobility and mobilize people to take steps towards the main objectives of each system and in the service of the community to use all the societys power.
Journal of Applied Sociology the University of Isfahan, Volume:28 Issue:1, 2017
19 - 32
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