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معماری و شهرسازی آرمان شهر - پیاپی 15 (پاییز و زمستان 1394)
  • پیاپی 15 (پاییز و زمستان 1394)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/12/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 30
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  • معماری
  • الهام پرویزی، محمد جواد مهدوی نژاد، محمدرضا بمانیان صفحه 1
    پس از انقلاب صنعتی، فناوری به عنوان ابزاری نیرومند و رو به رشد در دست معماران و مهندسان، ایده ها و تفکرات آن ها را بیشتر به واقعیت نزدیک کرد. توسعه این امر تا جایی پیش رفت که ظهور «های تک» فناوری را به غایت معماری تبدیل نمود. در مقابل، ذات طبیعت ستیز فناوری طرفداران محیط زیست را به شدت نگران کرد و منجر به شکل گیری گرایشات جدیدی شد. روند حضورفناوری در نمای ساختمان در سال های اخیر بیش از ظهور سبک «های تک» بوده است. ولی رشدی نیز در پی نداشته است و این مساله نشان می دهد، که فناوری از غایت معماری خارج شده است. گرچه فناوری همچنان ابزار مهمی برای نشان دادن مفاهیم معماری است و استفاده از آن نوعی فرهیختگی و پیشرفت را به همراه دارد، اما به عنوان هدف مطرح نمی باشد. لذا اهمیت فناوری از هنگامه ظهور آن تا به اکنون در معماری بسیار متغیر بوده است. بررسی کیفیت این تغییر می تواند نقش فناوری را در آینده معماری روشن تر سازد. در این راستا این نوشتار در پی چگونگی توسعه فناوری در معماری به بررسی ابعاد مختلف آن در بنا پرداخته است. روش تحقیق کیفی با رویکرد تحلیلی- توصیفی به تحلیل اطلاعات پرداخته؛ نحوه گردآوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای و منابع الکترونیکی می باشد. اطلاعات گردآوری شده، حاوی بررسی نمای 126 اثر از جوایز پرایتزکر از سال 1950 تا 2012 می باشد. نتیجه تحقیق نمایانگر آن است؛ که اهمیت نمایش سازه تا ظهور سبک «های تک» افزایش و سپس با مخالفت های طرفداران طبیعت کاهش داشته؛ و از دهه 90 قرن بیستم تاکنون روند ثابتی را طی کرده است. شیشه و فلز نیز همچنان اهمیت بیشتری در نماسازی داشته اند؛ اما فلز بیش از شیشه در اواخر قرن 20 و اوایل قرن 21 مورد استفاده بوده است. از میان سیستم های ساختمانی سیستم های پوسته ای توانست هاند، نسبت به قبل اهمیت بیشتری در معماری داشته باشند. سایر سیستم ها به نظر می آید به تناسب طرح استفاده شده اند و اصراری در استفاده از نوع خاصی از آن در زمان معینی نبوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه فناوری، معماری مدرن، مصالح نما در معماری مدرن، توسعه سازه در معماری مدرن
  • علیرضا تقدیری، سارا قنبرزاده قمی صفحه 15
    پیشرفت های گسترده در صنایع گوناگون و مزایای حاصل از آنها به ندرت در صنعت ساختمان دیده می شود. در این مقاله، جایگزین سازی ساختمان سازی متداول و فعالیت های دستی در کارگاه با سیستم های ساختمانی پیش ساخته در اغلب مراحل و فرآیندهای ساختمان سازی به عنوان پاسخی به این کاستی معرفی می شود. امکان استفاده، مزایا، معایب، جنبه های اقتصادی، الگوهای موثر، موانع و توسعه پیش ساختگی در صنعت ساختمان سازی مورد بحث قرار گرفته ست وبه منظور مقایسه این موارد، پرسشنامه ای به دست اندرکاران صنعت ساختمان در شهر تهران و شهرهای جدید پردیس وپرند ارائه شده است. از پرسشنامه های تکمیل شده، داده هااستخراج و دست هبندی شده است. براساس یافته ها، مزایای مختلف پیش ساختگی دارای ارزش های متفاوتی هستند و نظارت بهتر بر ارتقاء کیفیت محصولات پیش ساخته، حائز بالاترین ارزش می باشد. برخی از معایب سیستمهای ساختمانی پیش ساخته نیز مورد بررسی قرار گرفته اند. طبق داده های بدست آمده، ساختمان های پیش ساخته در برابر تغییرات آتی منعطف نیستند. لذا، مورد صلبیت در برابر تغییر به عنوان مهم ترین نارسایی پیش ساختگی مورد شناسایی قرار گرفته است. بررسی امکان بهکارگیری سیستم های پیش ساخته درپروژه های ساختمانی نیز نشان میدهد که سیستمهای ساختمانی متداول برای ساخت فونداسیون و اجزای غیراستاندارد مناسب تر می باشد. این در حالی است که اجزای ساختمانی پیش ساخته نیز برای اجرای قاب های سازه ای فولادی، پوشش های خارجی، سقف های بتنی و سیستم های دیوار خشک ارجحیت دارند. بسیاری از اجزای ساختمانی پیش ساخته نیز قابلیت باربری داشته و ارتقاء اجزای ساختمانی پیش ساخته سب کوزن باید مدنظر قرا رگیرد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها نشان میدهد که سیستم های ساختمانی متداول، نتایج رضایت بخشی در صنعت ساختمان نداشته اند.با این وجود، از طریق به کارگیری روش های پیش ساختگی می توان ضایعات حاصل از ساخت و ساز را تا نصف کاهش داد. همچنین، استفاده از طرح های ساختمانی استاندارد و منظم در این زمینه موثر خواه دبود و با بهره گیری از فرآیندهای مکانیزه، استفاده از مصالح بازیافت شده یا قابل بازیافت و مونتاژ اجزای ساختمانی پیش ساخته به روش صنعتی می توان هزینه هارا تا حد چشمگیری کاهش داد.
    کلیدواژگان: سیستم ساختمانی پیش ساخته، ضایعات ساختمانی، پایداری زیست محیطی، تولید انبوه، عملیات تخریب
  • سیدبهشید حسینی، محسن کاملی صفحه 27
    ملاحظات دفاعی و نظامی از مهم ترین عوامل موثر در شکل گیری هرگونه سکونتگاه انسانی در طول تاریخ است و گستردگی پدیده شوم جنگ در طول تاریخ به حدی است که هیچ نقطه سکونتی بر روی کره زمین مصون از آن نبوده است. از اینرو آرامش کنونی به معنای تداوم دائمی آن نبوده و اهمیت حفظ و تقویت آمادگی دفاعی در تمامی ابعاد و از جمله در زمینه پدافند غیرعامل، فرآیندی پیوسته، توسعه پذیر و کاملا بدیهی است. یکی از جنبه های مهم طراحی و توسعه شهری، تاکید و توجه به کمیت و کیفیت آسیب پذیری شهر در برابر آسیب های ناشی از حملات نظامی است و نیاز به توسعه و اجرای تدابیر پدافند غیرعامل به منظور کاهش آسیب پذیری شهرها در برابر صدمات جنگ ضرورت فزاینده ای پیدا کرده است. این مقاله با روش توصیفی تحلیلی و با تکیه بر گردآوری اطلاعات به روش کتابخانه ای، اینترنتی و تحقیقات میدانی به شناخت آسیب ها و تهدیدات ساختمان های جمعی شهری می پردازد و پس از دست یافتن به معیارهای فنی، با به کار بستن آنها در مرحله طراحی معماری سطح امنیت شهروندان، در شرایط رویداد احتمالی جنگ های مدرن (موسوم به جنگ نسل ششم) افزایش یافته و به دنبال آن موجب ارتقاء توان دفاعی و سطح امنیت ملی در برابر تهدیدهای فزاینده محیط پیرامونی می شود. نتایج تحقیق معیارها و راهکارهایی است که به صورت مجزا برای هر کاربری خاص در ساختمان شهری بیان شده و به صورتی تدوین شده که در آن معیارها متناسب با ویژگی های جنگ های مدرن است، از مقیاس کلان (سلول شهری) به مقیاس خرد (تک بناها) می رسد و به تفکیک کاربری های منتخب ارائه شده است. همچنین هم بر بهسازی و هم بر طراحی معماری ساختمان های عمومی (منتخب) تاکید دارد و بر تامین مهم ترین و حیاتی ترین نیازهای زمان بحران تمرکز می نماید. در کنار موارد فوق بر سازماندهی، استفاده بهینه از امکانات، تاسیسات، فضاها و ساختمان ها در شرایط اضطراری نیز توجه دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: دفاع غیر عامل، ساختمان های شهری، تهدیدات، طراحی معماری
  • مهدی حمزه نژاد، پریا سعادت جو، شهاب الدین رمضانی صفحه 41
    در مبانی نظری و تاریخ معماری اسلامی همواره تمایزات بارزی بین مسجد و مصلی وجود داشته است. در حالی که در عصر حاضر الگوی نو ظهوری از مسجد مصلی شکل گرفته است که نه از بعد نظری و نه از بعد تاریخی قابل توجیه نمی باشد. هدف از این پژوهش آن است که با بررسی تحلیلی و گونه شناسی مصادیق معاصر طراحی شده، میزان انطباق آنها با ارزش های اسلامی و اصول فقهی مرتبط را مورد بررسی قرار دهد و الگوهای نزدیک تر به این مبانی را مشخص کرده و در نهایت راهکارهایی برای طرح های آتی ارائه نماید. بدین منظور شش مورد از معیارهای مطلوب فقهی در طراحی مصلی را از تحقیقات پیشین پذیرفته و براساس آنها به طبقه بندی و نقد پنج مورد از مهم ترین مصلی های معاصر طراحی یا ساخته شده از بعد رعایت یا عدم رعایت این اصول پرداخته شد. در نهایت علل مغایرت برخی از این مصادیق با اصول فقهی مشخص شد و چند راهکار در راستای انطباق طرح های آتی با اصول اسلامی ارائه شد. بررسی ها نشان داد که در طراحی مصلی های معاصر، گاه برخی از مبانی اسلامی در زمینه نسبت فضای باز و بسته، مکانیابی، مصالح مورد استفاده، تزئینات و غیره نادیده گرفته شده است و حتی در برخی از مصادیق، این ساختارها به سمت الگوهای غربی سوق یافته است. بیشتر مصلی های معاصر برمبنای الگوی اصالت فضای بسته ساخته شده اند؛ این مصلی ها عموما فضاهای چندعملکردی باشکوهی هستند که در میانه شهر واقع شده اند و از بعد مکانیابی، مقیاس انسانی و بی پیرایگی با الگوهای نظری اسلامی سازگار نیستند. مصلی های معاصر به واقع برداشتی صوری از الگوی تاریخی مساجد جامع می باشند که عملکرد و مفهوم اولیه مصلی به عنوان عیدگاه را از دست داده و فاقد محتوایی قابل قبول هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: مصلی، مسجد، معاصر، فقه شیعه
  • جمال الدین سهیلی، نفیسه مهاجرپور صفحه 59
    امروزه بحث در مورد نشانه شناسی به یکی از دغدغه های مهم حرفه مندان و نظری هپردازان پیرامون مباحث شهری، معماری و هنری تبدیل شده است. با توجه به این که در عصر حاضر، بعد اجتماعی این علم مورد توجه نظریه پردازان قرار گرفته است. لذا این پژوهش درصدد تحلیل نشانه شناسانه فضای شبی هخوان ی های ایرانی به عنوان هنری که هم به لحاظ اجتماعی و هم به لحاظ فرهنگی از دیرباز مورد توجه بوده و امروزه رو به کمرنگ شدن می رود پرداخته و از این طریق سعی در بازشناسی و پی بردن به مفاهیم نشانه شناسانه موجود در کالبد اینگونه نمایش ها را دارد. هدف از بررسی نشانه شناسانه این نمایش ها و فضای مربوط به آن می تواند کمک شایانی به معماری فضای تئاتر در دوره معاصر و ایجاد مکانی که درخور نمایش های ایرانی باشد را در برگیرد. نمونه ای که در این پژوهش مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است، از جمله نمایش هایی است که پس از اسلام شکل مستقلی به خود گرفته و دارای فضایی برای اجرایش می باشد. این نمونه شامل تعزیه، به عنوان نمایش آئینی است. پژوهش حاضر به صورت توصیفی- تحلیلی و با تکیه بر شواهد نظری اجرایی نمایش های ایرانی و روش گردآوری اطلاعات به صورت اسنادی و کتابخانه ای می باشد که در نهایت پس از بررسی تعزیه به عنوان نمایش ایرانی آیتم های مربوط به جنبه نشانه شناختی آن را استخراج کرده و سپس با تعاریف و الگوهای مطرح شده در بحث نشانه شناسی مطابقت می دهد و به تعریف جدیدی از این تطابق دست پیدا می کند. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش نشان می دهد که فضای اجرایی شبیه خوانی های ایرانی تحت تاثیر نشانه های موجود در عناصر و کالبد فضای نمایشی خود می باشند و بیشتر از اینکه این نمای شها بر پایه تاویل باشند، دارای جنبه فرا نشان های هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: نشانه، نشانه شناسی، نمایش ایرانی، فضای نمایش، تعزیه
  • منصوره طاهباز، شهربانو جلیلیان، فاطمه موسوی، مرضیه کاظم زاده صفحه 71
    در معماری سنتی ایران، نور طبیعی که به عنوان تنها منبع روشنایی روز بود، به تامین روشنایی محدود نشده و از نظر کیفیت بصری و زیبایی فضا نیز مورد توجه معماران بوده است. یکی از نمونه های خوب بازی نورپردازی طبیعی در معماری ایرانی را می توان در خانه های سنتی با فضاهای متفاوت آن یافت. وجود بازشوهای متنوع دیواری و سقفی در این نوع معماری شاهد این ادعاست. به منظور بررسی نقش طراحی معماری و تنوع نورگیرهای مختلف در کمیت و کیفیت روشنایی فضا متناسب با کاربری آن، تحقیقی در مجموعه خانه عامری های کاشان که دارای حیاط ها و فضاهای متفاوت است، انجام شد. در این مقاله ویژگی نورپردازی تعدادی از فضاهای منتخب این خانه که از نظر شکل هندسی فضا، وضعیت و موقعیت نورگیر، محل قرارگیری در مجموعه و کاربری فضا متفاوت هستند، بررسی شده و رابطه بین تصمیمات طراحانه معمار و کیفیت نورپردازی فضا معرفی می گردد. در این تحقیق به کمک ابزارهای نورسنجی، داده های میدانی گردآوری شده و توسط نرم افزار ریدینس به یک سال تعمیم داده شد. سپس به کمک معیارهای ارائه شده در کتب راهنمای نورپردازی، شرایط نوری هر فضا از نظر میزان روشنایی، تنوع و یکنواختی توزیع نور و کیفیت بصری حاصل از آن با توجه به کاربری فضا تحلیل شد. نتایج حاصله حاکی از آن است که در معماری مسکونی خانه های سنتی ایران، نور روز در کلیه تصمیمات طراحی اعم از انتخاب فضاهای پر و خالی، تناسبات و ابعاد حیاط ها و اتاق ها، جهت گیری هر فضا نسبت به خورشید، میزان دید هر فضا به حیاط و آسمان، عمق هر فضا و شکل و موقعیت نورگیر آن، اهمیت هر فضا از نظر دسترسی و کاربری و غیره نقش تعیین کننده ای داشته و یکی از مهم ترین ارکان طراحی محسوب می شده است. راهکارهای طراحانه به کار رفته در این شیوه از معماری، امروز هم می تواند راهگشا و الهام بخش معماران معاصر باشد و امکان بهره مندی هر چه بیشتر از نعمات نورپردازی طبیعی در خانه و کاشانه مردم را فراهم کند.
    کلیدواژگان: نورپردازی طبیعی، نور آسمان، نورگیر سقفی و دیواری، زاویه دید آسمان، عمق نفوذ روشنایی
  • رحمت محمدزاده صفحه 83
    مقاله حاضر درصدد بررسی کیفیت پل های عابر پیاده منطقه 3 شهر تبریز می باشد. این مقاله به روش پیمایشی و از نوع توصیفی- مقطعی انجام گرفت. 144 نفر از عابرین پیاده به صورت نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده انتخاب شدند. ابزار گردآوری داد ه ها، پرسشنامه ای مشتمل بر 6 سوال از مشخصات فردی- اجتماعی و 28 سوال )با چهار هدف ویژه( از کیفیت پل های عاب رپیاده بر اساس طیف لیکرت بود. جهت بررسی رابطه بین برخی از مشخصات جمعیتی و نمرات پاسخ گویان از آزمون استفاده شد. همچنین امتیاز داده های به دست آمده از مطالعه ب هوسیله روش های آماری توصیفی، آزمون های تفاوت X2 آزمون آماری رگرسیون و محاسبه ضریب پیرسون با استفاده از نرم افزار ،)One-Way ANOVA و T-test( میانگین مورد تجزیه و تحلیل آماری قرا رگرفت. بررسی جمع امتیازات مربوط به اهداف ویژه نشان داد که در منطقه 3 SPSS13 شهرداری، بیشترین درصد ) 59 ( پل های عابر پیاده با داشتن 47 الی 91 امتیاز، دارای کیفیت نیمه مطلوب و کمترین درصد (1/4)، با داشتن 1 الی 46 امتیاز از وضعیت نامطلوب برخوردار بوده اند. 24/3 درصد از افراد با داشتن 92 الی 140 امتیاز در سطح مطلوب بوده اند. تفاوت میانگین نمرات افراد نمونه براساس نتایج آزمون فریدمن معنی دار بود. نتایج آزمون کای دو (X2) نشان داد که بین متغیر گروه های سنی، وضعیت تاهل، جنس، میزان تحصیلات، نوع اشتغال، میزان درآمد و کیفیت پل های عابرپیاده در منطقه 3 شهرداری تبریز در بین افراد نمونه، اختلاف معنی داری وجود دارد (P<0.01). بنابراین به منظور استفاده بهینه از امکانات و منابع ترافیکی و شهری چاره ای جز به کارگیری روش های تشویقی و هدایتی و نیز ارتقاء کیفیت پل های عابرین پیاده نیست.
    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی وکیفیت، فضاهای شهری، پل های عابر پیاده، شهرداری تبریز
  • کریم مردمی، بهبود زندآوه صفحه 93
    نگاهی تحلیلی به ادبیات معماری مدرن نشان می دهد که جبرنگری در ابعاد مختلف به خصوص رابطه فرم و عملکرد برخواسته از تعریفی محدود از انسان و نیازهای انسانی است. این پژوهش با بهره گیری از مطالعات اسنادی و کتابخانه ای با روش تحلیلی- استنتاجی و با هدف واکاوی مفهوم عملکرد در مقابل شعار فرم تابع عملکرد است؛ مطرح می شود و مساله مورد بحث این است که مفهوم عملکرد چه نسبتی با نیاز سنجی انسان دارد؟ این مقاله با تکیه بر روانشناسی اکولوژیک و روانشناسی انسان گرا و همچنین ازطریق تحلیل محتوای بیانات و نظریه های هنجاری و تجربی موجود در معماری مورد بررسی قرار می گیرد. یافته های این پژوهش نشان می دهد که عملکرد در یک فرم از یک سو به نیازهای استفاده کنندگان و انگیزه های درونی آن ها و از سوی دیگر به توانایی های بالقوه شکل و فرم کالبدی محیط باز می گردد. بنابراین از یک طرف مفهوم عملکردگرایی با مجموعه وسیعی از خصوصیات انسانی چون نمادگرایی یا معناشناسی درگیر بوده و از طرف دیگر به نگرش معمار نسبت به مجموعه ای از پدیده ها مرتبط می باشد. لذا یک طرح، طیف وسیعی از نیازهای انسانی را به عنوان بخشی از عملکرد بنا شامل می شود؛ که در تعریف معماران مدرن از عملکرد حذف شده بود و عملکرد را با تحلیل های علمی و مکانیکی قیاس می کردند. قیاس کردن عملکرد با چنین تحلیل هایی نمی توانست معیار درستی برای برآورده کردن نیاز های بالفعل و بالقوه استفاده کنندگان از بنا باشد. لذا به جای مفهوم محدود عملکردگرایی، کیفیت چندظرفیتی مکان، که بر اساس نیازهای انسانی و قابلیت های محیطی شکل می گیرد، می توان د پارادایمی جهت شناخت وسیع تر نسبت فرم و عملکرد و تامین کننده نیازهای بالفعل و بالقوه انسانی در معماری باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: نیازهای انسانی، عملکردگرایی، انعطاف پذیری، مکان گرایی، چندظرفیتی
  • زینب مشهور، محمد باقری صفحه 105
    در دهه های اخیر ابعاد انسانی و کیفیت اجتماعی مکان مورد توجه برنام هریزان و طراحان قرار گرفته است؛ اما ارتباط میان فضاهای جمعی مختلف کمتر بررسی شده است. در این مقاله با بررسی ارتباط متقابل فضاهای جمعی در تعامل پذیری و تقویت حس مکان، ابتدا با اشاره به روند نزولی حس مکان و تعامل گریزی در فضاهای جمعی معاصر، اهمیت موضوع بر اساس نظریه های زبانشناسی و روانشناسی محیط تبیین شد هاست. مباحث زبانشناختی با تاکید بر مولفه های کالبدی و مدل های روانشناختی با تاکید بر مولفه های رفتاری- ادراکی، جایگاه اصل ارتباط در طراحی محیط را روشن تر می سازند. در چارچوب فرضیه تحقیق و براساس مفهوم ارتباط، هرگونه تعامل مبتنی بر اصولی چون جزء، کل و رابطه فضاهای متقابل تحقق یافته و ارتباط فضاها نقش اساسی در تعامل پذیری دارد. بنابراین میزان تعامل با معیارهایی چون عملکرد (نوع کاربری)، مجاورت و جهت گیری قابل تبیین و سنجش است. تحقیق متوجه فضاهای جمعی است که با کشش دوسویه و ساختاری دوقطبی ضمن تشویق افراد به تعامل، فرص تهایی برای ارتباط و کنار هم بودن ایجاد می نماید. در آزمون کارایی مدل تحقیق، با استفاده از راهبرد موردپژوهی و روش توصیفی-تحلیلی، دوازده مجموعه دوقطبی مذهبی-آئینی، شهری و ترکیبی (آئینی-شهری) تحلیل شده است. بررسی تطبیقی یافته ها نشان می دهد که ارتباط فضاهای دوقطبی در جذب و تشویق فعالیت های اختیاری و اجتماعی موثر است و علیرغم تغییر تدریجی عملکرد قطب ها، جهت گیری و نوع مجاورت فضاها، احیای عملکردی-کالبدی در کل یا اجزاء امکا نپذیر است. عواملی چون زمینه و پس زمینه دو قطب اصلی، الگوی مجاورت و سازگاری عملکردی و وجود قطب های فرعی جاذب فعالیت می تواند به تقویت ارتباط عملکردی و ساختاری در فضاهای دوقطبی منجر شود. توجه به هنر ارتباط و ارزش های بصری از طریق ایجاد دیدهای متوالی عملکردی- فضایی، می تواند با انگیزش واکنش های عاطفی به تقویت حس مکان در فضاهای شهری منجر شود. آفرینش ساختارهای دوقطبی تعامل پذیر و تقویت حس مکان با مکان یابی این گونه فضاها در مقیاس های شهری و محلی امکان پذیر است.
