Recognizing the Role of Environment and Subsistence on the Genesis of Rural Housing Types (Case Study: North of MARAGHEH)

Identification of distinguishable species of rural housing and expression of factors affecting these differentiation in the northern part of Maragheh city is the main mission of this research. Geographical variation in the city of Maragheh, that expanded on the one hand to the slopes of Sahand Highland and on the other side of the plain margin of URMIAH lake, It has created a variety of textures and rural housing that has become less studied. Some villages, due to less change in their livelihoods, still provide relatively partial examples of regional architecture. The true representation of the so-called local and local architecture of Maragheh can be traced to some of its villages. Such villages still offer relatively intact landscapes due to the changes in the livelihoods of their inhabitants. While recognizing some examples of rural native architecture in the region of Maragheh, we have introduced some distinguishable types of housing and introduced the factors influencing these differences as much as possible. For this purpose, were selected the four villages of ASHAN, QESHLAQ, CHAVAN OLYA and SFESTANAJ as samples and examined from the necessary views. The present research has a practical purpose, its data gathering method is documentation and field survey, and is a descriptive and analytical research in terms of the method and nature of the research. The results of the research confirm the preferred role of two factors of spatial characteristics and livelihood conditions in the formation of the main types of rural housing. The status of the mountains and valleys has led the villages back to the mountains and often formed into sunshine and buildings orientation in addition to the sun, follow the topographical position of the place. The target villages are in the altitude range of 1550 to 1900, which is the most suitable area for horticulture and animal husbandry. In addition, the steep slope in these villages was a constraint and, from another perspective, an opportunity to form an attractive and stepped structure. The slope orientation is also a key factor in the construction and orientation of buildings. Because of its abundance and availability, stone is a major building material used in mountainous areas. Rural houses in the area have also grown and grown as natural creatures. Deployment on the ground so that free surfaces are minimized, and building materials such as clay, stone, wood, etc. are more and more responded to climate topics, energy, durability and availability. In general, the rooms are clinging to the livestock area (on the flank or the floor). The dimensions of the spaces are small, their range is distinct and controllable, and the openings for light and visibility and ventilation are minimized. The walls at the junction with the earth are from the stone and above it are clay and stone and brick. The structure of many of the buildings is similar to the ancient style of northwestern architecture in the Urartian period, which we called the hybrid "HYPOSTYLE CALAVEH" pattern. In this composition, a stone walled Floor is formed as a base in the embrace of the sloping ground and a wooden pillar porch in front of the upper floor. Therefore, it can be said that under the influence of environmental, livelihoods, and cultural factors, the building forms a blend of visual extraversion and functional introspection, and the architecture has a special identity called extroverted introversion.

Article Type:
Case Study
Architectural Thought, Volume:4 Issue: 7, 2020
138 - 154  
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