The Effect of Socio-Economic Situation on Smoking in Urban Households of Iran

To adopt the best strategies to reduce smoking, identifying the factors that affect the use of tobacco is needed. Socio-economic situation is one of these factors, and this study examines the effect of household characteristics and development indicators of the living area on the probability of smoking in urban households in Iran.


The methods used in this study consisted of Heckman two-step and panel data models. The required data has been extracted from the information of expense and income of Iranian households’ plan during the period of 1383 - 1393, central bank and statistical yearbooks.


Based on the results of the two-step Heckman model, the household size is directly related to smoking and education level of the head of household and home ownership inversely associated with tobacco consumption in the household. Also, in households where the head is male, there is a greater probability of smoking. With increasing household expenses (income), the probability of tobacco consumption increases. Estimated results of the panel model indicates that the increase in GDP per capita, price of consumer goods and services, and the proportion of college graduates in the population has been decreasing the effect on tobacco consumption. In addition, the increase in the ratio of the custodians of the Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation directly related to the proportion of households with tobacco use.


Implementing policies to improve the social and economic conditions of households and development indicators in different regions of the country can lead to a reduction in smoking.

Article Type:
Research/Original Article
Hakim Health Systems research journal , Volume:22 Issue:2, 2019
112 - 120  
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