    کلیدواژگان: فضای جمعی، تعامل پذیری، حس مکان، اصل ارتباط، ساختار دوقطبی، مجموعه شهری و آئینی
  • نیلوفرنیکقدم، سید مجید مفیدی شمیرانی، منصوره طاهباز صفحه 119
    طبقه بندی اقلیمی کوپن یکی از شناخته شده ترین روش های اقلیم شناسی در جهان و روش کوپن- تراورتا یکی از ویرایش های تکمیلی آن، با اصلاحات غیر ساختاری است. در این سیستم، پهنه بندی بر اساس درجه حرارت و میزان بارش و خشکی انجام می شود. پهنه بندی اقلیمی گیونی بر اساس درجه حرارت، رطوبت نسبی و روش های ساختمانی و معیارهای آسایش حرارتی استوار است. هدف از انجام این مطالعه بررسی تفاوت نتایج حاصل از این دو نوع طبقه بندی با معیارهای سنجش متفاوت، به منظور کاهش اشتباهات در تصمیمات مبتنی بر اقلیم در ساختمان در مناطق جنوبی ایران است. منطقه مورد مطالعه در حد فاصل حاشیه شمالی خلیج فارس و دریای عمان با دامنه های جنوبی رشته کوه زاگرس قرار دارد. این اشتباهات هنگامی متصور می شود که طبقه بندی اقلیمی بر اساس یکی از ویرایش های روش کوپن، بدون توجه به معیارهای آسایش حرارتی انسان و راهکارهای ساختمانی انجام شده باشد. این مقاله با تطابق میانگین بیست ساله آمار دما و بارش مربوط به ایستگاه های سینوپتیک در مناطق جنوبی ایران با محدوده های اقلیمی تعیین شده در روش کوپن- تراورتا، این شهرها، بنادر و جزایر را طبقه بندی کرده است. سپس یافته ها را با پهنه بندی اقلیمی حاصل از انطباق میانگین بیست ساله آمار دما و رطوبت نسبی این ایستگاه ها بر جدول زیست اقلیمی ساختمانی گیونی و با توجه به محدوده شاخص های آسایش حرارتی تعیین شده در این جدول مقایسه می کند. نتایج نشان می دهد، با به کارگیری روش کوپن- تراورتا، دو گروه اصلی اقلیمی شامل حاره ای با تابستان های خشک و نیمه حاره ای با تابستان های خشک با پنج زیر گروه و از طریق روش گیونی نیز دو گروه اقلیمی اصلی در منطقه جنوبی ایران قابل تشخیص است. این نتایج نشان می دهد، روش کوپن- تراورتا زیرگروه های دقیق تر و ریزتری را در این منطقه تعیین می کند. دسته بندی های کلی در دو روش به غیر از ایستگاه بندر بوشهر در سایر ایستگاه های این منطقه نتایج یکسانی را نشان می دهند.
    کلیدواژگان: اقلیم، طبقه بندی اقلیمی، جنوب ایران، کوپن، تراورتا، گیونی
  • محمد جواد مهدوی نژاد، فهیمه نیکودل صفحه 131
    تعامل زیبایی بصری و فناوری های نوین نورپردازی در معماری شبانه ساختمان ها یکی از نیازهای اساسی در معماری معاصر ایران محسوب می شود. مقوله نورپردازی نمای ساختمان ها، یکی از موضوعات مهمی است که امروزه در طراحی معماری مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. بهره گیری از نور روز و تاثیری که بر نمای ساختمان می گذارد، اختیاری نیست اما تاثیر نورپردازی بر زیبایی نما کاملا در اختیار طراح می باشد. با توجه به اینکه نمای ساختمان اولین مشخصه ظاهری بناست، بسیاری از طراحان، زیبایی آن را فقط در روز مد نظر قرار داده و دید بنا در شب را نادیده می گیرند؛ در حالی که با توجه به حیات شبانه شهرها و تاثیری که نمای ساختمان ها و زیبایی ناشی از آن ها در این مقوله دارد، جلوه بنا در شب به اندازه روز اهمیت می یابد. در این پژوهش ضمن بیان مبانی نظری موضوع، تاثیر نور طبیعی و مصنوعی بر زیبایی نما از طریق آزمونی عملی و بر اساس الگوی امتیازدهی به 20 نمونه بنای معماری داخلی و خارجی بررسی می شود. این دو گروه بنا در اختیار 3 گروه از پرسش شوندگان، به ترتیب 10 نفر از دانشجویان طراحی شهری، 15 نفر از دانشجویان نشان می هد که SPSS معماری و 25 نفر از افراد عادی با سطح دانش متفاوت قرار گرفت. تحلیل های آماری نرم افزار نورپردازی نمای ساختمان در شب می تواند به نحو چشمگیری بر زیبایی آن نسبت به روز بیافزاید. این مساله در نمونه های خارجی نسبت به نمونه های داخلی، نمود بیشتری دارد. در مقوله نورپردازی نما، مولفه های نورپردازی شامل شدت نور، تنوع رنگی نور، نحوه نورپردازی اعم از تاکیدی و یا گسترده بودن و حالت نورپردازی اعم از هماهنگی و یا تنوع، بر زیبایی حاصل از آن تاثیرگذارند. به گونه ای که افزایش شدت نور، استفاده از نورهای تک رنگ، تاکیدی و هماهنگ با ساختار، بر زیبایی نما می افزایند؛ در عین حال افزایش شدت نور و استفاده از نورهای تاکیدی نسبت به دو عامل دیگر تاثیر بیشتری بر زیبایی نمای ساختمان دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: نورپردازی، معماری شبانه، زیبایی بصری، فناوری های نوین، معماری معاصر ایران
  • جواد نیستانی، زینب اکبری صفحه 145
    بررسی سیر تاریخی آموزش و پرورش در ایران، نشان دهنده پیشینه طولانی آن از پیش از اسلام تا به امروز است. روند شکل گیری مدارس در ایران، به صورت رسمی و با ایجاد نظامیه ها در دوره سلجوقی آغاز شد و با اشکال دیگر و طی فراز و نشیب هایی تا به دوره قاجار نیز ادامه یافت. همزمان با توجه ای که در دوره قاجار به آموزش علوم دینی شد، مدارس علوم دینی نیز از اهمیت به سزایی برخوردار شدند؛ به گونه ای که در شهر تهران، به عنوان پایتخت در دوره یاد شده، بیشترین تعداد مدارس علوم دینی قابل مشاهده است. در مقاله حاضر نتایج حاصل از مطالعه و تحلیل عناصر فضایی-کارکردی هجده مدرسه علوم دینی دوره قاجار در شهر تهران، ارائه شده است. اهمیت پرداختن به این موضوع از آنجا ناشی می شود که هویت هر فضای معماری بیش از هر عاملی به وسیله کارکردهای ویژه آن، از سایر فضاها متمایز می شود و فضای کالبدی آن نیز به طور معمول، با توجه به کارکردهای مزبور شکل می گیرد. هر کارکرد نوین، تنها پس از تکوین زمینه ها و ضرورت های اجتماعی و تاریخی، در حیات اجتماعی ظاهر می شود و همراه با تولد خویش، فضای خاص خود را به تدریج شکل می دهد. در این مقاله تلاش بر این بوده است تا الگوی به کار رفته در شیوه های معماری این مدارس و شباهت ها و تفاوت های موجود در عناصر فضایی-کارکردی آنها با توجه به نمونه های موجود استخراج شود. با بررسی های انجام گرفته به نظر می رسد، الگوی کاملا یکسانی از دیدگاه معمارانه برای تمامی مدارس علوم دینی دوره قاجار شهر تهران نمی توان تعیین کرد. به گونه ای که این موضوع حتی در مجموعه مدارس متعلق به یک دوره پادشاهی نیز قابل مشاهده است.
    کلیدواژگان: مدارس تهران، عناصر فضایی، کارکردی، دوره قاجار، معماری اسلامی
  • هاشم هاشم نژاد، مصطفی مسعودی نژاد، امین الله احدی صفحه 157
    ارزیابی پس از ساخت روشی است که به دنبال شناخت چگونگی عملکرد ساختمان های ساخته شده و میزان رضایتمندی کاربران ساختمان و محیط های ساخته شده می باشد. در این روش بررسی میزان رضایتمندی کاربران بسیار مهم است. یکی از عوامل موثر در میزان رضایتمندی از محیط زندگی عوامل فرهنگی و اجتماعی می باشد که به اعتقادات، آداب و رسوم و شرایط اجتماعی ساکنان مرتبط می شود. این نوشته درصدد است تا با توجه به تاثیر اسلام بر اعتقادات و فرهنگ بخش گسترده ای از مردم ایران، به بررسی اصل محرمیت به عنوان یکی از عوامل موثر در رضایتمندی در مسائل فرهنگی و اجتماعی بپردازد. در این رابطه معیارهای ب هدست آمده در رابطه با رضایتمندی و محرمیت در مجموعه مسکونی شوشترنو، به عنوان یکی از نمونه های مطرح در این زمینه، به وسیله روش ارزیابی پس از ساخت مورد ارزیابی قرار خواهد گرفت. بدین منظور با استناد به یافته های علمی از منابع، مشاهدات و نظر کارشناسان ویژگی هایی تحت یک پرسشنامه استخراج شده است. در این فرآیند از جامعه آماری 32 نفر سوالاتی در دو بخش معماری و اجتماعی به وسیله پرسشنامه به عمل آمد که با روش نمونه گیری خوشه ایانتخاب شده بودند. نتایجی از این یافته ها به دست آمده است که به صورت جداولی در قسمت پایانی ارائه شده است. سپس داده های حاصل از پرسشنامه ها در برنامه Expert-Choice که بر مبنای روش AHP کار می کند، مورد تحلیل و ارزیابی قرار گرفت. سپس بر پایه این تحلیل ها، نتیج هگیری صورت گرفته است. نتایج مطالعات تاییدکننده لزوم شناخت و تاثیر عوامل فرهنگی در مراحل طراحی می باشد. علاوه براین، مساله محرمیت در طراحی مجموعه مسکونی شوشترنو کم تر موردتوجه قرار گرفته است، همچنین نقش مدیریت از زمان طراحی تا ساخت، سکونت و انجام تغییرات پس از سکونت بسیار بااهمیت است که در این مجموعه به نظر می رسد عدم مدیریت، بی نظمی و بی برنامه بودن انجام اصلاحات باعث این امر شده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی پس از ساخت، بازشوها، رضایتمندی، محرمیت، شوشترنو
  • علی یاران، ارس مهران فر صفحه 169
    در این مقاله نشان داده می شود که معماری مسکن بومی گیلان و معماری دوران مدرن غرب با وجود ریشه های تاریخی، فرهنگی، اجتماعی و اقلیمی اساسا متفاوت، شاخصه های فرمی مشابه بسیار زیادی داشته و آگاهی از این هم خوانی می تواند در فرآیند طراحی معماری مدرن شهری امروز که نیازمند هویت بخشی و پایداری اقلیمی، فرهنگی و اجتماعی است، همچون ابزاری موثر به کار رود. برای نیل به مقصود از روش بررسی تطبیقی شاخصه های این دو گونه معماری بهره گرفته می شود تا از طریق آن بتوان به شناخت ویژگی های مفهومی و کالبدی مشترک در این دو گونه معماری دست یافت. این مقاله دارای چهار بخش است که در بخش نخست عوامل موثر بر معماری مسکن بومی گیلان مانند شرایط اقلیمی، فرهنگی و معیشتی معرفی شده و پس از آن شاخصه های مسکن بومی گیلان و علل پیدایش هر یک بیان می شود. در بخش دوم به شناخت معماری مدرن و عوامل شکل گیری آن پرداخته می شود و شاخصه های معماری آن دوران مطرح می شود. در بخش سوم با بررسی تطبیقی شاخصه های معرفی شده برای هر دو گونه معماری به شناخت ویژگی های مشترک آنها پرداخته می شود و در بخش آخر شامل جمع بندی و نتیجه گیری هم خوانی شاخصه های بسیار به عنوان ابزاری برای تهیه چارچوب نظری طراحی معماری پایدار معاصر گیلان مطرح می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: معماری مدرن، شاخصه های معماری، مسکن بومی گیلان
  • طراحی شهری
  • محمدرضا پورجعفر، مجتبی رفیعیان، سید علیرضا ارباب زادگان هاشمی صفحه 181
    فرهنگ به عنوان زیربنای ساخت جامعه و طراحی شهری به عنوان علم و هنر تولید فضا برای انسان ها همواره در کانون توجه علوم مختلف بوده اند.کالبد فضای شهری به علاوه معنا و عملکرد )جنبه های غیرکالبدی مرتبط با انسان( و تجربه فضا توسط انسان، آن را تبدیل به مکانی پویا جهت استفاده انسان خواه دکرد. توجه به انسان در گرو شناخت ویژگی های او و شناخت ویژگی های انسان در گرو شناخت فرهنگی جامعه ای است که او در آن شکل گرفته است. در این میان توجه طراحان به تفاو تها و سلیقه های انسا نها در فرهنگ های مختلف )خرده فرهن گها( از آن جهت در طراحی شهری مهم است که سنگ بنای ساخت جامعه انسانی و محیطی فرهنگی است. از آنجای یکه شناخت انسان به رفتارهای او در اجتماعی که در آن رشد کرده بستگی دارد، لذا فرهنگ به عنوان تبیی نکننده رفتار انسان در هر جامعه ای، نقش اساسی در این زمینه ایفا می نماید. دراین میان آنچه اهمیت دارد، نحوه استفاده از انگاره های فرهنگی در طراحی فضاهای شهری است. بنابراین هنر طراح شهر تبدیل این انگار ه ها و الگوهای فرهنگی به اصول قابل استفاده در طراحی فضاهای شهری است. از آنجایی که انگار ه ها و الگوهای کالبدی نقش مهمی را در شک لدهی به فضاهای شهری دارند. این مقاله در تلاش است با مرور توصیفی– تحلیلی قوم کرد به عنوان یکی از اقوام ایرانی دارای پیشینه فرهنگی غنی، انگاره های فرهنگی اثرگذار بر بعد کالبدی را تبیین نموده و سپس به کندوکاو اصول نظ مدهنده به طراحی فضاهای شهری در این انگار ه ها بپردازد. بر این اساس نقوش و ترکیبات شکلی دو بعدی، ریتم و تناسبات و رنگ، انگاره های فرهنگی اثرگذار بر بعد کالبدی تعیین شده و در نهایت با تلفیق این انگار ه ها اصول نظم دهنده به طراحی فضای شهری مطلوب برای قوم کرد ارائه شد هاست.
    کلیدواژگان: فرهنگ، انگاره فرهنگی، طراحی شهری، فضای شهری، قوم کرد
  • مهرانگیز پیوسته گر، زهرا درویزه، سیما طاووسی صفحه 195
    دلبستگی محیطی، به پیوند عاطفی بین فرد و محیط اطلاق می شود. این مفهوم تجارب زندگی افراد را به میزان قابل توجهی تحت تاثیر قرار می دهد. فردی که به محیطش دلبسته است، احساسات مثبتی، نظیر: شادی و رضایت نسبت به محیط و مردمش دارد. بروز چنین احساساتی نه تنها منجر به سلامت روان بلکه افزایش سازگاری آن ها می شود. پژوهش حاضر، با بررسی دلبستگی محیطی، استنتاجاتی درباره پیامدهای دلبستگی محیطی بر سلامت روان و سازگاری اجتماعی دارد، تا اهمیت محیط زندگی و به تبع آن آثار معماران را در سازگاری و سلامت روان انسان نشان دهد. یکی از نظریه هایی که درباره روابط عاطفی بین انسان و محیط نقش تبیی نکننده دارد، نظریه دلبستگی است. دلبستگی به محیط، عاملی تعیین کننده و اثرگذار در سازگاری و سلامت روان است. با توجه به اثرگذاری دلبستگی به محیط بر جنبه های مختلف رفتار انسان و اهمیت و ضرورت سلامت روان و سازگاری اجتماعی به خصوص در نوجوانان، پژوهش حاضر به محققین امکان می دهد، تا نقش عوامل مرتبط با سلامت روان و سازگاری اجتماعی را به طور گسترده تر در رابطه با محیط مورد بررسی قرار دهند. در بررسی حاضر، نمونه ای شامل 340 نفر دانش آموز دختر و پسر (پسر 170 نفر و دختر 170 نفر) به روش نمونه گیری تصادفی از مناطق مختلف شهر ورامین انتخاب شد. برای گردآوری داده ها از پرسشنامه دلبستگی محیطی (AE)، پرسشنامه سلامت روان (GHQ) گلدبرگ، پرسشنامه سازگاری اجتماعی(CTP) و یک پرسشنامه جمعی تشناختی استفاده شد. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از روش همبستگی، آزمون مستقل t و تحلیل واریانس یک طرفه استفاده شد. نتایج نشان دادند که دلبستگی محیطی با برخی از مولفه های سلامت روان و سازگاری اجتماعی همبستگی معنی داری دارد. به طورکلی دلبستگی مکانی، اجتماعی و دلبستگی کلی دختران در سطح خانه بیش تر از پسران است. به علاوه نوجوانان در وضعیت اقتصادی- اجتماعی پایین از دلبستگی محیطی بیشتری برخوردار هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: دلبستگی محیطی، سلامت روان، سازگاری اجتماعی، نوجوان
  • سید مصطفی جلیلی، محمدصالح شکوهی بیدهندی صفحه 205
    گردشگری محصولی به هم پیوسته، شکننده، نابودشدنی، به شدت متکثر و به قطعات متعدد تقسیم شده است. برای رسیدن به اهداف گردشگری، د رنظر گرفتن رویکردی یکپارچه که در آن تمامی منافع و وظایف کنشگران و فعالان عرصه گردشگری در هماهنگی و یکپارچگی با یکدیگر دیده شود، ضروری می نماید. هدف از این مقاله ارزیابی طرح جشنواره گردشگری نوروزی تهران قدیم در سال 1391 و بیان نقاط قوت و ضعف طرح و ارائه پیشنهادهایی به منظور ارتقاء مدیریت کیفیت آن است. مدل ارزیابی تحقیق، مدل مدیریت کیفیت یکپارچه در مقاصد گردشگری است. این مدل در پاسخ به نیاز توسعه همه جانبه کیفیت در مقاصد گردشگری تدوین شده است. روش تحقیق، توصیفی تحلیلی بوده و با بهره گیری از اسناد و مطالعات کتابخانه ای در بخش چارچوب نظری تحقیق و استفاده از روش پیمایشی، ابزار پرسشنامه (بررسی 120 پرسشنامه) و مصاحبه عمیق با مدیر اجرایی طرح در بخش معرفی و ارزیابی طرح انجام شده است. یافته های اصلی تحقیق گویای این مطلب است که برای پرکردن خلاء علمی- اجرایی میان فهم کارشناسان و پژوهشگران عرصه گردشگری و نیاز مدیران اجرایی طرح، می توان کمیته راهبری مشترک نوروزی متشکل از کارشناسان برنامه ریز گردشگری، مدیران اجرایی طرح، کارمندان و راهنمایان گردشگری (بلد محله) برقرار نمود که طی جلسات و نشست های مشترک و تعاملی پیش از شروع زمان گردشگری نوروزی، چشم انداز، اهداف و راهبردهای برنامه ریزی و مدیریتی طرح گردشگری نوروزی را براساس تحلیل شرایط موجود، سابقه اجرایی این طرح ها در سایر شهرها، ارزیابی نتایج طرح های گردشگری نوروزی سال های پیشین که اساس و محتوای مدل مدیریت کیفیت یکپارچه را تشکیل می دهد، تدوین کنند و پس از اتمام زمان برگزاری طرح نیز این کمیته به بررسی بازخوردها و نتایج طرح مبادرت ورزد و اقدامات اصلاحی و توسعه ای که در فرآیندها و محتویات طرح می توان در سال های آینده اتخاذ شود، پیشنهاد دهند.
    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت کیفیت یکپارچه، طرح گردشگری نوروزی، پویایی
  • پانته آحکیمیان صفحه 215
    شهر و فضاهای عمومی آن، نقش مهمی در کیفیت زندگی شهروندان از طریق تاثیر بر سلامت جسمانی و روانی آنها دارد. هم اکنون معضل بسیاری از شهروندان، بیماری های غیر واگیری است که شرایط کالبدی شهرها بر آن ها دامن می زند. پزشکان ظهور این بیماری ها را به دلیل تغییر شیوه زندگی به سوی ک متحرکی، تغذیه ناسالم، وابستگی به اتومبیل و در نتیجه اضاف هوزن و چاقی افراد می دانند. فضاهای شهری موجود از یک سو با ایجاد موانع بسیار برای افراد پیاده، آنها را به فعالیت بدنی کمتر سوق می دهند و از سوی دیگر امکان دسترسی آن ها را به مکان های عرضه تغذیه سالم محدود می نمایند. هدف این تحقیق بررسی تحقیقات موجود در رابطه با نقش فضاهای شهری در ارتقاء سلامت جسمانی با تاکید بر مساله چاقی و دو رفتار سلامت مرتبط با آن شامل رفتار فعالیت بدنی و رفتار تغذیه افراد بزرگسال است. تا دریچه ای به سوی تحقیق میان رشته ای در حوزه سلامت و محیط انسان ساخت گشوده شود. با توجه به نوپا بودن موضوع حاضر در کشور، روش این تحقیق، مطالعه اسنادی است که بر اساس مرور ادبیات رو به رشد در دو حوزه مجزای علوم پزشکی و طراحی شهری و از طریق بررسی مستندات مربوط به تحقیقات معتبر علمی صورت گرفته است. نتایج حاصل از بررسی تحقیقات موجود، به صورت چارچوب مفهومی پیشنهادی تبیین کننده رابطه بین ویژگی های کالبدی فضاهای شهری و چاقی، همچنین دو رفتار فعالیت بدنی و تغذیه افراد بزرگسال ارائه شده است. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهد که سلامت یکی از ابعاد بنیادی طراحی فضاهای شهری است. براساس چارچوب پیشنهادی، عوامل تاثیرگذار بر چاقی، ویژگی های کالبدی از فضاهای شهری به مثابه مبداء- مقصد، مسیر و محدوده، شامل اختلاط کاربری، ایمنی و امنیت، الگوی شبکه معابر، ویژگی های زیباشناختی و اقلیمی، و قابلیت دسترسی به انواع مقاصد فعالیت بدنی و فروشگاه های غذایی می باشند. تحقیقاتی از این نوع می توانند پایه های اولیه انجام تحقیقات تجربی در کشور را فراهم نماید.
