With the fall of Isfahan and Ottoman invasion of Iran, Maku region, the centrality of Maku Castle, became one of the first areas to be occupied by the Turks due to its location on the Ottoman-Iranian border. With Nader's rise to power and his attacks on the Ottoman occupiers in Iran, Maku region, like the rest of the south of the Aras River, was captured by him in 1143 AH. The question addressed in this study was, “What was the situation of Maku region in the Ottoman-Iranian conflicts during this period?” The present research attempted to investigate the situation of Maku region in the shadow of the Ottoman-Iranian conflicts (from the fall of Isfahan to Nader Shah’s death) through an analytical approach. The findings showed that the Ottoman-Iranian wars significantly influenced on maku's developments. The location of Maku region at the forefront of the Ottoman invasion of Iran caused a severe decline in its population during the Ottoman rule, while its economic situation got weakened. Maku region was in a weak position between the two powers during the wars due to its geographical location and proximity to the rare Ottoman-Iranian conflicts. Nader Shah consolidated his position at this border point by handing over control of the region to Bayat Tribe, which remained under Iranian rule despite brief interruptions.
With the rise of the Safavid government, Maku Castle, as one of the communication routes between Persian and Eastern Anatolia, became particularly significant to the Safavids, thus being captured by Ismail I of Persia. With the beginning of the Ottoman-Iranian wars in northwestern Iran, Maku region became the center of Maku Castle in the middle these battles. Its sovereignty was exchanged between the two sides. With the fall of Isfahan (1135 AH), the Ottoman invasions of Iran began. In the meantime, Maku Castle was one of the first areas to be captured and the long-standing Ottoman-Iranian conflicts over it were renewed. With Nader's rise to power and his conquest of Azerbaijan in 1143 AH, Maku Castle, like the rest of the region to the south of the Aras River, was conquered by the Iranians. He re-appointed Bayat Tribe, which ruled Maku Castle from the time of Shah Abbas I of Persia until the fall of Isfahan, to the Maku dynasty.The Ottoman-Persian wars significantly influenced on the developments in Maku region during this period. Due to its location at the crossroads of the Ottoman-Iranian border, Maku region was vulnerable to Ottoman attacks. After its initial occupation by Nader, due to Nader's constant conflicts with the Ottomans in northwestern Iran, the sovereignty of this region was changed between the two sides. Maku region was severely damaged due to its situation at the forefront of the Ottoman-Iranian conflict and in the Ottoman Empire's military campaigns. Consequently, at the presence of Ottoman-affiliated tribes, its population was significantly reduced.
The present investigation aimed to study and analyze the developments in Maku region in the shadow of the Ottoman-Iranian conflicts, from the fall of Isfahan to Nader Shah’s death. This article sought to answer the question of how the Ottoman-Iranian conflicts in northwestern Iran affected the situation in Maku region.
Due to its location at the Iranian-Anatolian border crossing, Maku region was one of the first Iranian territories to be captured by pro-Ottoman tribal forces in 1135 AH. The Ottoman domination of Maku region lasted until 1143 AH when Nader Shah occupied it, as well as other Iranian areas south of the Aras River. During this period, with the policy of Ottoman militarism in the northwestern regions of Iran and the dominance of tribal thought supported by the Ottoman-affiliated Mahmudi Khans competing for control of Maku region, its political, economic, and social conditions declined.Nader took control of Maku region in 1143 AH and commissioned Bayat Tribe to protect it. With this action, he continued the Safavid tradition and strengthened his position in the corner of the northwestern territory of Iran near the Ottoman border. After these events, Nader shah waged several wars with the Ottomans in northwest Iran. These battles affected developments in Maku region. Its dominance was handed over between the parties in conflict. Eventually, however, the fort was established as one of the Iranian frontiers as in the Safavid period, while Nader could not gain the lands beyond it. The presence of Nader and the Ottomans in northwestern Iran and the expansionist efforts of the two sides to dominate the region caused Bayat Tribe, the ruler of Maku region, to remain loyal to Nader even though for a short period of time so as to maintain its hereditary rule in Maku region. Nonetheless, Ahmad Sultan as the minor assured allegiance of Bayat Tribe, which had a sensitive position near the Ottoman borders, incorporated them into its military structure.
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