    کلیدواژگان: فضاهای شهری، ویژگی های کالبدی، سلامت، چاقی، فعالیت بدنی، تغذیه
  • فرشید سامانپور صفحه 225
    فعالان طراحی شهری، بنا بر آموزش دانشگاهی و نظام های اداری، معمولا بر پایه فرآیند به طراحی می پردازند. گرچه فرآیندها حکم منطق مدون دارند، ولی در بسیاری موارد به نظر می رسد که در عمل، عمق منطقی شان پنهان مانده، و از کار باز می ماند. به این صورت، یا روند طراحی در ذهن طراح باقی مانده و فرآیند به ابزاری فرمایشی و نمایشی کاسته می شود و یا طراح آن چنان باخته فرآیند می شود که به جای استفاده ابزاری از آن، کارگزاری بی اراده در پیمودن مراحلش می شود. مروری بر متون فارسی مرتبط نیز نشان می دهد که با وجود توجه گسترده به فرآیندهای تخصصی طراحی(شهری)، منطق بنیادین نهفته در آن کم تر مورد اشاره قرار گرفته است. فقدان چنین منبعی که بدون درگیر شدن با مفاهیم پیچیده فلسفی راهنمای طراحان - به ویژه برای دانشجویان شهرسازی- باشد ممکن است کاربرد فرآیندها را برای آنان مشکل و یا پرابهام سازد. در این راستا، این مقاله با هدف آسان تر کردن پیوند منطق فردی با منطق مدون فرآیندها، تلاش دارد که استخوان بندی منطقی فرآیندها را از مفاهیم تخصصی شهرسازی پیراسته و آن را با زبانی ساده و صریح (و البته بدون درگیر شدن با جزئیات فلسفه علم) نمایش دهد. برای رسیدن به این خواسته، نخست تناسب روش پژوهش علمی با فرآیند طراحی شهری توجیه شد. تا پس از معرفی الگویی ارائه شده از زنجیره منطقی شکل گیری پژوهش علمی در جامعه شناسی، این الگو برای شناسایی منطق فرآیندهای طراحی شهری پیشنهاد شود. توان این الگو برای تحلیل منطق بنیادین این فرآیندها در بررسی دو مورد خانواده فرآیندهای خردگرا و تعاملی، نشان داده می شود. با بررسی این موردها و مقایسه شان با هم، توان این الگو و چگونگی بهره گیری از آن برای هدف یاد شده و در نتیجه شناخت فرآیندهای سازگار با مساله شهری موردنظر، ویرایش و بهره گیری درست از آنها و نیز جلوگیری از کاربردهای نا به جا و جا به جا و یا منفعلانه از آن ها روشن تر خواهد شد.
    کلیدواژگان: فرآیند، طراحی شهری، منطق، روش پژوهش
  • سید امین سیدین، کسری عقلی مقدم صفحه 235
    انعطاف پذیری و پایداری محیط، از کیفیت های پراهمیت در طراحی معماری و طراحی شهری می باشند. ارتفاع ساختمان های بلند می تواند تاثیرات قابل ملاحظه ای بر این دو کیفیت بگذارد. طبق مطالعات انجام شده، توسعه عمودی یکی از راهکارهای دست یابی به پایداری محیط به شمار می رود. از سوی دیگر، کاهش انعطاف پذیری طبقات با افزایش ارتفاع ساختمان، یکی از چالش های موجود در حوزه بلندمرتبه سازی است. راهکارهایی از سوی طراحان برای تحقق انعطاف پذیری و پایداری در بنا به طور نسبی پیشنهاد شده که در بعضی موارد به موازات و در راستای هم هستند و در موارد دیگر با هم تناقض دارند. با توجه به مطالب ارائه شده، ضرورت پرداختن به مبانی نظری بلندمرتبه سازی و تبیین رویکرد طراحی آن با عنایت به معیارهای انعطاف پذیری و پایداری مشخص می شود. لازم به ذکر است که طی بررسی های انجام شده در زمینه انعطاف پذیری و پایداری، محیط در معنای عام آن مورد بحث قرار گرفته است و برخی مباحث مطرح شده قابل به کارگیری در محیط های داخلی و خارجی هستند. در اینجا پرسشی که مورد بررسی و پژوهش قرار گرفته است. چگونگی تقابل افزایش میزان پایداری بنا و کاهش کیفیت انعطاف پذیری آن با افزایش ارتفاع می باشد. این مساله با بررسی و مقایسه زیر مجموعه های تشکیل دهنده هریک از این دو عامل تبیین می شود. فرض بر آن است که با به کاربردن پاره ای راهکارها و رعایت برخی ملزومات در مطالعات و طراحی، می توان انعطاف پذیری بنا را در راستای پایداری آن با افزایش ارتفاع ساختمان، به حد مطلوبی رساند. در این نوشتار سعی شده در ابتدا طی مطالعات جداگانه ای، به گونه ای اجمالی از دیدگاه نظری به مفاهیم انعطاف پذیری و پایداری پرداخته شود و در ادامه، با رویکرد تحلیلی- توصیفی با روش مطالعات کتابخانه ای، از طریق تطبیق و قیاس این دو مفهوم، راهکارهایی برای حفظ میزان مناسب انعطاف پذیری بنا با افزایش ارتفاع آن پیشنهاد شود.
    کلیدواژگان: بلندمرتبه سازی، انعطاف پذیری، پایداری، کارکرد
  • محمود قلعه نویی، بهاره تدین صفحه 245
    رنگ از طرق مختلف بر انسان تاثیر گذاشته و می تواند بازتاب فرهنگ، باورها، رفتار و نیز احساسات مردم باشد. به این ترتیب به منظور به کارگیری بهینه آن و خلق محیط ها و فضاهای شهری پاسخده، شناخت ویژگی های رنگ ضروری به نظر می رسد. بهره گیری ناآگاهانه، بدون مطالعه و غیرتخصصی از رنگ و عدم توجه به تاثیرات آن بر انسان، در شهرها منجر به تولید فضاهایی می شود که پاسخگوی نیازهای کاربران نیست. هدف پژوهش حاضر ارائه روشی جهت ارزیابی میزان بهره مندی فضاهای شهری از پتانسیل های رنگ با توجه به سطح نیاز، سطح مواجهه با رنگ و کیفیت های مورد انتظار از فضا می باشد. پرسش پژوهش این است که چه رابطه ای میان سطوح تاثیر رنگ بر انسان و کیفیت های محیطی وجود داشته و چگونه در یک فضای داده شده از ظرفیت های رنگ برای ارتقاء کیفی محیط، بهره گرفته شده است. به منظور پاسخ به پرسش مطرح شده، نخست با شناخت جنبه های مختلف تاثیرگذاری رنگ بر انسان و سپس با تبیین مدل نیازهای انسانی مازلو در شش سطح، ماتریسی تشکیل داده شد تا دو مورد نام برده ردیف ها و ستون های آن را تشکیل دهند. سپس با توجه به میزان رابطه آیتم ها در ماتریس از طریق مطالعه ادبیات موضوع، تعدادی از خانه ها علامت خوردند. در گام بعدی کیفیت های طراحی شهری با توجه به مدل مراتب نیاز مازلو در سطوح گوناگون تبیین شد که حاصل آن انطباق سطوح تاثیر رنگ بر انسان و کیفیت های طراحی شهری است. در مرحله بعد با تبیین چارچوب نظری، دسته بندی سطوح ماتریس کیل هنگ در چهار سطح، رابطه رنگ و کیفیت های محیطی در خیابان سپه با استفاده از تکنیک دلفی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. یافته ها نشان داد نیازهای سطح یک در مورد مطالعاتی بیشتر مورد توجه قرار گرفته و پاسخ مصاحبه شوندگان در مورد میزان بهره مندی فضا از پتانسیل های رنگ نسبتا در همه سطوح (از بسیار خوب تا بسیار ضعیف) به میانگین 20 درصد نزدیک بود.
    کلیدواژگان: رنگ، کیفیت های طراحی شهری، خیابان های شهری، خیابان سپه اصفهان
  • سید مجید مفیدی شمیرانی، حامد مضطرزاده صفحه 261
    به دنبال افزایش گرمایش جهانی و بروز تغییر اقلیم متفکران و نظری هپردازان زیادی به دنبال یافتن راه حل های مختلف برآمدند که یکی از این راه حل ها مطرح شدن نظریه “توسعه پایدار” می باشد. این نظریه تا سال ها، بیشتر بر ضرورت های اقتصادی و محدودیت های زیست محیطی تاکید می ورزید اما در دهه اخیر با پیدایش شعار”جهانی بیندیش، محلی عمل کن” نقش آن در جنبه های محلی و بومی بیشتر شده است. از سوی دیگر هر شهر را می توان از ویژگی های محله های مسکونی آن شناخت و در صورتی که مشکلات و آسیب ها در سطح این محله ها کمتر باشد، آن شهر می تواند پاسخگوی نیازهای مختلف شهروندان خود باشد. هدف از انجام این پژوهش این است که محله های شهری در کالبد به گونه ای برنامه ریزی و هدایت شوند تا با مصرف بهینه انرژی حداقل آلودگی را تولید کرده و از این حیث بتوانند در پایداری شهرها نقش ایفا کنند که به منظور دستیابی به این هدف، معیارهایی کالبدی در جهت انطباق محله های شهری با توجه به اصول پایداری با تاکید بر اقلیم گرم و خشک ایران تدوین شده است. در این مقاله، پس از بررسی معیارهای ساختار محله های شهری پایدار، سعی در اثبات این فرضیه است که ویژگی کالبدی محله در اقلیم گرم و خشک ایران واجد اصولی است که به پایدار ساختن محله های بومی- سنتی انجامیده است. به منظور اثبات فرضیه سه محله بومی- سنتی در شهر یزد مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته و از طریق توزیع پرسش نامه و روش تحلیل میزان رضایت- اهمیت معیارهای کالبدی محله پایدار در دو بخش مسکن و محله بررسی شده است. در نهایت با روش علمی- استنتاجی اثبات شده است که محله های بومی - سنتی در کالبد، از اصولی پیروی می کرده اند که به پایداری آن ها انجامیده است.
    کلیدواژگان: محله های شهری پایدار، کالبد، محله های بومی، سنتی، معیار
  • برنامه ریزی شهری
  • مهیار اردشیری، افروز فلاح منشادی، الهام فلاح منشادی، حیدر عباسی صفحه 277
    آماده سازی زمین برای سکونت از سال 1364 به عنوان فعالیتی جدید در روند برنامه ریزی شهری در ایران معمول شد و بخش قابل توجهی از شهرهای ایران با این دیدگاه توسعه یافته است. یک سوال اساسی در مورد این نوع توسعه، میزان تطابق یا افتراق آن با رویکرد پایداری است. توسعه پایدار رویکرد غالب در مباحث شهرسازی است که از دهه 1990 مطرح شده و موضوع نگهداری از منابع برای حال و آینده از طریق استفاده بهینه از زمین و وارد کردن کم ترین ضایعات به منابع تجدیدناپذیر در اولویت قرار می دهد. مقاله حاضر به بیان یافته های یک تحقیق تجربی می پردازد که در آن پایداری طرح های آماده سازی از ابعاد کالبدی و اجتماعی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته است. از جمله معیارهای اجتماعی می توان به هویت، سرزندگی، تنوع و گوناگونی اجتماعی، امنیت، آسایش و آرامش و عدالت اجتماعی اشاره کرد. معیارهای کالبدی شامل کیفیت مسکن و فضای شهری، زیرساخ تها و قابلیت دسترسی و توده های فضایی مرتبط با خدمات و تسهیلات شهری می شود. در این تحقیق شهرک گلستان در شیراز به عنوان نمونه موردی انتخاب شده است. روش تحقیق روش تحلیلی- توصیفی است و اطلاعات مورد نیاز از طریق پرسشنامه جمع آوری شده و تعداد 100 عدد پرسشنامه توسط ساکنین تکمیل شده است. یافته های پژوهش بیانگر این است که در طرح های آماده سازی به معیارهای محیطی و کالبدی توجه بیشتری شده و معیارهای اجتماعی مورد غفلت قرار گرفته است. عدم توجه کافی به معیارهای اجتماعی سبب پایداری متوسط (وضعیت بینابین پایداری و ناپایداری) این شهرک از نظر اجتماعی شده است، در حالی که از نظر کالبدی- زیست محیطی، ملاحظات بیشتری صورت گرفته و شهرک گلستان از این بعد در وضعی تنیمه پایدار (پایداری خوب) قرار دارد. این موضوع نشان دهنده نادیده گرفتن ابعاد اجتماعی در طرح های آماده سازی در مقایسه با ابعاد کالبد ی فضایی می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه پایدار، طرح آماده سازی، ابعاد اجتماعی و کالبدی، شهرک گلستان شیراز
  • ناصر براتی، محمدرضا یزدان پناه شاه آبادی صفحه 289
    یکی از ابعاد تاثیرگذار در حوزه برنامه ریزی شهری، ابعاد اجتماعی است که البته در برنامه ریزی شهری ایران اکثرا مورد غفلت قرار م یگیرد. از علل اصلی این عدم توجه، روشن نبودن نحوه تاثیر این ابعاد در برنامه ریزی شهری است. در این پژوهش برای تبیین بهتر نحوه تاثیر ابعاد اجتماعی بر برنامه ریزی شهری، ارتباط این ابعاد را در قالب مفهوم «سرمایه اجتماعی» با مفهوم تاثیرگذار دیگر حوزه برنامه ریزی شهری یعنی «کیفیت زندگی شهری» مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. برای این منظور شهر جدید پردیس را به عنوان نمونه مورد مطالعه انتخاب شد. علت این انتخاب آن است که ه ماکنون شهرهای جدید و مساله برنامه ریزی آن ها از چالش های اصلی نظام برنامه ریزی شهری و منطقه ای کشور می باشد. بدین ترتیب در این پژوهش هدف اصلی، بررسی ارتباط بین مفهوم سرمایه اجتماعی و کیفیت زندگی شهری البته از بعد ذهنی آن می باشد. بعد ذهنی کیفیت زندگی شهری مترادف با میزان رضایتمندی شهروندان از عوامل مختلف موثر در کیفیت زندگی مانند عوامل کالبدی، اجتماعی، اقتصادی و غیره می باشد. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش وجود ارتباط بین میزان سرمایه اجتماعی و میزان کیفیت ذهنی زندگی شهری را تایید می نماید. همچنین ارتباط قابل ملاحظه ای نیز بین نرخ ماندگاری جمعیت و کیفیت ذهنی زندگی شهری دیده شد. در انتها نیز مدلی جهت ارزیابی بهتر نحوه ب ره مکنش مفاهیم مور دنظر ارائه شد. بدین ترتیب می توان اظهار داشت که توجه به ابعاد اجتماعی و برنامه ریزی جهت ارتقاء سرمایه اجتماعی با توجه به تاثیر مثبت بر میزان کیفیت ذهنی زندگی شهری می تواند به عنوان یک راهکار برنامه ریزانه در نظام برنامه ریزی شهر جدید پردیس به کار گرفته شود. هرچند این نتیجه به لحاظ علمی قابل تعمیم به شهرهای دیگر نیست، لیکن با توجه به مشابهت های زیاد بین شهرهای جدید ایران، می توان انتظار داشت که این نتیجه در جاهای دیگر نیز تکرار شود. به علاوه فرآیند تحلیلی مورد استفاده این پژوهش برای شهرهای دیگر نیز قابل تعمیم می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: سرمایه اجتماعی، کیفیت زندگی، کیفیت ذهنی زندگی، نرخ ماندگاری جمعیت
  • زهرا سادات سعیده زرآبادی، ناصر نجاتی علاف، هما جلیلی صفریان صفحه 301
    توسعه شهرنشینی و به تبع آن شکل گیری طبقات متمایز اجتماعی منجر به طبقاتی شدن فضای جغرافیایی شده است. از این رو گسترش نامتقارن کیفیت زندگی شهری یکی از مهم ترین ابزارها برای پی بردن به وجود نابرابری های اجتماعی در هر جامعه می باشد. لذا اهداف این مقاله را می توان شناسایی، اولویت بندی و سنجش شاخص های کیفیت زندگی شهری در مناطق 13 گانه شهرداری مشهد برشمرد. از این رو با استفاده از شاخص های حجم ترافیک و دسترسی به حمل ونقل عمومی در بعد ارتباطات و حمل و نقل، بار تکفل در بعد اقتصادی، میزان باسوادان در بعد اجتماعی، تراکم خانوار در واحد مسکونی، کیفیت ساختمان ، و میزان بافت فرسوده در بعد کالبدی، پراکندگی جمعیت در بعد محیط زیست و سرانه کاربری های آموزشی، تجاری، فرهنگی، ورزشی، فضای سبز و بهداشتی- درمانی در بعد تسهیلات و خدمات عمومی و با روش سنجش عینی و با استفاده از نرم افزار GIS، مناطق شهرداری مشهد مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته شده است. سپس ماهیت و وزن هریک از شاخص ها با توجه به نظر کارشناسان مشخص شد. در انتها با استفاده از تکنیک تاپسیس، اولویت مناطق شهرداری مشهد به لحاظ کیفیت زندگی مورد سنجش قرار گرفت. یافته های تحقیق حاکی از آن است که سرانه آموزشی، سرانه بهداشتی- درمانی، سرانه فضای سبز، بار تکفل، تراکم خانوار در واحد مسکونی، سطح سرویس ترافیک و دسترسی به ایستگاه های حم لونقل عمومی به ترتیب دارای اولویت برای سنجش کیفیت زندگی می باشند. همچنین 10 و 7 شهرداری مشهد، به ترتیب بهترین کیفیت زندگی را به لحاظ شاخص های بررسی شده دارا می باشند. ، مناطق 12 3 و 6 پایین ترین کیفیت زندگی را بین مناطق شهرداری مشهد به خود اختصاص داده اند. این ، در طرف مقابل مناطق 5 نکته حائز اهمیت است که مناطق دارای جایگاه بالاتر کیفیت زندگی، اغلب جزء محدوده های توسعه جدید شهر می باشند و از طرف دیگر، مناطق دارای جایگاه پایین تر کیفیت زندگی اغلب به لحاظ ارزش اقتصادی نسبت به سایر مناطق پایین تر می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: کیفیت زندگی شهری، روش سنجش عینی، TOPSIS، شهر مشهد
  • علی سعیدی، ساسان سواد کوهی فر، یزدان یاوری صفحه 313
    برای دفاع از شهرها حفاظت از شبکه معابر، امری لازم و ضروری است. جهت دفاع از معابر شهری در ابتدا لازم است که نقاط آسیب پذیر این معابر مشخص شده و برای این نقاط تمهیدات ویژه در نظر گرفته شود. جهت شناسایی آسیب پذیری معابر در مقابل تهدیدات طبیعی کارهای زیادی در کشورهای مختلف انجام شده است، و در بسیاری از موارد از بررسی مخاطرات انسان ساخت صرف نظر شده است. با توجه به اهمیت تهدیدات انسان ساخت لازم است، این دسته از تهدیدات نیز در بررسی آسیب پذیری معابر مورد بررسی قرار گیرد، که در این پژوهش این امر انجام شده است. به عنوان نمونه موردی یکی از مهم ترین شریان های مواصلاتی شمال شهر تهران یعنی بزرگراه طبقاتی صدر مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. برای یافتن میزان آسیب پذیری این معبر ابتدا شاخص های موثر بر آسیب پذیری این معابر شناسایی و وزن دهی شد. شاخص های کلی موثر در آسیب پذیری معابر طبقاتی در سه گروه عمده شاخص های دفاعی، شهری و طبیعی تقسیم بندی شده و هر یک از شاخص ها و زیر شاخص ها به روش سلسله مراتبی و روش TOPSIS امتیازدهی شد. پس از امتیازدهی شاخص ها، لایه های جغرافیایی مربوط به آن شاخص و برای محدوده مطالعاتی در نرم افزار ArcGIS ایجاد شد. سپس لایه های ایجاد شده با توجه به وزن تاثیرگذاری شاخص مورد نظر، در نرم افزار مذکور ترکیب و نقشه آسیب پذیری معبر طبقاتی مورد مطالعه، تهیه شد و با تولید نقشه آسیب پذیری میزان ریسک در امتداد مسیر تعیین خواهد شد. لذا پس از انجام مراحل فوق و تهیه این نقشه، آسیب پذیرترین نقطه در مسیر بزرگراه مورد مطالعه مشخص شد. با توجه به پژوهش انجام شده تقاطع ها از مهم ترین نقاط آسیب پذیر محدوده می باشند. در انتها عوامل ایجاد خطر در آسیب پذیرترین تقاطع در طول مسیر مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
    کلیدواژگان: پدافند غیرعامل، معابر طبقاتی، تهدید، روش سلسله مراتبی، سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی
  • منوچهر طبیبیان، یاسمین افشار، مجتبی شهابی شهمیری صفحه 329
    سازمان حفاظت از محیط زیست در سال 1378 با برگزاری همایش شهر سبز به ارائه طرحی سبز اقدام نمود. مهم ترین دستاورد این همایش تلاش برای ارائه تعریفی از شهر سبز مبتنی بر استانداردهای جهانی و تایید شده توسط سازمان ملل متحد بود. با وجود ارائه این تعریف و پس از گذشت بیش از ده سال، همچنان ارزیابی عملکردی بر مبنای شاخص های شهر سبز برای تهران صورت نگرفته است. این پژوهش با هدف تعیین عملکرد زیست محیطی شهر تهران و سپس قیاس آن با 22 شهر آسیایی که به طور عمده پایتخت ها و یا مراکز مهم اقتصادی هستند، جایگاه زیست محیطی تهران را تعیین می کند. بدین منظور این ارزیابی از 29 شاخص کمی و کیفی شهر سبز، در هشت عرصه انرژی و یا دی کسید کربن، کاربری زمین و ساختمان، حمل ونقل، ضایعات، آب، فاضلاب، کیفیت هوا و حکمروایی زیست محیطی بهره می گیرد. جایگاه عملکردی شهر تهران در ادامه و پیوند با طرح های مطالعاتی گروه پژوهشی EIU تعیین می شود. روش تحقیق این پژوهش شامل دو بخش کمی و کیفی است. در بخش کمی، ابتدا شاخص ها برای شهر تهران با استفاده از روش ضریب محدودیت رفع اختلاف مقیاس و محاسبه شده، سپس جایگاه تهران با مقایسه شاخص های مشابه در 22 شهر آسیایی مشخص می شود. بخش کیفی نیز به مرور توصیفی از سیاست های موجود و در دست تدوین برای شهر تهران بسنده می کند. یافته های کمی این پژوهش نشان می دهد که شهر تهران با کسب امتیاز 38 درصدی، ضعیف ترین درجه سبزی و یا عملکرد زیست محیطی را میان 22 شهر آسیایی داراست. این شهر در تمامی عرصه ها به جز عرصه ضایعات و حمل ونقل، عملکرد بسیار ضعیف تا ضعیفی را از خود نشان می دهد. این در حالی است که رویه سیاست گذاری ها نویدبخش روندی مثبت جهت حرکت به سوی اهداف شهر سبز می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: رویکرد شهر سبز، ارزیابی عملکرد زیست محیطی، ضریب محرومیت، شهر تهران
  • اکبر کیانی، محمد علی میرشکاری صفحه 345
    «سایه درخت» در شهرهایی که با «مساله کنترل دما» در ماه های گرم مواجه هستند، فواید بسیار زیادی در ابعاد اقتصادی (کاهش مصرف انرژی در ماه های گرم و غیره)، ابعاد فیزیکی–کالبدی (حفظ تاسیسات شهری و غیره) و ابعاد اجتماعی (افزایش میزان نشاط و کارایی شهروندان و غیره) دارد. از این رو، مقاله حاضر به طور مستقیم بر اندازه شکل درخت (کاناپی درخت) و سایه ای که درخت ایجاد می نماید، تاکید می کند. به عبارتی این مقاله با رویکرد استقرایی (جزء به کل) به «مساله ایجاد سایه» پرداخته است. هدف تحقیق بررسی اندازه سایه درخت بر اساس شکل یا حجم (کاناپی)درخت برای ایجاد سایه بیشتر در سطح خیابان های بخش مرکزی شهر زابل می باشد. علت انتخاب شهر زابل، گرمای طاقت فرسا در بیشتر ماه های سال در سطح شهر می باشد. طبق تحقیقات میدانی به عمل آمده، سرانه فضای سبز شهر زابل از استانداردهای کشوری پایین تر بوده و گونه های غالب درختان در سطح خیابان های این شهر اکالیپتوس و نخل بادبزنی است که از نوع گونه های بلندقد می باشند، وضعیت «نسبت میزان سایه» آن نسبت به پیاده روهای این شهر نامناسب می باشد. روش تحقیق توصیفی – کاربری و مبتنی بر مطالعات کتابخانه ای، اسنادی و بررسی های میدانی است. منطقه مورد مطالعه شامل بررسی وضعیت درختان دو خیابان بخش مرکزی شهر زابل در محدوده بازار می باشد. در تیرماه «اندازه سایه درختان»، «ارتفاع درختان»، «میزان چتری بودن شکل درختان»طی ساعاتی که گرما محسوس بوده به طور مستقیم اندازه گیری و محاسبه شدند، سپس با استفاده از نرم افزار اتوکد مقادیر به دست آمده ترسیم و خروجی های آن مورد مقایسه و تحلیل قرار گرفتند. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد، در ساعاتی که به سایه درخت بیشتر احساس نیاز می شود «میزان سایه درختان چتری شکل» بیشتر از «درختان بلند قد» است. در ساعت 12 «میزان قطر سایه درخت نخل» 3/22 متر می باشد. اما در همین ساعت «میزان سایه برای درخت اکالیپتوس» 1/94 متر می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: حجم سایه درخت، ایجاد سایه، شهر زابل، زاویه تابش
  • ابوالفضل مشکینی، حافظ مهدنژاد، فریاد پرهیز، اکرم تفکری صفحه 357
    فرآیند پیشگیری قبل از درمان در احتمال وقوع جرایم، یکی از جدیدترین رویدادهای حال حاضر جرم شناسی در مجامع علمی و اجرایی دنیا در حوزه شهرسازی به شمار می آید که کانون تمرکز آن بر فضاهای غیر قابل دفاع شهر می باشد. بر همین اساس در پژوهش حاضر به تحلیل فضایی جرایم شهری و رابطه آن ها با کاربری های اراضی در منطقه 12 کلانشهر تهران مبادرت شده است. روش پژوهش حاضر توصیفی- تحلیلی و از نوع کاربردی می باشد و برای شناسایی و درک الگوهای مکانی بزهکاری در سطح شهر از تکنیک های درو نیابی در محیط سامانه اطلاعات جغرافیایی GIS استفاده شده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش، مجموع جرایم ارتکابی است که در سال 1387 در محدوده منطقه 12 شهر تهران به وقوع پیوسته است. به عنوان نمونه آماری، 560 فقره از جرایم اتفاق افتاده منطقه 12 شهرداری تهران بررسی شد هاست. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد که از میان 560 مورد جرم ارتکابی در محدوده منطقه 12 جرم سرقت به عنف کیف قاپی توسط موتور سوار با تعداد 293 مورد معادل 52/32 درصد بیش از نیمی از کل جرایم ارتکابی این منطقه را به خود اختصاص داده است. همچنین بیشترین فراوانی وقوع جرایم با 308 فقره بزه و 55 درصد (بیش از نیمی از جرایم ارتکابی) در مجاورت کاربری تجاری ثبت شده است. در مرتبه بعد کاربری مسکونی با 50/91 درصد از مساحت کل منطقه 12 با 118 فقره معادل 21/07 درصد قرار دارد. در واقع آنچه در خصوص نوع و میزان تخصیص کاربری های اراضی شهری در منطقه 12 شهر تهران حائز اهمیت است، این که در این محدوده، کاربری های تجاری و اداری بسیار بالا و بالاتر از متوسط آن در شهر تهران است و در نقطه مقابل برخی دیگر از کاربری های شهری در این منطقه یا وجود ندارد و یا با کمبود شدید مواجه است.
    کلیدواژگان: کاربری ارضی، بزهکاری اجتماعی، کانون جر مخیز، منطقه 12 شهرداری تهران، تهران
  • مائده هدایتی فرد صفحه 369
    برنامه ریزی محیطی همکارانه، با فراهم کردن چارچوبی متوازن میان نهادهای سیاسی، اجتماعی و بنیان های علمی محیطی، سعی در درک ابعاد گسترده تر مشکلات محیطی و زمینه های پسامادی سرمایه های محیطی دارد. منطقه شش تهران، به عنوان قلب تپنده و مرکز فضایی این شهر، با وجود سرمایه های محیطی ارزشمندی چون درختان چنار با قدمت چندصد ساله، محل استقرار مهم ترین فعالیت های خدماتی، تولیدی است. تمرکز فعالیت های انسانی در این منطقه، انباشت انواع آلودگی های محیطی را به همراه داشته است که خود به نابودی سهم قابل توجهی از درختان چنار منجر شده است. این درحالی است که به نظر می رسد، فعالان منطقه (ساکنین و غیرساکنین) نسبت به این دسته از مشکلات آگاهی نداشته و با رویکردی منفعلانه، تمایلی به نگهداشت سرمایه های محیطی محل سکونت خود نداشته باشند. هدف از نگارش این پژوهش، کوشش جهت کارآمدتر نمودن سیستم برنامه ریزی شهری در این منطقه ضمن معرفی رویکرد نوین و فراهم نمودن بستر به کارگیری برنامه ریزی محیطی همکارانه است. راهبرد اصلی این پژوهش موردکاوی و روش پژوهش ترکیبی کمی و کیفی، شامل انجام مصاحبه با عوامل تصمیم گیر و بازیگران کلیدی در عرصه آلودگی محیطی منطقه است که، اساس تحلیل های این پژوهش را شکل می دهد. یافته های تحلیل نشان دهنده ناکارآمدی فرآیندهای موجود برنامه ریزی در افزایش دانش محیطی محلی، تقویت انگیزه و تمایل ساکنین برای مشارکت جهت کاهش روند تخریب سرمایه های محیطی و نیز محدودیت های به کارگیری فرآیندهای همکاری میان نهادها و بازیگران در زمینه مشکلات محیطی است. آشکار شدن این دسته از مشکلات همراه با قوت رویکرد نوین به چالش محیطی، ضرورت به کارگیری برنامه ریزی محیطی همکارانه را در سطح اجتماع محلی نشان می دهد. بر مبنای بروندادهای چارچوب تحلیل و مفاهیم اصلی برنامه ریزی محیطی همکارانه، ارائه پیشنهادات، با فراهم کردن «زمینه» به کارگیری این رهیافت در چارچوب ساختار تصمیم گیری پیشنهادی، شامل بازیگران اصلی، ارتباطات بین آن ها و سیستم پشتیبان تصمیم گیری صور تبندی شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: برنامه ریزی محیطی، برنامه ریزی همکارانه، برنامه ریزی محیطی همکارانه، پایداری شهری، مشکلات محیط زیستی
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  • Elham Parvizi, Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad, Mohammad Reza Bemanian Page 1
    Today, technology manages all aspects of human life. This matter has gone as far that some philosophers believed that soon the human and the world would come to conquer the world. Therefore, different approaches to technology have been developed. Substantially, before the construction of Centre George Pompidou (1970-1977), the pivot role of technology in the architecture was not released to the public. However, Renzo Piano and Richard Raggers reminded to all the major development of the present century. The presence of technology in architectural drawing had gone so far that it included the reason and even the ultimate of drawings. Therefore, different majors have been made in the line of its improvement or against it. For example, “Biotech” was made in the line and for the improvement of “High-Tech” style putting nature as an instrument for displaying technology and protecting the nature, on the contrary styles as rural traditionalism, such as what accomplished by Hassan Fathi in Egypt, rejected modern technology. Although, the views of technology-generating or technology-importing countries in this regard is different, what is important is that in the present era considering damages to the human psyche and nature, the objective role of technology has been laid aside and what remains significant is high objectives such as meeting the man’s moral needs and attention to environment conservation which are fulfilled by having an instrumental look rather than an objective look to technology. Therefore, it is assumed that at the beginning of its entry into architecture, technology has been encountered with the people and architect’s fondness and its display has led to a type of vitality due to a sense of communities’ development, but after a while when its disadvantages have been identified along with its advantages, its usage has been reduced as needed. Therefore, seeking the process of technology realization in architecture this article deals with its review in facade, framework and the soul of architecture. Therefore, first the meaning of technology from the beginning to the present, strategies adopted against it and also how it was appeared in architecture have been explained, then by analyzing Pritzker architecture award, the creep of technology as an effect in facade and building construction has been studied. From the viewpoint of this approach, history can be divided into two eras, before and after the advent of technology. However, there are views that know the old inharmonic and simple tools as the first buds of the today’s high-risk technology, but “Rene Guenon” believes that the distinction between these eras of technology is based on the contrast which could be identified between two quality and quantity views dominating the old crafts and the modern industry. The advent of technology into architecture has been brought under consideration on four facets: The structure’s presence in the facade, the type of materials applied to the facade, the kind of building system used, and the degree of form’s signification in architecture (to be collated with the structure’s importance in facade: The buildings picked up for Pritscker prize have been studied longitudinally. In the study, as many as 126 buildings picked up for Pritscker prize are listed in tables and their diagram has been extracted from a separate section. The resulting diagram shows that the tendency to present technology into the world of architecture has been on the increase since the advent of TECHNE as well as its shinning presence in facade making, all at one and the same time being a sign of the degree of societies’ progression incrementally with time, having been yet even more expanded along with movements like Archigram in 1960 and “High-Tech” in the 70s not to mention building Gorge Pompidou in 1977 and the Shanghai Bank in 1981. Little by little, however, after the coming on of high-tech styles regarding technology as the finale of architecture, many opponents stood firm against it of whom the most prominent were environmentalists. Consequently, the high-tech architects joined the environmentalism movement to extend their own survival, bringing about the “Eco-tech” style. Finally, the trajectory of technology’s presence in the build-up of recent facade appears to the more showing itself off as contrasted with the time before the coming on of “High- Tech” despite the fact that it has not been followed by any growth: a proof that technology is now out with architecture and importance is attached to a number of other factors though technology continues to be an important tool for the purposes of bringing out architectural concepts: not that it is any longer deemed to be the goal, but its usage has colluded with some sort of advancement and refinement. The materials applied to facade in various buildings have been delved into as the first part of this section whose result is the materials categorization into six major classes.
    Keywords: Technology, Facade's Materials, Structure, High, tech, Modern Architecture
  • Alireza Taghdiri, Sara Ghanbarzade Ghomi Page 15
    Recent innovations in the construction process should be noticed in the total context of the technological development of human societies over time. There is a general impression that the extensive advantages in productivity and quality, reached in manufacturing industries, have not been matched by similar progress in building construction. This paper reflects this deep belief that a significant order to this problem can be attained only with prefabrication, industrialization and automation replacing manual labor in all phases of the construction process. Prefabrication and industrialized building systems are the processes of an investment in construction equipment, facilities, and technology with the purpose of increasing output, saving manual labor, and improving quality. These building systems increase productivity and improved the performance and quality of the construction components. Moreover, they are a set of interrelated components that act together to reach the defined performance of a building. In a wider sense they also include several technological and managerial methods for the producing and assembling of their components for this intention. Many of possible construction components are prefabricated offsite at a central facility where specialized equipment and organization can be established for this purpose. The several building works are incorporated into large prefabricated assemblies with minimum erection, jointing and finishing work onsite. Materials and component handling onsite are widely mechanized and in concrete work, large standard steel forms, ready-mixed concrete, and concrete pumps are used. Design, production, and erection onsite are strongly interrelated and must be viewed as parts of an integrated process which has to be planned and coordinated accordingly. Automation is introduced into the prefabrication building systems in realization process in order to reduce human involvement and improve quality in design, production, and construction onsite. In this paper, the possibility of using prefabricated construction systems in building industry is discussed. These argued subjects are: • Analyzing of Demolition Management in Construction, • Analyzing of Benefits and Disadvantages of Prefabrication Building Systems and Applying these Construction Methods in Building Industry, • Presenting an Effective Patterns in Using Prefabrication in Construction of Various Buildings, • Economic Analysis of Applying Prefabrication Methods in Building Industry. A lot of prefabricated components are vastly applied in construction. They have potential to reduce waste production and minimize negative environmental impacts of buildings. In order to compare advantages, disadvantages, barriers and development of prefabrication in building sites, a questionnaire was presented to proper and qualified building constructors in Tehran city, Pardis and Parand new towns. Required data are collected and extracted from completed questionnaires and in order to simplify the analysis of data, findings are categorized in tables. Finally, advantages, disadvantages and future developments of applications of prefabrication are presented and appropriation of these building systems is analyzed for different types of construction projects according to the categorized and meaningful tables. It can be inferred from the findings that various advantages of prefabrication have different values. “Supervision of increasing the quality of prefabricated components” item has the highest value and “better and improved design” and “decreased total costs” are the next main items. In the other hand, some disadvantages of prefabrication systems are noticed, too. Findings show that prefabricated buildings are not flexible or adaptable to future changes. In most cases, after compilation of prefabricated buildings, end-users can’t modify them easily. Thus, “rigidity to change” is the main disadvantage of prefabrication. Some findings related to future developments demonstrate that prefabrication construction methods should be considered in preliminary design process in order to achieve the upper standardization level. “Upgrading construction techniques” and “fitting to the future projects” are the second significant items supporting the future improvements. In addition, feasibility of applying prefabrication in building projects was discussed. Five basic items (sub-structure, structure, exterior construction, interior construction and building installation) were analyzed focusing on main projects, mass housing, personal housing and commercial projects. It can be shown that conventional construction methods are suitable for foundation, sub-structure and non-standard construction. Prefabricated components are preferred to steel structural frames, facades, concrete roofs, dry-wall systems. Many of prefabricated components are load-bearing elements and development of lightweight prefabricated components should be considered in order to reduce the use of raw materials and shipment. In addition to the above items, nowadays large quantities of waste are generated in building industry while most of its significant environmental aspects remain unnoticed. Conventional systems seem to be unable to provide satisfactory results in building industry. Based on the results, by using prefabrication methods, construction waste could be reduced to half and the most reduction will be in wall finishing and coating phase. Also, using standard and regular designs for buildings will be helpful. Moreover, through mechanization, using recycled or recyclable materials and industrial assembly of prefabricated components, the costs could be reduced.
    Keywords: Prefabricated Building System, Construction Waste, Environmental Sustainability, Mass Production, Demolition Operation
  • Seyed Behshid Hosseini, Mohsen Kameli Page 27
    Political and military considerations are among the important factors affecting the formation of any human habitat in history while the spread of evil war is so extensive that no habitat on the planet earth is immune from it. Therefore, the current peace does not equal to its continuity and the importance of maintenance and improvement of defensive preparation in all dimensions, called the passive defense, is a continual, developable and very obvious process. One of the important aspects of civil design and development is the emphasis on the quality and quantity of city vulnerability against the harms caused by the military attacks. In order to decrease the citie's vulnerability against the war harms the process to develop and enforce the plans of passive defense is strictly necessary. With the descriptive analytical method and the reliance on gathering information in the library internet method and also the field researches, this article attempts to recognize the harms and threats on the city collective buildings after achieving the technical criteria, through: • Utilizing Them in the Phase of Architecture Design; • Investigating the Security Level of Citizen Increases in the Probable Situations of Modern Wars (So Called Sixth Generation Fights); • Consequently the Improvement of Defensive Power and the National Security against the Growing Threats of the Periphery. The results of the research indicate that the architecture of public buildings should consider some special criteria to maintain its resistance and life and continuation of activities in crisis situations. The presented criteria to reform and design the public buildings are based on the following features: 1. The criteria are proportional to the characteristics of modern wars. 2. They reach from large scale (urban cells) to small scale (single buildings). 3. They are presented based on the separation of selected uses. 4. They insist on the reform and architecture design of public (selected) buildings. 5. They focus on the supply of the most important and vital needs of the crisis time. 6. They notice to the organization, best use of facilities, installations, spaces and buildings in emergency situations. In the scale of collective buildings, the following recommendations and principles are presented based on the separation of uses: The principles of passive defense in educational buildings: • Schools 􀀋 Absence of Sensitive and Vital Centers till the 1000 Meters Ray 􀀋 Having Secure Rooms in all of the Stories 􀀋 Maximum Stories in Primary School Two Ones, in Guidance School Three Ones and in High School Four Ones 􀀋 Fast and Easy Access to Obvious Exits 􀀋 Accessibility to Vital Services such as Firefighting in Maximum 3 Minutes • Universities 􀀋 Having Firm Shelters and Warehouses Beneath the Open and Green Spaces of Universities 􀀋 Having a Network of Secure Subsurface Accesses among the Aforementioned Shelters 􀀋 Radius of Access to the Subsurface Space of Universities in Maximum 500 Meters 􀀋 Possibility of Full Discharge of Population in Maximum 3 Minutes The Principles of Passive Defense in Commercial Buildings: • Having Multi-purpose Spaces • Settling the Warehouses in Secure or Separable Places and with the Space From the Users Paths • Having the Roadway and Sidewalk Paths Separately beside the Building • Having the Automatic Systems of Fireproofing • Having the Warning Systems with Full Acoustic Covering The Principles of Passive Defense in Medicinal Buildings: • Fabrication of Safe Warehouses Specific to Storing the Medicine and Emergency Facilities • Easy Access to the Main City Roads • Possibility of Fast and Easy Traffic of Relief Vehicles in the Hospitals • Having Light and Heavy Transport Parking • Having the Place of Helicopter Landing • Visibility of Entrance The Principles of Passive Defense in Metro: • Maximum admissible radius of access to metro station is 500 meters. • Emergency exits with depth of more than the depth of the gathering place of refugees • Adequate width and the security of tunnels for the passing of people • Having multiple ventilation channels in order to confront the fuel-air bombs • Emergency self-sufficiency of ventilation systems of the network and the electricity of the trains and the lightning of the tunnels • Having Emergency and independent communication and telecommunication to contact with the outside environment • The principles of passive defense in Passenger terminal (airports, railway stations and the intercity bus terminals): • Separation of Sensitive Places from Insensitive Ones (such as Runways, Watch Tower, Airplane Parking, Trains or Buses, Fuel Tanks) • Camouflaging the Outdoor Area of Passenger Terminals with the Dense Vegetation Cover and also the Terrain • Having Multiple and very Wide Essential Exits without the Step or Inconsistent Surface • Legibility of the Paths, Entrances and Exits and the Creation of Multiple Emergency Exits in the Stories • Having Subway Public Parking.
    Keywords: Passive Defense, Passive Defense Criteria, Urban Public Buildings, Architectural Design
  • Mehdi Hamzenejad, Paria Saadatjoo, Shahabeddin Ramezani Page 41
    While always there has been an obvious differentiation between a mosque and a Mosala in Islamic architecture and urbanism theories, a new combination of these two has merged in contemporary architecture which is rather irrational both theoretically and historically. The word “MOSALA” means a place where people go there and pray in some special occasions such as FITR and Quarban Eid. Prophet Muhammad and Muslims were going to a desert or an open place to pray in these days. He has emphasized that the special religious ceremony of these two days must be held in an open place with no ceiling. The first Mosala in which the Prophet Muhammad and Muslims prayed in Qurban and Fitr was a region outside medina called MANAKHEH. Population growth and the need to develop new religious places were resulted in the adventure of new physical and conceptual patterns in architecture. In the current era, Mosala has lost its main role and converted to the symbol which has various functions. Formal imitation without enough knowledge of rules and concepts of religious has caused some changes in physical structure of many religious buildings such as Mosalas. In order to achieve an acceptable structure for modern principle it is essential to study the relevant legal rules in this field. This research aims to identify an acceptable principle for such concepts by analyzing existing examples and their conformity with associated Islamic values. At the first step we generally defined Mosala and then 6 religious instructions of designing and constructing these places were introduced. At the second step some Iranian ancient Musalas were studied and classified into two groups; with and without building. Then 5 examples of the contemporary manifestations based on different spatial organization models and ideas were selected and introduced. Selected samples designed and constructed in recent years across the country during recent decades represent patterns and characteristics of contemporary architecture of Mosala. By accepting six of generally confirmed criterions such as location, open area to closed area ratio, transparency, materials, in designing a Mosala, five most significant contemporary ones are analyzed and classified based on these values. Research showed that historical Mosalas of Iran had similar architectural patterns to some extent. Most of them had 4 or 3 cross-shaped plan that a high dome covers it. In most of them there was a famous person tomb as well as the famous families’ tombs in the open area around them. Hence we could say that most of historical Mosalas followed the Bagh- Mazar pattern. It is inferred that the main idea of the garden tomb in Iran, reaches back to ancient times. Researches about contemporary Mosalas indicated that most of these buildings are designed emphasizing on indoor areas (in two linear or central organizations) while in some examples like Tehran’s Mosala, open areas are rather remarkable. Such Mosalas are mainly large multifunctional spaces in city centers and mostly not compatible with Islamic theories, regarding issues such as location, scale and sincerity. We classified these samples chronologically. According to this classification some results can be expressed: - Spatial organization of central courtyard has modified to the longitudinal axis – patterns, got closer to the foreign ones such as churches. - The positioning of some contemporary Mosalas such as Tehran and Isfahan was mentioned the principle of locating Mosala in an open area around the city but in some cases such as Tabriz, Kish and Bushehr this rule was ignored. - The ratio of open space to the closed one gradually was reduced, so that the ratio of 70% in Tehran's Mosala gradually was reduced to the extent that this ratio became 0 in Tabriz. - Transparency into the nature was another parameter which was observed in Isfahan and Tehran by means of glass roof and other measures, but it was ignored in the other cases such as Tabriz and Bushehr. - Except the Mosala of Tehran in which natural materials were used for covering the floor, the other ones have used artificial materials. - Human scale of these instances, regardless of the time and against the principles of jurisprudence was all inhuman and huge. In other words, Contemporary Mosalas are actually a formal interpretation of great mosques design principles in which the preliminary concept and function of Mosala as a gathering place is missed. By identifying the defects of contemporary examples, it is necessary to define new strategies to solve current problems and improve future designs and concepts in pursuit of Islamic values.
    Keywords: Mosala, Mosque, Contemporary, Shia
  • Jamaleddin Soheili, Nafiseh Mohajerpour Page 59
    Today discussing about the semiotics has become an important issue for practitioners and theorists of surrounding urban, architecture and art. This study sought to analyze the semiotic space of Iranian theater as well as socially and culturally art of the past and now and also to recognize and understand the implications of the semiotic body type. The purpose of this research can contribute to the architectural space in contemporary theater in order to create a worthful space for Iranian plays. The sample, which has been analyzed in this study, is the one that has been created independently after the advent of Islam which has a specific space for its performances. These samples include Taziyeh as a ritual show. This descriptive - analytical study is based on theoretical evidence from Iranian performances. Library and Archives are data collection forms. Finally, after checking Taziyeh as Iranian show, we extract semiotic aspect items and through defining and redefining the patterns, the discussion of semiotic compliance is achieved. Accordingly, the theoretical framework of this research is the semiotic approach in dealing with the semiotics and investigation so that, according to some basic definitions that are used in semiotics is mandatory. These concepts explain various subjects for semiotic different emphasis and in the semiotics of all systems that play a fundamental role on this Science. In this regard for dramatic representation of reality in the show, conventional methods of linguistics and semantics are used in this context, Ferdinand de Saussure studies theorists such as Charles Sanders Peirce are the main comments on this issue. The research method is analytical documents. That utilizes the resources and documents available at the library's data collection, the history of the views expressed antecedents of the semiotics of the sign and the mark in a comparative perspective views to achieve a comprehensive definition and definitions Passion adapting the display space which will eventually show the way to represent signs on the Passion according to the definitions introduce semiotics. The research hypothesis is that the signs in Iranian theater with the kind of display location have a relationship with the executive. In terms of definitions and basic concepts of semiotics, which marks the first step is often overlooked examination the issue of whether the subject is really a sign or not? So we need to know what the symptoms To get the answer, first of all we briefly investigate differences between the signs and symbols: signs are discussed more generally than symbols. Symbols are informed from material factors and certainly do not have transceiver but sign is a form of symbol and also has a transmitter inform and receiver. In the result for comparing the theories, de Saussure and Pierce were examined in logic Saussure sign, signifying process based on freedom and voluntary association of two inseparable elements with phonetic impression (Significant) and imagine a concept (Signified). But unlike Saussure Pierce have the potential dynamic and fertile meaning and the same semiotic interpretation approach, Pierce notes that the categories of signs (icon, symbol, index) is not conclusive therefore interpretation of facilities is flexible Passion with a glimpse into structural semiotic Saussure, was benefited from highly performance language, agree and opposition reading of bad people and good people while colors and symbols are the same components which are performative and are unified under the forms of Taziyeh. Taziyeh is associated with dynamics of the symptoms that sometimes occur beyond the individual, flexibility of its core performance and passive benefits so in this case we are not facing with acting sign but we are facing with lots of passive action and this is why the dramatic peaks and landing is not dramatic situation but at the moment the scene is tagged weapons and people and … which realized in the form of "meta Semitic of theater ". The realistic foundation of Taziyeh is based on iconic sign, however we never spoke about trademark icon and symbol and index because sings in theater are different from look of each audience and it depends on the time, location, cultural. But since the show ritual rooted in the culture of a people and their religion is bound up with its main function, so this difference in religious views of the realistic theater to the public is different. Since quite a prominent figure in the religious views of the administrative structure is totally coherent theoretical doctrine can also be interpreted recent Semiotics. Performing sings symptoms such as props, people and movements in the level of dominance means sacred ritual mourning participation instead of maintaining any particular can only be referred to narrative. Function of metalinguistic dramatic works of the distinguished Taziyeh executive symptoms or interpretation is interpreted at the level of Semitic of Taziyeh.
    Keywords: Semiotic, Space, Show, Theater, Taziyeh
  • Mansoureh Tahbaz, Shahrbanoo Jalilian, Fatemeh Mousavi, Marzieh Kazem Zadeh Page 71
    Daylight as the only light source in the past was not considered only for its illumination in Iranian traditional architecture. The visual qualities and aesthetics of daylight were other considerations for architects. A good example of fantasy of daylight in Iranian architecture can be found in traditional houses. Diversity of different wall and ceiling openings is a testifier for this claim. To find out the effects of different design concepts in quality and quantity of light related to its specific space, a research has been conducted in Ameri House in Kashan with several central yards and spaces. Discovering the relation between architectural decisions and quality of daylight is the aim of this research. In this article the specifications of daylight in some spaces of this house are studied according to their location in the house, geometric shape of the place, location and condition of their openings related to their functions. Using luminance meter, the field data of several spaces were gathered and it was extended to a year by radiance simulation. Lighting Handbooks were used to analyse lighting conditions such as amount, uniformity or diversity of illumination, visual amenity and visual quality related to the function of the space. The information were analysed in four steps: 1- Room specifications: by calculating “Room Index”, “Room Depth Criteria”, “Perimeter Zone” and “Orientation Factor”. 2- Geometry and neighbourhood conditions: by drawing “No Sky Line” area, “Visible Sky Angle” in section and façade and “Shading Mask” of the window. 3- Analysing the field data: by drawing the “Illumination” contours in plan (on the reference height) and section of each room. 4- The illumination condition of each room in a whole year was simulated using Radiance Software. In steps 3 and 4, the data were analysed by “Useful Daylight Illuminance (UDI)”. It shows the percentage of the room area which is in “UDI Achieved” (100-2000 Lux), “UDI Autonomous” (300-2000 Lux), “UDI Supplementary” (100-300 Lux), UDI Exceeded” (> 2000 Lux), and “UDI Fell-Short” (
    Keywords: Daylighting, Sky Light, Ceiling, Wall Openings, Visible Sky Angle, Perimeter Zone
  • Rahmat Mohammdzadeh Page 83
    This paper tries to investigate the quality of pedestrian crossing overpass in area 3 of Tabriz Municipality from user's view points. Pedestrian crossing like other social phenomena in addition to their roles and functions are interesting for people, responsible organizations, planners and designers. This research has been carried out in a descriptivecross sectional surveying method. 144 pedestrians were selected in a simple random sampling. The questionnaire completions tools included 6 questions about the individual and social characteristics (having 4 special aims) about the quality of pedestrian crossing bridges according to the Likert scale. In order to study the relationship between some of the demographic attributes and the ranks of respondents we applied x2 test. The scores of attained ranks were analyzed using various descriptive statistical methods such as oneway ANOVA, and T-test, as well as the regression and Pearson correlation coefficients through the SPSS 13 software. As the findings showed, from locating the land uses to settle the pedestrian bridges on the way of people, logical connection between land uses on both sides of the street, creating a space for pedestrians, Integrating electric stairs and elevator, even making commercial spaces in crowded bridges, are all important in the quality and efficiency of pedestrian bridges .Giving attention to the factors such as topography and artificial barriers can also encourage pedestrians to use the facilities for special assistance to pedestrians. The location of pedestrian bridges in relation to public transport stations can also increase the quality of their performance. According to studies, immunization of pedestrian bridges with the aim of reducing accidents, logical connection between the floor, existence of guards and fences, improving social supervision, creating vision in private hours, Confronting rainfalls and extreme cold weather of the area is further emphasized. Also reviewing the quality and quantity of equipment and facilities of pedestrian bridges is necessary. In addition Installation of protective fencing on pedestrian bridges, providing suitable furniture such as trash, traffic signals and directional signs, traffic equipment for the disabled and the elderly are particularly emphasized. Covering the walls and roofed with pedestrian bridges are also commonly used against snow, rain and cold weather, and thus maintain the quality and efficiency of bridges. With washable material used in the body of pedestrian bridges and non-slip floor covering, stairs or ramp and resistance against fire and destruction, special floor for the blind people near the bridge entrances and exits can contribute to the quality and attractiveness of pedestrian bridges.According to the field data, paying attention to Ventilation, controlling and preventing the possibility of throwing objects across the street, maintaining pedestrians against unfavorable climatic conditions and directing rainfalls and snow through the ceiling, frames and stairs would help to increase the quality of pedestrians’ bridges. Moreover, according to the aesthetic aspects and suitable architectural design as an identical sign or element of street perspective, using resistant ribbed materials, washable and replaceable and finally placing non-coplanar axes passing pedestrians along the shortest walking path leads more attractive pedestrian bridges. The analysis of the scores of special aims showed that area 3 of Tabriz Municipality have higher percentage of pedestrian crossing bridges (59%) including 47 up to 91 bands, and partially suitable qualities (1.4%) have 1 to 46 bands and contain inappropriate qualities. 24.3% of the people who gained 92 to 140 scores included in appropriate level. The difference in averages of sample individuals was significant on the basis of Friedman significance test. Results of x2 indicated that there is a significant difference between age groups, the marriage status, gender, education level, income level, the type of job, and the quality of pedestrian crossing bridges in area 3 of Tabriz Municipality (p
    Keywords: Quality, Pedestrians, Crossing Overpass, Tabriz
  • Karim Mardomi, Behbood Zandaveh Page 93
    An analytical look at modern architecture literature suggests that its most important slogan "form follows the function" was changed to such a slogan to explain the weak function of modern architecture followers. Sullivan's slogan was not correctly understood by pioneers of modern architecture in different aspects of humanitarian needs and it's just used to describe the appearance of humanitarian needs for function. This slogan is a basis for showing the relationship between form and function in order to present a limited model between human and his needs. This study utilizes a librarian documents and analytical method with the aim of analyzing the concept of function against the slogan of "form follows the function". The question is that: what is the relationship between needs assessment of human being and function? By investigating the temporary literature of architecture it can be found that architectures and theorists tried to present different slogans in order to challenge with the slogan of modern architecture in order to offer a better model of human needs to show the relationship between form and function. Therefore, the modern architecture tried to find out a complete model of human needs and training designers in order to not only learn related science and technology to the designing but also to pay attention the most basic needs of humans in global level. A one-dimensional view of most modern architects to the function shows that they considered psychological and spiritual needs of human as well as biological needs. But choosing the wrong model of human needs and lack of sufficient knowledge about psychological and environmental needs can be the main cause of lack of achieving a comprehensive definition of function. Today, in contrast to the modern era, various models of human needs in the realm of related knowledge to architecture have defined which are associated with the development of theoretical foundations of architecture models. Therefore paying attention to the needs, behaviors and human activities and creating a variety of potential capacities in architectural environment, can appropriate mechanisms with a specified range regarding to its origin or concept. What will guide the behavior are external motivations although the behavior sustainability depends on the final goals of the organism. The ultimate goals of organisms are the basic needs that Maslow refers to.Studying the needs of humans reveal that the concept of beauty, encompassing all levels of human needs and it is present in all stages and therefore it is impossible to distinguish between beauty and function. Function which basis is the human needs can include different aspects: social, psychological, semantic and aesthetic at any moment and give more capabilities to the space to provide a richer places. The place determines human behaviors while physical constraints and limitations and too much specialization will reduce the manner of a place. Moreover human try to meet his needs through connection with the environment and change its potential based on his internal Maslow's need and he can create a proper place through change in levels of physical environment and its potentials. This paper, based on ecological psychology and humanist psychology as well as content analysis of expert's opinions and normative theories and experimental architecture will be examined. The findings of this research presents that function in a form depends on internal needs of users and their needs as well as the potential ability of shape and form of the environment. So on the one hand, the concept of function-oriented has involved with a wide range of human characteristics such as symbolism and semantics and on the other hand the architect's attitude is related to a set of phenomena. Therefore, a plan includes a range of human needs as a part of function; which in the modern architecture description had been removed from the function. Modern architects compare the function with the scientific and mechanical analysis which cannot be a good indicator to meet the present and potential needs of users of buildings. Therefore, instead of the narrow concept of functionalism, Multivalent quality of a Place- most of forms and objects not only have original usages but also additional potential and value which will increase their efficiency-which is based on the human needs and environmental requirements can present a paradigm to wider understand of form and function relationship and also meet human potential and present needs in architecture.
    Keywords: Human Needs, Functionalism, Flexibility, Place Orientation, Multivalent
  • Zeinab Mashhoor, Mohammad Bagheri Page 105
    In recent years, much attention has been paid by different civil and architectural engineers and experts to the problems caused by the existence of a downward trend in civic communicability and reduction in the social sense of place. In the last few decades, the humanistic dimensions and social quality of space have also been taken into account by the designers and programmers. In this context, the present thesis has sought to examine the interactive roles of public spaces in social communicability and upgrading the sense of place. First, the downward trend of sense of place and incommunicability in modern public space has been considered and the importance of the issue has been evaluated based on different psychological and linguistic theories of environment. Therefore, in order to demonstrate the importance of the communicability principle, the present study has made use of the linguistic issues due to their emphasis on the skeletal elements in the design of an environment. On the other hand, using the psychological models, the behavioralsensual elements have been underscored so that the principle of communicability can be explained in the discussed design of the environment. Within a framework of the research hypothesis and based on the communication concept, different interactions regarding to such principles and the relationship among the interactive spaces have been realized as the interaction of spaces play a key role in the communicability. Therefore, the level of communicability can be demonstrated and evaluated based on the criteria such as function (type of application), proximity (hierarchy), and direction (communicable, incommunicable). The research is focused on the public spaces for meeting and gathering outside of the residential and business sites. These spaces are assumed to be accessible for the general community. Moreover, the spaces are supposed to encourage the people to have public interactions, while they are designed to open up some opportunities for general gathering and communication. Moreover, under this scenario, accessibility is further emphasized and privileged over the ownership or management of the social spaces. In our proposed protocol, traditional civil spaces with dipole (i.e., reciprocal) attraction have been investigated. The importance of paying attention to these sets of construction can be explained by the fact that the discussed concept has a substantially fundamental place in the spatial understanding of the Islamic architecture of Iran. However, in the contemporary civil and architectural engineering, the extracted problem has mostly been ignored. While previous dipole structures are on the verge of destruction, no new structures have alternatively been formed. Consequently, due to their unipolar characteristics, the sites, which had been constructed with the original aim of social livelihood, have gradually changed into the uncivil and relatively secluded areas, which cannot attract the audiences and are shifted into the passing channels for the passengers. In the efficiency test of the research model, using the case-survey approach and analytical-descriptive method, twelve dipole religious-ritualistic civic and combinational (civic-ritualistic) sets have been analyzed. In religious and ritualistic sets, the spatial attraction is due to the pilgrimage facet, and hence the environmental perception is affected by emotional and religious factors. On the other hand, in the civic sets, due to the spatial diversity and plurality, different motivations can participate in further attraction of the audiences. In the combinational sets, the motivations behind the spatial presence change in proportion to the variations in the spatial applicability. Our obtained results are in conformity with the results of the studies arguing for the upgrading of social interactions in the general public spaces. Comparative investigation of the findings shows that interaction of polar spaces is highly effective in the absorption and encouragement of social and voluntary activities and despite the gradual changes in the function of the poles, directions, and adjacencies of the spaces, physical- performance renovation in segments or the whole is possible. Parameters such as the basis and background of two main poles, adjacency pattern, function adjustability, and the presence of minor activity-adsorbent poles can help in the enhancement of function and structural interactions in dipole spaces. Attention to the communicative art and visual aspects through the formation of consecutive function-space sights can increase the sense of place in civic areas through encouraging emotional reactions. Creation of interactive dipole structures and enhancement of sense of place through site-finding in local and civil scales is possible. Due to the inclusion of characteristics such as the complexity, secrecy, seclusion, and sense of belonging to the place, the experience of the presence in the dipole space has proved to be a memorable experience, and thus the repetition of this spatial presence is guaranteed.
    Keywords: Public Space, Communicability, Sense of Place, Communication Principle, Dipole Structure, Ritualistic, Civic Sets
  • Niloufar Nikghadam, Seyed Majid Mofidi Shemirani, Mansoureh Tahbaz Page 119
    Iran's southern marginal border has hot humid climate with dry summers, which is one of the world's most critical climates. Therefore, attention to climatic components in architecture design process within this area is essential. Statistics between the years 2009 to 2011 show that Iran's oil consumption in 2009 has been 1.4 times and natural gas consumption 3.1 times that of global average; and about 42% of total final energy consumption has been allocated to households only. The statistics indicates that less attention is paid to climate architecture in Iran. Different climate classifications have been conducted toward Iran for the past 50 years, which have various results, based on different evaluation criteria. The most important classification employed in Iran is Koppen's method that introduces the four-macroclimate arenas in Iran which was introduced in 1979 by Mohammad Hasam Ganji. Another method, which has held in Iran and generally applied by architects in building climatic design, is the classification based on Givoni's comfort model introduced in 2003 by Morteza Kasmaee. This method introduces eight macroclimates and thirty-six microclimates. Koppen's method is one of the most known and applicable systems of climate classification around the world and is used internationally because of the comprehensible system of demarcation. Koppen-Trewartha method is a modification of Koppens system with non-structural changes, which is more convenient in application and more distinct in the margins of arid and non-arid regions. This complementary method as an accurate method in the studied region is more accurate in distinguishing tropical and semitropical regions. Koppen-Trewartha classification has six macroclimatic regions because Semi tropical groups are added to the koppen's classification. The evaluation criterion in tropical, subtropical, temperate, boreal and polar groups is temperature. In Trewartha system, for the sixth group, which is dry group, the evaluation criterion is amount of precipitation. Dry group cuts across four of the thermal zones. As might be expected, the five thermal groups have a strong zonal orientation; however, this is much less true of the dry group. In this method, Climate Classification is established on temperature and precipitation, where Givoni’s method is based on temperature and relative humidity and at the same time human comfort and building systems. Since the classification criteria in Koppen method is not architectural, it is always doubted whether this method is reliable in architectural decision-making. The objective of this research is to find the difference of results in these two methods with different evaluating criterions, in order to reduce the climatic decision-making errors. The method of analysis and resultant in this research is quantitative based; data gathering has done from statistical studies between years 1989-2008, derived from Iran metrological organization information’s in 2011. Data gathering about definition of boundaries in the studied systems of Koppen, Koppen-Trewartha and Givoni is conducted by use of theoretical studies. The present study will compare the mean of twenty years` statistics of temperature and precipitation of twenty-four synoptic stations, located in the northern coasts of Persian Gulf - Oman Sea and south foothill of Zagros Mountain, with definitions of boundaries in Koppen-Trewartha method, in order to classify the Stations. Thenceforth the mean of twenty years` statistics of temperature and relative humidity in mentioned stations, would be indicated in bioclimatic chart of Givoni considering the appointed comfort zones. The result will be two Separate Classifications to identify the differences and thresholds. This research indicates that in studied stations the regions that are not expected to be tropical based on their latitude, classified in that group by their special morphology. Although these areas have high temperature and relative humidity throughout summer time, they have lowest precipitation in this period; maximum of annually 67.5 cm in Izeh station in Khoozestan province situated in west of Iran and minimum of 10.1 cm in Konarak station in Sistan Baloochestan situated in east of Iran. Koppen-Trewartha climate classification represents two main climatic groups, the first is tropical wet-anddry type with dry summers and two desert and steppe subdivisions. The latter Group is subtropical type with hot and dry summers with two desert and steppe subdivisions. By Givoni's classification using building bioclimatic chart, also two main climatic groups can be distinguished in this zone. The same Stations are included in these two groups as in the two main groups of Koppen-trewartha classification, except for Bushehr Station, which in Givoni's Classification is included in the first Group. The results show Koppen- Trewartha classification has more accurate and detailed subdivisions in this region. By accommodating the results in both systems, nearly the same main groups were observed except for Bushehr station in Coastal areas of Persian Gulf, and then climatic decisionmaking in architecture using Trewartha edition of Koppen system in this region is reliable except for Bushehr station. For architectural decision-making, it is recommended to relocate the Bushehr station in climate classification upon Givoni’s thermal comfort model.
    Keywords: Climate, South of Iran, Classification, Koppen, Trewartha, Givoni
  • Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad, Fahimeh Nikoudel Page 131
    Architecture of the night is an interdisciplinary term which focuses on what may be seen and percepted by architectural building addressees at night. Literature reviews show that new technologies play a determining role in how a building may be seen at night. It is important to highlight that exterior lighting of buildings and their appearance at night is one of the important issues in architectural design. While the architect is not completely responsible for the impact of daylight on the appearance of a building, exterior lighting of the buildings at night is a design choice. Since the building façade is the main characteristic of a building, many of designers consider only beauty of it during the day and neglect its appearance at night. Nowadays considering the night life at the cities and the impact of facade of the buildings on the beauty of the cities, the appearance of buildings at night is as important as their appearance during the day. New lighting technologies have a lot to do with beauty, architecture of the night, artificial and natural light, exterior lighting, appearance of facades and lighting elements. Therefore this paper focuses on interaction of visual beauty and new lighting technologies for architecture of the night facades in contemporary architecture of Iran. This paper studies the impact of lighting on the appearance of buildings while comparing what people percept during day and night. For this purpose, a questionnaire was made in which some sample buildings were scored according to their beauty during the day and night. In this questionnaire, 20 architectural monuments, 10 Iranian monuments and 10 non-Iranian monuments were chosen randomly among well-known monuments which deploy various methods and techniques for exterior lighting. The chosen Iranian monuments have architectural values and are well-known among Iranians and foreign experts. The non-Iranian monuments are buildings which are more known by architects and urban designers. Three groups of people were asked to fill in the questionnaires. These groups consist of 25 experts i.e. 10 students of urban design and 15 students of architectural engineering, and 25 non-expert people with different levels of education. As these three different groups of people could have different visual perceptions, and have different criteria for expressing the beauty, the collected data could provide reliable conclusions about the impact of lighting on beauty of the buildings during day and night. The questionnaire includes two images of each building: one showing the building during the day and one during the night with exterior lighting. We asked the respondents to score based on Likert scale. The respondent addressees were asked to specify how each element of lighting, i.e., light intensity, color diversity; lighting method i.e. emphasis techniques and distributed ideas; and lighting conditions i.e. harmony or variation, impact on the beauty of the buildings due to exterior lighting at night. Spreadsheet software such as SPSS 19 has been adopted to collect and analyze data. At first, the qualitative issues have been converted to quantitative ones in order to be analyzed quantitatively. The SPSS analysis indicates that exterior lighting of buildings can substantially increase the beauty of the buildings’ facades at night compared to their appearance during the day. This effect is more recognizable among considered non-Iranian monuments rather than Iranian monuments. However, if buildings are more abstracted they look more beautiful than non- abstracted buildings during the day even though their beauty is almost similar at night. Regarding the studied lighting elements, our study suggests that as the light intensity increases or single-color lights are used, buildings look more beautiful at night. Furthermore, accent lighting, where some elements and levels of the façade are highlighted more, rather than uniformly lighting the whole facade, and creating a harmony increases the beauty of nightscape of buildings. However, lighting intensity and method such as accenting or leveling out, are more influential acts on the beauty of the façades compare to the other two elements. As our study indicates lighting design can considerably affect the beauty of buildings only if we use single color lights with proper intensity and avoid uniform lighting or a lighting which has no harmony with the buildings. The results show that visual beauty interactively correlate to deliberate adoption of new lighting technologies for night architecture of buildings facades. However it is very important to choose the best technique for lighting of each individual building. Therefore lighting technologies may be seen as a way for better architecture of the night while lighting enables us to show and highlight what we want to present which may result in more beautiful buildings in contemporary architecture.
    Keywords: Lighting, Nightscape of Buildings, Visual Beauty, New Lighting Technologies, Contemporary Architecture
  • Javad Neyestani, Zeinab Akbari Page 145
    A survey in the history of education in Iran reflects its long history from pre-Islamic era to the present time. The formation of schools began formally in Iran by establishment of the Nizâmiyya in the Seljuk period and continued with other forms and change during the Qajar period. As the Qajar paid serious attention to the religious education, the seminaries were also the center of importance. Meanwhile, Tehran as the capital of Iran during the Qajar period was the center for numerous seminaries. Until the year1625 AD, the capital had just seven theological seminaries, among which six schools belonged to the Safavid and one belonged to Zand era. In the Qajar 134-year period, 41 seminaries were built in Tehran. All schools were located in the old texture of six districts of Tehran including Arg, Udlajan, Sanglaj, Bazar, Doulat and Chalmeidan. Beginning of building the schools was in the reign of Fath Ali Shah Qajar (1636- 1675 AD), the reason may be the neglect of Aqa Mohammad Khan in the development of the city in his short reign (1634-1636 AD) who spent his ruling period to fight the oppositions. The process of making seminaries continued after the reign of Fath Ali Shah and in the 50-year reign of NaseredinShah (1679-1738 AD) the highest numbers of seminaries were established in Tehran. However, by beginning of modernism, paying attention to education and making new schools such as Darolfonun in Iran, Based on this study, in the Qajar period 41 seminaries were built just in Tehran. Despite the importance of seminaries in the Qajar period, a few comprehensive researches on these architectural buildings model has been done. Previous studies are limited to provide a general description of the case studies in these schools. One of the explanations pointed out that the studies are only limited to the historical and architectural characteristics and decoration of these schools individually. This article with descriptive-analytical method is based on field research and library research. Thus, we used first hand literature of Qajar era and the result of other studies for analyzing the spatial and functional elements of these buildings. We identified 38 schools in the Qajar dynasty using Tehran map and available sources. Investigating 18 schools showed that spatial-functional elements of the seminaries have some architectural similarities and differences. It is worth noting that the importance of addressing this issue is rooted in the fact that identifying any architectural space is distinguished from other areas by its special functions, more than anything else; and its physical space is usually formed regarding to those functions. Any new function appears in social life, just after development of social and historical contexts and needs, and after establishing, its own special space gradually forms. In this work, we attempted to extract the pattern used in the architectural styles of the schools as well as the similarities and differences in their functional-spatial elements, regarding the available samples. Among the similarities, we refer to the use of brick as the main material in schools. In addition, all of the schools were at a negative level of difference regarding to the surrounding buildings; the reason can be considered privacy and insisting on the principle of building. Another interesting similarity is observing the principle of introspection in order to create a silent learning environment of the schools. There are similarities as well in the main space-functional elements of the schools including entrance space, yard, chamber, toilette, ablution and prayer places. However, there are some differences in the details of the elements such as: removing the forecourt of the complex from the entrance space, courtyards’ different shapes (rectangular and octagonal), number of floors, the variation in the numbers of balconies (four porches, three porches, two porches, one porch and no balcony) and the difference in the form of arches used in covered porch, diversity in the number and geometry of the chamber, courtyards and details off ablution and restrooms location. It seems that the differences caused by makers’ and architects’ opinions as well as the lack of space. According to the findings of the study, there is no single plan in the studied seminaries (table1); therefore, it is not possible to achieve a common and completely similar architecture plan among the seminaries of Tehran in Qajar era. The same is true about the schools of one reign.
    Keywords: Tehran Schools, Functional, Spatial Elements, Qajar Dynasty, Islamic Architecture
  • Hashem Hashemnejad, Mostafa Masoudinejad, Aminollah Ahadi Page 157
    Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) origins in the United States and it has been used in one or more forms since the 1960s. This metod is defined as the process of evaluating buildings in a systematic and rigorous manner after they have been built and occupied for some time. POE is a method of looking for recognition the performance of built buildings and knowing satisfaction of their users. This recognition is very useful to avoid repeating the mistakes and also is important to test new ideas. In this method, assessing the user satisfaction is very significant. Satisfaction is one of the most important approaches that in recent decades have been proposed in environmental quality issues. Two of the effective factors on the life satisfaction is social and cultural factors which are related to beliefs, customs and social conditions of the residents. Due to profound impact of Islam on beliefs and culture of a wide part of the Iranian population, this article aims to assess privacy as one of the most important factors influencing satisfaction in social and cultural issues. Privacy is the quality of being secluded from the presence or view of others or the condition of being concealed or hidden. The idea of privacy as a property of a built environment is related to the advent of the humankind. In Islamic teachings, privacy has been given a holy value and caring about privacy starts with believers themselves. There is an inherent tendency in human being towards privacy, the most important of which is realized at home. Therefore, if privacy is trespassed at home, it may no longer serve as a home. In this article to evaluate the criteria of satisfaction and Privacy and doing Post Occupation Evaluation about it, the New Shoushtar residential Complex is selected. This complex is designed by contemporary architect, Kamran Diba, and won the Aga Khan award in 1986 and located in shooshtar city. According to the scientific findings from authoritative resources, abservations and interviews with the experts, some questions as a questionnaire are extracted. Then questionnaire is completed by 32 individuals who are selected by cluster sampling. Cluster sampling is a sampling technique used when “natural” but relatively homogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population. In this technique, the total population is divided into these groups (or clusters) and a simple random sample of the groups is selected. Then the required information is collected from a simple random sample of the elements within each selected group. This may be done for every element in these groups or a subsample of elements may be selected within each of these groups. A common motivation for cluster sampling is to reduce the total number of interviews and costs given the desired accuracy. Assuming a fixed sample size, the technique gives more accurate results when most of the variation in the population is within the groups, not between them. In this research, the questions are adjusted in two architectural and socialissues. The satisfaction of the privacy issues and the reasons for changes in the set of openings is investigated. Finally, obtained results are presented in tables and are assessed and evaluated by expert-choice software (a decision-making software that is based on multi-criteria decision making working according the AHP method). The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is a structured technique for organizing and analyzing complex decisions, based on mathematics and psychology. It was developed by Thomas L. Saaty in the 1970s and has been extensively studied and refined since then. It has particular application in group decision making, and is used around the world in a wide variety of decision situations, in fields such as government, business, industry, healthcare, shipbuilding, education and architecture. The results reveal the impact of recognition of cultural factors in the design process. Moreover, the issue of privacy as an important cultural factor, playing a key role in creating the sense of security and safety for users, althoughin the design of New Shoushtar residential complex, it has received little attention.The residents’ satisfaction from privacy issues is low and it caused many problems in the openings because of the lack of security sense and psychological comfort. Need more space for living and lack of yard in some units are other reasons of some issues in the design of this complex.However management role in transforming from designing to construction is important, it seems that in this complex, lack of management, irregularitiers and lack of progromming are seriuos problems.
    Keywords: Post Occupation Evaluation (POE), Openings, Satisfaction, Privacy, New Shooshtar
  • Ali Yaran, Aras Mehranfar Page 169
    Contemporary modern urban architecture of Iran suffers from the lack of its native and cultural identity and sustainability during its process of modernization. The Modern urban architecture of Gilan seems to have the same problem as Iran's contemporary architecture. Underway of modernization, Modern architecture of Gilan has not been so successful to depict a sustainable type of its background and context. Because neither it has approached to the ideals of modern architecture nor preserved its original and cultural identity and contextual features. Trying to understand the high degree of correspondence of modern architecture attributes and features with the vernacular residential architecture of Gilan, will help designers and architects have a better attitude in modern architectural urban design in Gilan. So this article demonstrates that vernacular residential architecture of Gilan and modern period architecture have many similar attributes in form, despite their different histories, cultures and social backgrounds. This article expresses that some similar circumstances in both social backgrounds had some similarities in common, like women’s role in the economy and career style. Understanding this similitude is a necessity in the process of modern urban architectural design to have an identity and sustainability. To approach its goal, this article is based on the comparative analysis method. In different sections of this article, similar features of forms and their origins would be identified for each architecture type. Four main sections of the article are as below: First part explains the factors affecting vernacular architecture of Gilan consist of climatic, cultural and career circumstances, which have led Gilan vernacular architecture to an extroverted architecture type. Temperate climate and heavy rains have caused some kind of extroverted architecture type with tendency to natural materials, simplicity, transparency and etc. Buildings are open to natural air circulation and are made upper than the ground surface to avoid moisture of soil. These are due to climate consequences. Buildings’ forms have a strong relation with their environment (farms, gardens, etc). They have terraces around rooms, open to the yard and most part of the life is being placed on terraces. So extroversion is the most attribute of vernacular architecture in Gilan which leads other features. The style of Gilanian occupants’ career, which was co-operating and collaborating of all family members, including men and women together, has also led the architecture to extroversion in form and environmental arrangement. Because working with neighbors and communicating with them around houses were regular and influenced by their way of living. After knowing Gilan’s climate and culture, the article depicts this type of architecture’s features and attributes and their origins in 13 items, including lightness, functionalism, symbolism, modular plan design, transparency, relation to nature and etc. These are mostly effects of extroversion and relation to nature. Second Part is about Modern architecture period and knowing its features and origins. At first, the article defines some important vocabulary of modernism issue like modern, modernism, modernization and modernity. These are necessary to understand thoughts and ideals of modern architecture. Then the most distinctive features and attributes of modern period architecture are distinguished by analyzing modern period thoughts and famous buildings and monuments. Minimalism, extroversion, naturalism, transparency, functionalism, sculpturally, lightness, brutality and etc. are the most specified attributes of western modern period. They are mostly effects of humanism, rationalism and also functionalism. Third part of the article analyzes all mentioned attributes and features of both architecture types in a comparative method and demonstrates the similar ones. It shows 11 out of 14 mentioned attributes and features that are similar to each other and have correspondence, which shows a high degree of 80 percent similarity. In fact, just three features had been non relative and that were free plan design in modern architecture versus modular plan design in Gilan vernacular architecture and also symbolism in Gilan vernacular buildings. The first was the effect of modern structure and technology in comparison with restricted one in Gilan historical buildings and the last one reflected Gilanians’ creed. The last part of this study indicates the very high similitude in features and attributes of these two types of architecture despite their difference in cultural and historical contexts and backgrounds. From this correspondence in features of these two types, the article concludes that modern urban architectural design in Gilan can use this similar attributes to have such a sustainable modern architecture with relation to its past and origins. The most similar features specified by this article are: Transparency, Functionalism, Minimalism, Extroversion, Naturalism, Sculpturally, Lightness, Brutality, Decreasing Decorations, Bolding Architectural Elements and Truth in Its Appearance.
    Keywords: Vernacular Residential Architecture, Modern Architecture, Architectural Features, Architectural Attributes
  • Mohammad Reza Pourjafar, Mojtaba Rafiean, Seyed Alireza Arbabzadegan Hashemi Page 181
    Culture as infrastructure of building community always has considered in different Science. Every society has a culture that distinguishes it from other human societies. Culture, in its simplest definition is the string that binds man to his environment. Culture is a reflection of a society's level of consciousness and daily activities of humans. Human beings are different in terms of psychological and sociological and anthropological features; such as urban design as an art and science of creating the spaces for people. Urban design is trying to provide physical- Functional and Semantic components in a unique format. It means considering physical and also meaning and identity aspects of space. Semantic component of urban design is trying to create a space to meet the spiritual needs of humans. Urban design is considering these aspects in a social context. Therefore, humans and the features are the most important factors which give meanings to the urban space and meet the spiritual needs of humans. The physics of urban space with meaning and function (non-physical aspects related to human), is also the experience of space by people who transform it into a dynamic place for them use. So urban design can’t be believed as modernists: globally unchangeable product. It's the proportion of people and the relations between them. Methods that pay attention to community values will combine physical and non- physical aspects of urban design. Urban space is a sociocultural space that shapes based on the needs of people. In order to find design guideline of urban space for a special culture, we can investigate various aspects of them. Urban design has two dimensions: one of them is independent from the position and intervention and another is opposite. Due to more attention to the first dimension, in the 1980s the importance of urban spaces declined and urban designers had to pay special attention to other aspect of urban design. Since 1980s, a lot of researches have tried to achieve quality of urban spaces. Quality is an aspect of urban space based on the behaviors that happen in urban space. For achieving quality in urban spaces, urban designers had to pay attention to the behaviors of people and culture of the society. Regarding to that, each country's culture reflects its identity. The culture is rooted in groups residing in the country. Attention to ethnics and cultural considerations in designing the city can provide creative design and also logical and successful outreach.Therefore, designers should be noticed to the preferences and differences of humans in different cultures (sub-cultures). Because urban design is the infrastructure of human society and builds a cultural environment. Culture, which means "a society how to respond to its needs", is one of the issues that undoubtedly is the highest rank to achieve good urban design which help designers not having an imposing plan for a society without temporal dimensions. Therefore, humans and the features are the most important factors that can make an urban space meaningful and meet spiritual needs of humans. Understanding human's features depends on recognizing their behaviors in the society that shaped them. Therefore, dominant culture, as explaining behaviors in any societies, plays a major role in this regard. It can be concluded that urban design should not only be designed for homogenous society, it must be able to use cultural diversity to create an attractive and dynamic space. As regards, using these cultural patterns in designing urban spaces is very important, so the art of urban designer is to convert these cultural patterns to urban spaces context. In last decade, vernacular of urban design was a term that has been used in the literature. This means that every nation, tribe, town and neighborhood has its own design parameters. In this context, our country doesn’t have remarkable administrative action in design principles for indigenous peoples and cities. This article first attempts to review descriptive- analytical study of Kurdish people as one of the Iranian Ethnic with a rich cultural background, to explain cultural postulates that influence on physical dimensions of urban spaces and then explore the organizing principles in designing urban spaces between these postulates .So patterns and combinations of two-dimensional forms, rhythm, proportions and color are determined as cultural postulates that influence on physical dimension. Designing principles are extracted from the first two postulates, then the results of colors have been added, and finally the organizing principles to optimal design of urban spaces for Kurdish people has been presented.
    Keywords: Culture, Cultural Postulate, Urban Design, Urban Space, Kurdish People
  • Mehrangiz Paivastegar, Zahra Darvizeh, Sima Tavoosi Page 195
    Introduction Environmental psychology is a field of study that examines the interrelationship between environments and human affect, cognition and behavior (Gifford 2007; Stokols & Altman, 1987). Today, social adjustment and mental health as the most important sign that many specialists preoccupied the minds in different Experts, has been attracted psychologists and researchers’ attention in last decades. Interaction and connection between the environment and human lead to emotional relationships between men and the environment (Low & Altman, 1992, p. 12). The use of terms such as neighbors or citizens in many culture expresses attachment to the environment. Permanent interaction with the environment will affect abilities, our being as a person and our mental health. Many Studies show that stronger environmental attachment relates with satisfaction of the location, positive affect and better adjustment (van den Berg et al., 2003, p.135), that this specification will increase social adjustment by increasing peoples’ Mental health. Therefore, we expect environmental attachment in students will be associated with social adjustment and mental health. This study investigated that attachment to the environment related to mental health and social adjustment in students. Materials and Methods Present study is a descriptive correlation study which investigates probable relations between environment attachments with mental health and social adjustment in first grade high school Students. Statistical population of this study is all male and female high school students of Varamin City in 2012-13 academic years. Samples include 340 students (170 boys and 170 girls) who selected by random sampling method. Measures 1) Socio-demographic Data Information was obtained using a standardized questionnaire, for the following sociodemographic variables: sex, age, place of birth, educational level, occupational status, living arrangements, monthly family and per capita income. 2) General Health Questionnaire General Health Questionnaire is a method to quantify the risk of developing psychiatric disorders. GHQ-28 (28-items), however the scale is often used as measure of psychological wellbeing .This measure incorporates four subscales: somatic symptoms, anxiety, insomnia, social dysfunctional and severe depression. 3) Social Adjustment The California Psychological Inventory assesses social communication and interpersonal behavior. The California Psychological Inventory (CPI) is a leading non-clinical personality inventory test that evaluates interpersonal behavior and social interaction of normal individuals. The California Psychological Inventory (CPI) is a self-report inventory and is made up of 80 true-false questions which can be grouped into two classes: 1) Social Adjustment 2) Personal Adjustment. The test is typically used with people aged 13 years and older. The inventory contains 80 items. 4) Environmental Attachment Measures We measured environmental attachment using 9scale items developed and validated by Midalgo and colleagues (Williams et al., 1992; Williams & Roggenbuck, 1989; Williams & Vaske, 2003). Environmental attachment was measured contained a set of questions repeated four times, ones for each of for area. This measure has shown good internal consistency. Items were presented in on a four -point Likert- type. Results Data obtained by searching records in 340 students who were randomly selected to be included in the study. Table 1 summarizes Correlations between the environment attachment with mental health and Social adjustment Table 1. Correlations of All Tested Variable . . . Discussion The results show that there is a significant relation between some of dimensions environmental attachment with mental health subscale such as anxiety, sleep disorders, depression and social functions. It seems People who have no attachment to the environment, will not comfort in that environment, and they will be suffering from anxiety and depression environmental attachment establishes better relationships with neighborhood and this creates more social adjustment. This research suggests that environmental designers have to design environments that increase the emotional interaction with their environment. These conditions can increase social adjustment and mental health in students.The findings suggest that environmental attachment play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly positive mental health.
    Keywords: Environmental Attachment, Mental Health, Social Adjustment, Adolescent
  • Seyed Mostafa Jalili, Mohammad Saleh Shokouhi Bidhendi Page 205
    Tourism is not a new subject for human being’s thoughts. It is approved that human beings has had a trend to explore unknowns and new places since long times ago. However, tourists have diverse objectives to travel all around the worlds nowadays. For instance, they want to have fun, to visit different observations, to pray in holly places, and etc. These changes have led to different kinds of tourism trends. One of these kinds of tourism is Urban Tourism. Different cities, with a diversity in cultures, people and climates call tourists to visit them. This fact has made lots of travelers to visit cities and influenced the cities deeply. Therefore, urban managers consider urban tourism as a priority. Tourism can improve the situation of cities regarding to its influence on urban economy, entrepreneurship, cultural diversity in urban spaces, social relations, social capital and other aspects of urban development. Despite these advantages, tourism may have negative impacts on cities and urban spaces. Tourism may change traditional relations, customs and cultural values. It may also deteriorate the environment and it may also deconstruct urban facilities. So it is important to have a suitable approach for urban tourism. Tourism is a fragile, perishable, extremely diversified and fragmented product. Therefore, to achieve tourism goals, it is necessary to pursue an integrated approach that considers all profits and responsibilities of tourism actors. In Iran, there are different economic sections who play role in urban tourism, for example the national government, as an organization, entitled the organization of cultural heritages, tourism and handcrafts, which has to define the main policies in national level. The municipalities, who have more financial and human resources provide the needed urban services, and NGOs and privet parties guide tours for tourists. It is very important to define a comprehensive framework for the cooperation of these sections. The model of Integrated Quality Management of urban tourism can help us for this purpose. In the beginning of each year (in Persian calendar on 21 March to 1 Feb.), Lots of tourists visit Tehran, the capital of Iran. There are also tourist festivals at this time. The aim of this research is to evaluate the " Tehran tourism festival plan 2012" based on Integrated Quality Management of urban tourist destinations and suggest some ideas to improve its quality. Integrated Quality Management approach of urban tourist destinations has been developed in response to the need of comprehensive development of the quality of tourism destinations and in recognition of the fact that planning for tourists should be based on a holistic approach. The approach of Integrated Quality Management in tourism destinations is focused on tourist satisfaction, as well as following the development of the local economy and improvement of the quality of life of local communities and the environments. For a tourist destination, Integrated Quality Management can be considered as a systematic attempt to improve the internal and external quality. The Integrated Quality Management Model contains five sections of identifying partners, decision for action, attempt, measuring the impacts and evaluation and set-up. The main idea in each of the five sections is dynamics. This idea is because of the fact that in a cycle of continuous evaluation of these sections there are changes and reforms in order to enhancing the sector. As an important note, it should be considered that there is a horizontal integration at each of these stages as well as a vertical integration between these steps. These integrations prevent from scattering and dispersion between different levels of analysis, from the first section as identifying partners to the last one which is to evaluate the results, and so this framework can provide an integrated model. For this purpose, using descriptive- analytical methods, efforts have been made to study the library sources and documents in theoretical framework and analytical model of this research, and to use inventory of tourists and interview with the executive manager of this festival for explaining and evaluating the plan. The main result of this research shows that to fill the gap between plans of planers and executive manager demands, we may have a steering committee to provide a basis of participation and partnership with all stakeholders, tourist planners, staffs, executive manager and tourist guides before and after the implementation of the tourist plan to set strategic directions, vision, objectives and actions which are based on analysis of existing conditions, evaluation results of previous tourism plans. At the end, this committee suggests the corrective actions in procedures according to feedbacks for future years.
    Keywords: Integrated Quality Management, Integrated Quality Management Tourism Model, Tehran Tourism Festival Plan 2012, Urban Tourist
  • Pantea Hakimian Page 215
    The city and its urban spaces play a dominant role in the citizens’ quality of life by having significant impact on their physical and mental health. Nowadays noncommunicable diseases like heart and coronary diseases, high blood pressure and diabetes are major. Many physicians believe that recent changes in lifestyle to sedentary living, unhealthy eating habits and car dependency are the main causes of obesity and the prevalence of these diseases. These illnesses are exacerbated by cities environmental conditions. Current urban spaces create many barriers for pedestrians, making them less active besides limiting their access to healthy food. On one hand narrow sidewalks and car-oriented neighborhoods make people less active and more car dependent, on the other hand increasing amount of fast food restaurants and chain stores are wiping away healthy food outlets such as supermarkets and fruit stores, encouraging access to unhealthy food. Earlier studies reveal the link between obesity and many factors such as individual, socio-economic and also built environment. So far the majority of research efforts have been performed in health sciences which focus on non-spatial determinants of obesity, it is only in recent years that the impact of urban spaces on obesity is being reflected. In the field of urban design, research is concentrated on activity-friendly urban spaces without considering the impact of food outlets providing variety of choices in urban spaces and their effects on people’s obesity. In this field domestic research efforts are very limited and incomplete. As a result it is necessary to conduct a study on the physical features of urban spaces influencing obesity with a holistic approach. This study aims to review and explore the current literature on the physical aspect of urban spaces in relation to physical health focusing on obesity and two health related behaviors: physical activity and diet of the adult population ranging from 18 to 65 years old. This study tries to start a dialogue for an interdisciplinary research field which incorporates health and medicine sciences on one side, and the built environment related disciplines such as urban design and planning, architecture and transportation on the other side. The proposed subject is emerging and novel in Iran, so this study reviews the literature from two distinct disciplines of medicine and urban design by exploring valid and reliable empirical studies related to obesity and the built environment. The findings from reviewed papers are presented in a proposed conceptual framework which determines the relationships between physical features of urban spaces and obesity, physical activity and diet of adults. The proposed framework is based on a behavior model of environment which defines urban spaces as 3 different types of behavior settings for pedestrian movement including 1-origins or destinations of walking/cycling trips, 2-the route between origin and destination, 3-areas around the origin and destination which contains a network of urban spaces. The research findings show that some physical features of urban spaces as origindestination, route or area are related to physical activity or diet and consequently obesity. Urban Spaces as origins or destinations of physical activity or eating behaviors, like parks, daily uses and services: grocery stores, banks, and supermarkets can encourage healthy lifestyle. Urban spaces as route emphasis on the presence of physical activity facilities like walking or bicycling routes that can encourage activity. A network of urban Spaces as an area has some physical features like permeability of street layout and social environment (seeing active people) which can inspire people for healthy lifestyle. There are some common features of urban spaces as origin/destination that influence physical activity or diet, like accessibility of physical activity destinations for recreation or utilitarian, purposes also availability and accessibility of food outlets. Mix of uses is a common feature of urban spaces as origin/destination that can encourage the livability of urban spaces and consequently the presence of pedestrians. Visual characteristics and aesthetics of urban spaces as a route and also as an area increase the pleasurability and appeal of these spaces which can influence people’s walking or cycling. Pedestrian safety from traffic, security from crime, and perception of weather conditions are characteristics of urban spaces that are common in all of categories and are related to people’s behavior of walking. This study concludes that health is a key element in designing urban spaces; therefore interdisciplinary research focusing on the environmental and spatial aspects of health should be promoted. Because this emerging field is little-explored in Iran’s urban design current literature, such studies provide preliminary basis for empirical studies of healthrelated issues in urban context, and also as a baseline to develop practical guides for successful and effective policies and practices.
    Keywords: Urban Spaces, Physical Features, Health, Obesity, Physical Activity, Diet
  • Farshid Samanpour Page 225
    Academicians or practitioners of urban design are usually dealing with practical problems in conformity with established design processes–whether by virtue of academic curriculum or administrative bureaucracy. This processes are a sample of what Kaplan (1964) called it “reconstructed logic” in contrast to “logic in use”. While, according to his account, the latter is the real logic of the researcher (here practitioner) the first one is just an objective formulation of it, for communication with others or introducing it to them. But he believes that the reconstructed logic cannot reflect or receive completely the logic in use in every context and regarding all the scientific (or practical) problems, in priori. Therefore it needs to be edited and evaluated in any new case; and therefore it is yet dependent on the researcher`s logic in use. But sometimes it seems that the designers fail to make this vital intervention in the processes as an articulated logic, because of not having any deep commands of its constructing principles. This problem seems prevailing, especially within students of master university studios in Iran, where the graduate students, mostly without comprehensive philosophical insight (as it is usual for this discipline in this grade) set out their practical projects in urban design. This problem may cause the design process remain a subjective matter, reducing the articulated process to a representative tool; or on the other hand the secret magic of the process may deprive the designer of practical and intellectual independence, and thereafter spoil the students` creativity. Of course this problem, in the long run affects the professional practitioners, who are usually the graduates of planning faculties. On the other hand, Persian literature in urban design comprehensively investigates the professional planning methods from many viewpoints, but rarely it deal with the basic logical principles shaping those processes such as logical and philosophical texts which are usually inaccessible to master students of design. Therefore, concerning this missing concept in Persian literature on planning, this article tries to elucidate the logical structure of design process by distilling its logical function; while it tries to be as simple as possible until the outcome can be used by graduate students or new professional learners. For this aim, first, this article draws upon Hakim’s (2000) classification of research to two categories: “theoretical research” and “policy research”. While policy researches usually evaluate implemented policies, but sometimes they also concern with prediction of the results of newly made policies. Design processes may be claimed to be in harmony with this sense, and therefore its logic may be explicated using policy research evolutionary structure. The mentioned structure, here, is derived from a model introduced by Crotty (1998) for describing the logic of social research evolution. This model, which is not unique in this regard, identifies the research process as a link within a broader series. This series consists of 4 hierarchical components: epistemology, theoretical perspective, research method (here process) and research techniques; where each of them affect the next one. This hierarchy is helpful in acquiring a general understanding of the method, its components and determining precedents, without being confused in philosophical conundrums. The applicability of this model to urban design processes is then tested on two renowned family of planning and design processes: the so-called rational processes and communicative ones. The first case is said to be primary based on objectivist and positive epistemology, which confine the domain of the adoptable theories to positive theories. Substantially they prefer theories capable of quantitative modeling and prediction of material conditions and benefits; and procedurally they use technocratic models with clear-cut steps which may be planned in prior to action. Therefore, at the level of process they usually combine mostly quantitative (or objective) techniques especially those appropriate for prediction and a priori and a posteriori evaluation. On the other hand, communicative planning and design is based mostly on a constructive (and somewhat subjective) epistemology, which prescribe adoption of substantial theories in pragmatic linguistics, hermeneutics and like; while procedurally they may suggest to follow democratic-communicative theories (especially in politics or sociology) which seek consensus-making. Then a communicative design process is usually constructed of linguistic techniques oriented toward acquisition of beliefs, personal evaluations or seeking consensus. This two-case analysis shows how this model may guide a (young) designer to adopt the most convenient kind of process or modify an available process according to context, while it may avoid from irrelevant and conflicting intervention in it. On the other hand this kind of active assessment of the process, would not let its constructed logic dominate to be one-sidedly the designer`s logic in use.
    Keywords: Process, Urban Design, Research Method, Logic
  • Seyed Amin Seyyedein, Kasra Aghli Moghaddam Page 235
    The robustness and sustainability of environment are two important standards in urban design and architecture. High-rise buildings because of their height can have considerable effects on these two standards. Compact development is one of the solutions to achieve the sustainable environment. According to the studies, after the excessive occupy of space in the horizontal development and its side effects, vertical development is one of the solutions to gain sustainable environments. As a result of increasing population and consequently environmental problems at the moment, the use of sustainability index in urban design gets more emphasis than before. Generally speaking, sustainability is about life quality and its aim is increasing the quality level for future generations. High-rise construction can be operated as a response to the turbulent development in our cities. Some exports believe that the high- rise construction has more potential for improving the sustainability. In other words, by high-rise constructing, model of city leads to functionalism and from this perspective optimal use of land will be achieved. Besides of the social benefits, on one hand, compact city model can have some environmental interests with it. On the other hand, decreasing the robustness of the floors, with increasing the height of a building, are one of the challenges against high-rise constructing. The Robustness is a quality factor, which can lead to a sustainable place. As a result, the goals of both of them are in the same direction, but their solutions are contradictory in some cases. In most of the time the variety of uses in higher levels of a high-rise building is more limited than the diversity in the lower floors. When a space responses to variant expectations of users; it has an acceptable level of robustness quality. As it mentioned, the designers have suggested some solutions to reach a relative sustainability and robustness in building that in some cases they are parallel and in some other cases they are inconsistent. With respect to mentioned contents, the necessity of the investigation of high-rise building's theoretical principals and its design concerning the robustness and sustainability standards would be clear. The ultimate purpose of quality, called robustness, is achieving the ability to change its own functionality, without an alteration in its identity specifications. Paying attention to the variety of users’ expectations in high-rise buildings is as important as the same parameter in other types of buildings. It is because of the higher density of population in a limited space. Also, from the visual sight, the height factor has a meaningful permeability on human imagination of the space and this can be effective on the building function. In the medieval, the church building was the highest in the town and the same pattern continued until the industrial revolution, when the commercial buildings got more important than the others. Nowadays, highrise buildings, far from their economic role, are understood mainly as urban elements. In this paper we focus on the relation between the level of sustainability and robustness, with increasing height of the building. The problem is explained by investigation and comparison of each the concepts. Definitions and concepts of sustainability, unlike the robustness, attributed a wide part of topics to themselves. In this paper the relationship between sustainability and high-rise constructing is studied in environmental and social context. However it should be noted that there is a positive interact between environmental, economic and social elements in a sustainable building. It should be noted that the majority of investigations presented in this paper will be discussed in building scale, like the dimension proportion, but some of them could be used in the level of urban design too; such as designing semipublic spaces for apartment. In this article it is supposed that it’s possible to optimize the robustness and the sustainability with increasing the height of building simultaneously. If the constructing and equipping steps in a building get divided to three parts of design, construction and use, some solutions could be applied to improve the place functionality although it should be mentioned that the solutions are expressed to use while designing. Moreover to apply such changes successfully, some constructing needs must be considered. Therefore some of these obligations are presented in this study. It is tried to introduce robustness and sustainability concepts individually, and then some solutions are suggested. It is all done with analytical- descriptive approach in the library, with the aim of discussion about the level of relevant indicator's affects and the quality of their interactions on sustainability and robustness of building.
    Keywords: High, Rise Construction, Robustness, Sustainability, Function
  • Mahmoud Ghalenoei, Bahareh Tadayon Page 245
    Colors can affect human beings in different aspects which are reflection of people’s feelings, behaviors, beliefs and cultures. They also can be considered as effective elements that play important roles in forming Urban-scape in people’s perception. The forms of buildings and the combination of their colors are the attractive elements in the first impression of a city. The method of using color in a city depends on different factors like climate, history, local culture. Citizens’ images from urban-scape and spaces will strengthen city identity and colors, which are considered as intangible elements along with deep perceptual effects, should not be forgotten; therefore, in order to employ colors appropriately and create responsive urban spaces and environments, recognizing colors qualities would be essential. When the colors are chosen without studying and paying attention to their effects on human beings, it will consequently result in creating spaces in cities that do not meet people’s needs. Heterogeneous setting of building, using inharmonious colors and neglecting psychological specifications of colors creates an unpleasant environment which is not adapted to human desires. Also, changes in traditional constructing and not utilizing indigenous materials are the things that have been ignored concerning the use of colors in cities and urban spaces. Moreover, today’s spaces have less perceptual richness compared to traditional ones. The purpose of the present study is to present a way for evaluating the amount of enjoyment which urban spaces receive from colors, potentials success in considering the level of needs, the level of human’s contact with colors and expected qualities from urban spaces. Through this assessment, it would be possible to reach appropriate solutions. The main aim is to find out the relationship between the level of colors effects on human and environmental qualities and how given colors capacities can be used to improve the quality of the environment. In other words, we try to understand if colors qualities can improve expected qualities of space. In the next step Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs model is used for both its importance in categorizing different levels of human’s requirements and its employment by "Lang" as a basic model in classifying environmental qualities. In this research, "Kill Hong" model is also employed in which there is a matrix that its rows consist of hierarchy human’s needs in six levels and the columns are different functions of colors in eight columns. Each element in the matrix can point to a collection of colors in colors management system which have been collected according to the special function of the colors and the level of human’s needs. Next, considering the existing models related to urban design qualities, using Lang’s model, and relating this model to Kill Hung model, the adaption levels of color effects on human has been taken into account according to different color functions and urban design qualities. Then, by making theoretical framework, Kill Hong matrix levels have been classified in four different categories: level 1, biological needs. Level 2, security and safety needs. Level 3, social independence needs, appreciation, creativity and prosperity. Level 4, cognitive and aesthetic needs. For each level, the assessment criteria and parameters were defined. Finally, the relationship between colors and environmental qualities in Sepah Street in Isfahan was evaluated using Delphi’s technique considering the valuable historical, cultural and functional aspects of this street in urban structure in Isfahan. The findings show that the first level of needs (biological needs in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs) is ranked first among these cases with greatest points received from experts and the interviewee’s answers to the amount of space enjoyment from colors potentials in different levels (from very good to very poor) with the average of 20 percent. In this study, considering two important points in space including human beings and hierarchy of humans needs, and stated qualities in urban design the different aspects of colors potentials as well as the weaknesses and strengths of colors existence in space were investigated and compared. If the urban spaces want to be responsive to human’s needs, we should not only consider different qualities, but also try to make a balance and sensible relationship between different levels of these needs and how to meet them. It is also suggested that studies on citizen’s perception and comprehensive plan for environment colors are the basis of knowing colors as indispensable elements in recognizing the identity of places.
    Keywords: Color, Urban Design Qualities, Urban, scape, Sepah Street in Isfahan
  • Seyed Majid Mofidi Shemirani, Hamed Moztarzadeh Page 261
    Population increase in cities, as well as a strong trend towards urbanization that have a variety of reasons, including focusing more services in cities is a phenomenon which large cities in developing countries are faced. After the energy crisis in the 70s, a new era, was established in urban development which is known as "sustainable era". In this era, full attention was paid to the environmental efficiency, and then the built environments so that they can make best use of resources available on the nature and minimize the amount of pollution generated. Until three decades ago, there was a sense of optimism that the technology will solve all problems on earth; however the technology relating to non-renewable resources has been followed by climate change through the development of a phenomenon such as global warming. Pollution, increased environmental pollutants, loss of biodiversity and the increasing growth of population have left their adverse effects on the earth. Due to the increase in global warming and climate change, thinkers and theorists have sought many different solutions, one of which is the theory of "sustainable development". For years, the theory had further emphasized the economic needs and environmental limitations, but it has played an important role in the local and indigenous aspects with the emergence of the slogan "think globally, act locally" in the past decade. On the other hand, each city can be identified by the characteristics of its residential communities, and can meet various economic, social, cultural needs of its citizens if the problems and damages are less at the community level. Community plays important role in social life balance in cities as a main element of urban space. If life quality changes in communities, it will be rapidly effect on the entire city. In early century 20, paying attention to residential communities was regarded as the main topic of new urban development theories such that these theories have been welcomed in order to deal with different urban problems (such as problems of management, social relations, hygienic issues, welfare issues and semantic and identity dimensions). Although many definitions have been presented on the concept of sustainable development at the macro level, its concept is not yet clear with certainty at the local scale, while the urban communities are significantly important, and their strengths or weaknesses can spread to the entire city for different aspects so that its performance can be affected. Following the extensive discussions on sustainable development, a particular attention was also given to the sustainable urban communities. Following the extensive discussions on sustainable development, a particular attention was also given to the sustainable urban communities. Since urban communities consume a great amount of energy, it is necessary that more attentions are paid to how to sustain these areas. What can currently be seen, are developments in the old urban contexts and their replacement by new contexts in which a large number of problems may be encountered, and then there would be more problems when a comparison is made between the new contexts and older communities. Many communities could act self-sufficiently in the past and fulfill their needs and this doesn’t hold true for the current communities. Discovering characteristics of these older communities will pave the way for paying attention to them and making these spaces more efficient than ever from different perspectives. This paper has explored criteria for structure of sustainable urban communities and tried to prove the hypothesis that physical characteristics of a community in the hot and dry climate of Iran meets some principles leading to sustain traditional indigenous communities. In this research, different references have been studied in order to formulate structural criteria of urban sustainable communities and interpretive approach has been used. Firstly, by reviewing the available references, some questions were raised in the research. Considering the questions, the research hypothesis is mentioned as follows: Physical characteristic of community in hot and arid climate of Iran has the principles leading to sustainability of native –traditional communities. By mentioning the hypothesis, the preset research will seek to prove it. To prove the hypothesis, three traditional indigenous communities in Yazd were studied. The physical criteria for sustainable community in both housing and community sectors were studied by distributing questionnaires using importance-satisfaction rate. Finally, the scientific-deductive method confirmed that traditional communities of Iran which were located in hot and arid climate enjoy sustainable physical criteria. Also their physical problems are fewer than the problems in which many contemporary buildings and communities are involved in. By proving the hypothesis, it is found that traditional communities have some physical principles which have directed them to higher sustainability.
    Keywords: Sustainable Urban Communities, Body, Traditional Indigenous Communities, Criterion
  • Mahyar Ardeshiri, Afrooz Fallah Manshadi, Elham Fallah Manshadi, Heidar Abbasi Page 277
    Land use development plans have become common, as a new activity in urban planning procedure in Iran since 1985. In this kind of plans, the government decided to provide some kind of urban facilities such as road, electricity, water pipe and urban services such as schools before land delivery. Large part of our cities are formed based on this plan and mass volume of activities, used resources and special process of these plans make it necessary to evaluate them from different aspects. One approach for evaluating these plans is sustainable development. This approach was considered from 1992 and it has some emphasize on reserving resources for future generation without any harm to the nature and other components of it. Sustainable development aims to carry capacity of natural systems together with the social, political, and economic challenges faced by humanity. Sustainable development has been described in terms of three dimensions, domains or pillars. In the three-dimension model, these are seen as economic, environmental and social. Environmental aspect could be divided to man-made or physical and natural environment. While sustainable development is the dominated approach in recent years, there are limited resources which evaluate land development plans based on sustainability. This research evaluates the land development plans based on approaches of sustainable urban developments. This research is limited to social and physical aspects, and by using factors in this two dimensions, evaluation of land development plan has been done. This research would answer to the following questions: • What are the criteria and indicators for evaluating sustainability in social and physical aspects? • Is the land development plan in Golestan town is based on sustainable development (in social and physical aspects) or not? A descriptive method and questionnaire were used to collect and analyze the data. Also Excel and SPSS were used for analytical purposes. Questionnaires were designed on the basis of the literature review and theoretical framework of the study and the table of criteria and indicators which show sustainability. Social criteria in the research are: livability, identity, security, diversity of social groups, comfort ability and peace, social justice, satisfactory and participation. Physical criteria include: quality and facility of accesses, quality of environment, quality of man built area and energy consumption. As most of the indicators were quality data, it was necessary to use a Likert scale to be evaluable. We asked the responders to score each indicator from 1 to 5 (1 for completely unsustainable and 5 for completely sustainable). The questionnaires were filled by face to face interview and 100 questionnaires have been filled by residence in Golestan town. The results of evaluation land development plan of Golestan town in social and physical aspects show that environmental and physical aspects are more considered and social aspects are ignored. Not enough attention to social aspects makes Medium sustainability (between sustainability and no sustainability) in social aspect, while in environmental – physical aspect, more attention has happened and Golestan town has a semi sustainable (good sustainability) situation. The following table illustrates the sustainability level of each criterion. As it could be seen while public participation has the lowest level of sustainability, some social criteria such as comfort ability and peace, social justice, diversity of social groups and some physical criteria like quality and facility of accesses, quality of environment and energy consumption has a good situation from sustainable aspects. Level of Sustainability for Each Criterion . . In summary, it is obvious that in land development plans physical aspects are more considered than social aspects. I could be said that based on urban manager views, urban development is limited to urban construction and social development has no role in urban development plans. In addition, based on the findings, people who live in Golestan town come from vast socio-economical groups which mean they would have different type of demands and it is necessary of development plans to response to this variety. Moreover, in this kind of development, land delivery is in a large scale and common price, and there is not any development around the delivered land, which means some needs of the future residence would be ignored.
    Keywords: Sustainable Development, Golestan Town of Shiraz, Social, Physical Aspects, Land Development Plans
  • Naser Barati, Mohammadreza Yazdan Panah Shah Abadi Page 289
    One of the impressive aspects of urban planning is social aspect while this aspect is often the most neglected one in urban planning in Iran because it is not clear how this issue influences on urban planning, although the majority of experts have admitted the influence of this issue. In this study for a better explanation of how the social aspects influence on urban planning, the relationship between the concept of “social capital” and other concepts of urban planning that called “quality of urban life” has investigated. For this purpose Pardis new city has been studied as case study. The reason for this choice is that new towns have the main challenges of urban and regional planning in our country. So paying more attention to the social aspects of these cities is usually more important because of heterogeneous populations that live in these cities. In general, the internal problems of the new towns in Iran t lead the failure of low-level “quality of life” in these cities. Incidentally, if it raises the quality of life in new cities, their success will also increase. The main purpose of this study is the investigation of relationship between the concept of social capital and the subjective quality of urban life. Subjective quality of life in the city means citizens’ Satisfaction rate is the Combination of various factors that effect on quality of life such as physical aspects, social aspects, economic aspects, etc. The point of choosing of the concept of social capital is that this concept is measurable. So it is hoped that social aspects can be used in targeting and monitoring in urban planning. On the other hand, social issues will find their place in urban planning. Based on, this present study is to be followed through these following hypotheses: 1. The amount of social capital in Pardis new city is low. 2. The subjective quality of life in Pardis new city is low. 3. Between social capital and subjective quality of urban life in Pardis new city is a significant relationship. 4. Between social capital and willingness to stay at city (population survival rates) can be seen a significant relationship. 5. Between the subjective quality of urban life and survival rate of population is a significant relationship. The methodology of this study is descriptive- correlational. This study is crosssectional study. This study is descriptive, since it involves complex procedures that aim to describe the situation or phenomenon that is studied. This research aimed to describe the regular and continuous level of social capital and the subjective quality of life of urban residents in Pardis new city and find the relationship between these two concepts. This research is a correlation research, because it includes all the different variables and the correlation coefficient between them. This study also reviewed the correlation between social capital and the subjective quality of life. In a more general classification, this research combines qualitative and quantitative research methods. This research is quantitative research to explain and describe the relationship between specific variables. It can be classified as a case study research and qualitative research. In fact, this research has reviewed all aspects of a particular phenomenon and investigated the relationship between social capital and the subjective quality of life in a specific place and for a limited period of time. In this research to find out the indices and to understand the basic concepts of study, documentation and library method was used. Then the indicators were developed. The questionnaire was designed to achieve Indicators. This questionnaire was a mix of closed questions in which the Likert scale of 1 to 5 was used and its main purpose was to measure social capital and the subjective quality of urban life in Pardis new city. Moreover, all documents, plans and programs in organizations and institutions have been studied. The results indicate the low level of social capital and subjective quality of life between residents of Pardis. The main hypothesis of this study which was the situation of the relationship between social capital and subjective quality of urban life was proved. A significant correlation between the tendency to stay at Pardis City and subjective quality of urban life was seen. Finally, a model is presented for evaluating and showing how the concepts interact.
    Keywords: Social Capital, Quality of Life, Subjective Quality of Life, Survival Rates
  • Zahra Sadat Saeideh Zarabadi, Naser Nejati Alaf, Homa Jalili Safarian Page 301
    Although cities were the homes of only 10 percent of the world's population in the last century, in 2005 more than half of the world's population lived in the cities and metropolitan cities. So, following increasing urbanization and the formation of distinct social classes, geographic spaces have divided to some classes. Hence the uneven spread of urban life quality is one of the most important tools for understanding social inequality in society. In regarding to this issue, one of the most important roles of urban planners is assessment and analysis of urban life quality in order to plan for facilities and infrastructures and also create equal opportunities for all residents. So, social justice will be established. Unfortunately the growth rates of the slums in the cities of the developing countries are double the growth rates of the cities themselves. Furthermore, in many developing countries the proportion of the urban population living in slums is estimated more than 30 percent. Mashhad is the second biggest city of Iran and in 2010 its population was about 3 million people. It is a religious city with large number of pilgrims in each. Recently a great number of people have immigrated to Mashhad because of job opportunities which are more than other close cities. As a matter of fact, emigrants who cannot buy a house in the city have to live in the slums. In 2010 the numbers of people who live in the slums of Mashhad were about one third, the highest rate in Iran. Hence, quality of urban life is one of the most issues which should be addressed. Therefore, this paper aims to identify, prioritize and assess the indicators of the quality of urban life in thirteen regions of Mashhad municipality. Thus, by using multiple indicators of transport, economic, social, physical, environmental, and public service and an objective assessment method and GIS software, regions of Mashhad municipality were assessed. Then, the nature and weight of each indicator was determined according to the experts. Finally, using TOPSIS technique, priority regions of Mashhad municipality in terms of quality of life were assessed. The research method is based on analyzing secondary data and formal related documents about the quality of urban life in thirteen regions of Mashhad municipality. In addition, the academic sources with regard to the quality of urban life have been reviewed to provide the theoretical framework for the problems. The findings of this study indicate that the dimensions of the economy, public services, social, physical and environmental priorities are important in order to assess the quality of life. In order to the traffic service level index, regions 12 and 10 ranked as the best regions due to the fact that these regions are located in the edge of the city. On the other hand, region 3 which is located on the CBD of city ranked as the worst region. Also, the quality of buildings in region 12 is the best one due to the fact that this region is the newest area of the city which is constructed. In other indicators such as per capita sports or education area, region 12 is the best among other regions of Mashhad. Therefore, regions 12, 10 and 7 of Mashhad are the best in terms of quality of life indicators which have been investigated. In contrast, regions 5, 3 and 6 have the lowest quality. It is important to note that the regions with a higher quality of life are often part of the new development area of city. So, it is obvious that the urban managers have paid more attention to this region than other regions. Also, regions with lower quality of life, often in terms of economic value are lower than other regions. Hence, it is necessary that both planers and urban managers pay more attention to the regions that are less developed than other regions and distribute facilities and public infrastructures equally. Also it is needed to apply strategic planning in order to guarantee social justice and improvement of quality of urban life.
    Keywords: Quality of Urban Life, Objective Assessment Method, TOPSIS Technique, Mashhad
  • Ali Saeidi, Sasan Savadkouhifar, Yazdan Yavari Page 313
    Because of present conflict patterns and changes in the type and form of military threats, civilian and military threats of Iran are impressive. Accordingly, defensive considerations of cities as the centers of national or regional impact are essential. These parameters can be used in different areas of the city in order to maintain the structural and physical infrastructures and the vital arteries of the city. The public transport network is one of the vital arteries and the determining factor of the city, which is necessary to continue to maintain the city. Among the various types of urban transport, terrestrial communications network and related infrastructure (urban road network), as the broadest, most general and most accessible form of transport, has particular importance and decisive. Because of the importance of this issue, in the periods of urban attacks and after that, the roads are very vulnerable and their performance can be impaired or interrupted. Transportation system has many interconnected components such as bridges, tunnels and passageways, which their damages can reduce total system performance and cause various problems and issues. Improvement of the vulnerability of transport systems requires the use of special solutions. In order to reduce vulnerabilities and facilitate the management of crisis, it is necessary to identify the vulnerabilities of each urban element, so through the strengthen of these areas, we can reduced vulnerability. There are different ways to identify vulnerabilities, however, in this study, a model is presented to identify vulnerable areas of urban roads. As a sample case it has detected vulnerable parts of Sadr Elevated Expressway in Tehran. Sadr Elevated Expressway with a length of approximately 5 km located in northern Tehran. It is part of the border of 1 and 3 area of Tehran. The study area is located in the highlands of Tehran; the slope of the region is about 10%. For the expansion program of Tehran, the highway was built after the Islamic Revolution and then it was developed. With regard to the development of this highway and elevated expressway construction, risk in this area is increased. To increase traffic volume on the highway, bridge was designed on the 5th kilometer. Although, this work would increase traffic volume it has increased the vulnerability. There is a long bridge along the highway which is the main reason of risk. Since the bridges are very vulnerable, the massive structures must be protected against threats. Hazards generally can be divided into two categories: natural and man-made and in the beginning, these threats should be classified in the best way. Initially to identify vulnerabilities in Sadr expressway, impact indicators were found. Vulnerability parameters of the pathway have to be identified and weighted. The general index of the vulnerability indices of the highway will be divided into the three main categories. Defense indices, urban indices and natural indices and each of the indices and sub-indices will be rated using AHP and TOPSIS methods. The main method used in this research was the hierarchy process, but to test the results of this method, the TOPSIS process was also applied. After that, for both methods questionnaire was prepared to find out the expert's opinions. In order to locating weak spot, first, some parameters will be declared and layered data and maps will be produced in ESRI-ArcGIS desktop package, after that weighted maps will combined together and vulnerability maps of the expressway will be created. The map showed hazard zones along the highway to find out the most vulnerable point. The study area is characterized the presence of risk factors in vulnerable areas is very impressive. Most of these factors increases the damage and also in the most vulnerable point of the study area various risk factors have come together, contains: gas pipeline, metro, canal and bridges. Therefore, to reduce the vulnerability these factors must be eliminated. As a result of this study, to reduce vulnerability in the study area is necessary to consider the following: • Move or Secure Facility near Highway; • Retrofitting Bridges in Areas with Greater Vulnerability; • Prevent the Construction of High-Rise Buildings along the Highway and Retrofitting Existing Buildings around the Study Area; • Immunization Risks around the Highway; • Design Alternatives for the Urban Streets, to be Continued Traffic of Highway in the Event of Failure; • Create Evacuation Routes in Case of Destruction Crossing the Highway, Like: U-turn on the Highway, Mobile Emergency Highway Exit etc.
    Keywords: Passive Defense, Elevated Expressway, Threat, Hierarchy Process, Geospatial Information System
  • Manouchehr Tabibian, Yasmin Afshar, Mojtaba Shahabi Shahmiri Page 329
    Iran’s Department of Environment presented the “Green Plan” in a Green City Conference in 1999. Resolving the environmental disorders and improving the quality of life through creativity and public awareness were among most significant goals, for better uses of resources and possessing green spaces without pollution. Achieving to give a description for the “Green City”, confirmed by The United Nations and global standards, was the most important result of the gathering. Despite this description, a comprehensive assessment for Tehran, under the worldwide Green City indices, is not presented after a decade. Accordingly, this article tries to assess Tehran’s environmental performance in comparison with 22 Asian major cities. Tehran’s environmental place will be ranked as a complementary research in addition to Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) Green City project for Asian cities. The indicators, methods and data of assessment are derived from EIU study in 2011. Also, Tehran’s data are mainly gathered from Environmental studies of Tehran Comprehensive plan 2005 and Tehran Strategic Plan 2007. In order to measure Tehran’s environmental performance beside 22 Asian cities, 29 qualitative and quantitative indicators have been adapted based on theoretical literature and planning documents in eight categories of energy and carbon dioxide, land use and buildings, transport, waste, water, sanitation, air quality and environmental governance. The 14 quantitative indicators measure the current states of the cities and 15 qualitative indicators with a view to the future, assess policies and projects. To compare the data between cities and to calculate the cumulative score for each city, quantitative indicators are standardized using Morris deprivation index on a scale of 0 to 10. So, the best city scores 10 and the worst city scores zero. Qualitative indicators are rated by analysts with expertise in the relevant city based on objective criteria that consider cities’ targets, strategies, and concrete action. The qualitative indicators were also scored on a scale of zero to ten, with ten points assigned to cities that meet the criteria on the checklist. In order to compare eight environmental categories against each other, indicators within each category have the same weight. Therefore, the final score for each category area is formed of the cumulative scores in each category. The scores of the categories are also combined and the final score for each city is obtained. The scores are then rebased onto a scale of zero to 100. Finally, the cities were placed in one of five bands, both within categories and overall, reflecting the relevant scores. These classes are based on average scores and are defined by the standard deviation. Moreover, for a deeper analysis of the environmental performance of cities, each city is also classified based on five clusters such as population, area, income, density and temperature. Environmental performance of Tehran with the score of 38% is lower than the average of Asian cities, therefore, Tehran is placed in the very weak category in terms of environmental performance based on the quantitative indicators. According to this, Tehran in the comparative assessment of environmental performance among 22 Asian cities has the weakest performance. Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur and Shanghai are ranked after Tehran. The city functions is very weak in the Water category, however, in other areas such as transport and waste, Tehran has achieved good rating. Of the eight categories of the environmental assessment with green city approach, Tehran is very weak in the categories of energy and carbon dioxide, water and sanitation; weak in the category of air quality; medium in two categories of land use, construction and environmental governance; and it works well in the category of transport and waste. Notably, the actual status of air quality in Tehran shows a deep difference with some cities. Scores in this category are mostly the result of the policies and measures that have been carried out. The results of this assessment indicate that the environmental performance of Tehran as the Iranian capital city is v ery weak but emerging policies show slow movement towards the objectives of the Green City. It could be the result of city authorities having more attention to the Tehran’s urban environment issue. Lack of up to date and available environmental data and informat i on and, more importantly outdated Environmental Studies document of Tehran Master Plan are the serious limitations in this study. The most important achievement of this paper is presenting the calculated scores in different categories for Tehran in comparison with 22 other cities and separating researches in each environmental categories in Tehran.
    Keywords: Green City Indicators, Comparative Assessment, Environmental Category, Deprivation Score Method, Tehran City
  • Akbar Kiani, Mohammadali Mirshekari Page 345
    Shade trees have many benefits in deferent dimensions; economic aspects (reduction of energy consumption in during hot period), physical aspects (maintenance utility) and social aspects (by increasing the vitality and efficiency of citizens) especially in cities facing with ‘temperature control issue’ in warmer months. Hence, this paper had directly emphasis on the size of the tree and its shade. In other words, the paper is discussed about ‘the shadows’ by inductive approach. Study goal is to measure the size of shade trees based on shape or volume (Canopy) of the trees to provide shade on the streets in central part of the city of Zabol. The city is located in the desert areas with low cloudy days and more sunshine hours. According to the surveys, per capita green space in the Zabol city is lower than national standards. The dominant species of eucalyptus and palm fan trees are in the streets of the city. The reason for selection of Zabol is exhausting heat in the most months of the year in the city. Overheating city of Zabol in different dimensions, has created a lot of problems. For example: I) Economic aspects (increased energy consumption, increased use of cooling systems, etc.). II) Physical dimensions (damage to urban infrastructure, environmental issues, reducing optimum standards of comfort and etc.). III) Social aspects (reducing the amount of vitality and performance of citizens, reduce walking citizens, etc.). Hypotheses of this research were proposed as follows: The angle of the sun in July in the city of Zabol is vertical, if the crown is wide and flat. So in the most sidewalks there are tall trees with less shade to cover the entire surface of the pavement. Because the sun shines, shadow of object is farther away than it is, we have to select the tree species that is shorter in height. Theory and research records show that the issue and the problem of "shadow value in planning and urban design" has increased exponentially in recent decades; this issue is clear and objective and can be solved by paying attention to "the tree" and "the shadow "of the scientific calculation based on the angle of the sun (latitude cities surveyed) and the effect of tree shade done. This research is descriptive - applied based on a library studies, documents and surveys. The study area includes the center city of Zabol where two streets intersect each other in the market place. The sizes of the shadow of tall and umbrella shaped trees in July and in the hours that sun's heat is felt, are compared by using AutoCAD. of the sample is the city's central market which is nearly 36,000 square meters and located in the north eastern of ChareRah Shahrbani, Located in a zone where the number of corridors is. According to the existing experiences and the current state of this area, the research hypotheses are confirmed. Thus, according to the angle of the sun in July which is almost vertical for the city of Zabol, more shadow than its farthest thrown object can be applied, such as choosing tree species which are shorter in height. The "shadow" in different dimensions (physical, economic and social) for cities that are located in the arid climate, is vital, therefore, architects, planners, urban designers and urban planners do scientific works and several executive projects, but regarding to the scientific approaches, some of them have focused on the "volume (canopy) tree" and its "shadow" in urban areas. In some cities around the world, "shadow" has the annoying look (in the example of some European countries), however, "shadow" for hot and dry areas of the cities, particularly the city of Zabol, is vital so we should plan for several researches to find out different aspects to see and implemented. The results show that shadow should exist; amount of shadow in umbrella shaped trees is more than tall trees. In the 12 am the diameter shade of a palm tree is 3.22 m. while at the same time the shadow of the a Eucalyptus tree is 1.94 m.
    Keywords: Canopy of Tree Shade, Creating Shadow, Zabol City, Angle of Radiation
  • Abolfazl Meshkini, Hafez Mahdnejad, Faryad Parhiz, Akram Tafakori Page 357
    Currently, one of the latest events of criminology in the scientific and administrative community all over the world, in urbanism is Pre-treatment process to prevent the occurrence of crimes which focuses on untenable areas in city. Spatial analysis of urban social pathologies helps to identify patterns of criminal behaviors, discover atrisk areas and eventually change the situation by creating spaces for defeating social pathologies and eliminating them from the city. In fact, considering the place, as the immediate cause of social pathologies compared with the individual or structural factors, seems more feasible to provide practical solutions from prevention of social pathologies. One of the most important and complex issues of Tehran’s metropolitan at the present time is the high frequency of crimes and social disorders in the context of the city’s old areas. In addition, to create a sense of insecurity and pessimism, this has caused heavy mental and physical injuries on the shoulders of citizens despite great efforts and budget expenditures. According to the official statistics, the number of crimes of the 12th District of Tehran, known as the Nasery-era, is much higher than other areas of Tehran. Thus, increase in social pathologies with physical injuries has made this area a dangerous place and hard to live. At the first step, they should provide a time-space analysis of various social pathologies of the area, so that strategies in order to confront these disorders will be made. This study is a practical study with comparative and analytical approach. To identify and understand the spatial pattern of crime in the city, it uses statistical models and graphics based on the geographical information system (GIS). The most important statistical tests are among the clustering tests; the nearest neighbor index is used to identify the centers of mass rise. In this study, in addition to statistical tests, graphics methods such as kernel density and estimation method have been also used. The data related to crimes of the 12th District have been considered as point events. It can be said that this study uses Office/ Excel to form a database, Arc View software for comparative and graphic analysis in GIS and also Crime Analysis and Case software. Among Iran’s cities, Tehran has the highest rate of social pathologies because of specific, spatial, physical and social conditions. This positive relationship between population growth and increase in the rate of social Pathologies can be regarded as a result of quantitative increase in the city’s population. So it is essential, with scientific methods and new technologies, to identify place-time circumstances in which crimes are committed in Tehran. Tehran’s 12th district, with 1600 hectares equivalent to 2/7 percent of the total area of Tehran, has different directions. The nearest neighbor index on dispersion of the whole crimes on 12th district of Tehran is equal to 0.73 and based on the Z value of these crimes, that is -11.72, confirms the cluster of the spatial distribution of points related to the whole crimes on the studied area. Our findings indicate that among 560 cases of crime within District 12, crime of bag robbery by motorcycle with 293 cases, equivalent to 52.32% allocates more than a half of the total of offenses committed in the area. Also, the highest frequency of occurrence of crimes with 308 cases and 55 percent (more than half of the crimes committed), has recorded regarding to the vicinity Commercial use. In fact, what is important about the type and amount of the allocation of urban land use in 12th district of Tehran is that in this area commercial and official buildings are numerous and above-average in Tehran. In contrast, some other urban land user that are not in this region or are facing a severe shortage and far from the capital requirements of the citizens, are living in the area. Therefore, logical and systematic locations of urban land use play an important role in reduction of crimes in the cities. Urban planners can minimize crime rates in urban areas by identifying the characteristics and factors facilitating crime, changing the environment, environmental planning and designing in the way to eliminate the factors encouraging crime.
    Keywords: Land Use, Social Criminality, Crime, ridden Centers, 12 District, Tehran
  • Maedeh Hedayatifard Page 369
    Collaborative environmental planning approach tries to understand the wider dimensions of environmental problems and the post-material aspects of environmental capital by capturing the balanced between the political and social basis for decisions on the one hand and the scientific environmental basis on the other hand. The main challenge of this article is that, the district 6 of Tehran, as the spatial center of this city, which is the place of most important activities and the concentration of human activities in this area, has led to accumulation of different types of environmental pollution. This research aims to analyze the necessities of application of collaborative environmental planning and to increase the efficiency of urban planning system in district 6 of Tehran by introducing the new methods. The research method is based on the questionnaire and semi-structure interviews analysis of decision takers and residents of district 6 of Tehran. The analytical framework includes 5 main steps. In the first one, the objective and subjective environmental problems in the district 6 of Tehran are analyzed. In the second step, the tendency of residents to participate in different kinds of collaborative programs is analyzed. This analysis show that the residents have more tendencies to participate in the processes which they don’t need resident's presence. In the third step, the importance of facilitating in the collaborative processes is analyzed and the potentials and constraints are investigated. From the viewpoints of decision-making, the facilitating activity seriously needs to improve the transition of non-technical concepts of residents to the Specialists and to create trust between residents and formal decision makers. In the fourth step, the main formal and informal actors related to environmental problems are recognized on the basis of residents and decision taker's points of view. It shows that the local actors (formal and informal) in the neighborhoods have more importance in comparison to the actors in larger scales. In the last step the main constraints and potentials for application of collaborative processes in urban planning system of the district is considered. The findings show that the diversity of organizations related to the environmental issues in Tehran and its district, the overlap of responsibilities between different institutions, lack of connection between different parts of decision making structure, and the insufficient regulative support for the activities of Non-Governmental organizations are the main constraints. Evidences for the substantial and procedural problems in applying collaborative environmental planning makes it clear that it is necessary for decision makers to apply new approaches which emphasize on collaborative and participatory manners. This can enhance the local knowledge about environmental capitals and increase the responsibility of local actors in environmental maintenance. Regards to the findings of the research, the process of collaborative planning which is the complementary element for current urban planning system is proposed (Fig. 1). Fig. 1: The Substantial Proposals for Improvement of Current Urban Planning System . . This process has two main parts, in the first part, the context for collaboration of stakeholders and in the second part, the context for plan making are prepared. In order to reduce the procedural problems, the structure of actor's system (Fig. 2) and decision support system are proposed. Fig. 2: The Actor Systems in Collaborative Environmental Planning in District 6 of Tehran . . Fig. 3: The Decision Support System for Application of Collaborative Environmental Planning In District 6 of Tehran.
    Keywords: Environmental Planning, Collaborative Planning, Collaborative Environmental Planning, Sustainability Planning, Environmental Problems