فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 16 (پاییز 1390)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1390/08/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • رحمت الله بهرامی*، خلیل عطار صفحات 1-14
    توسعه سریع و شتابان شهرنشینی در کشورهای در حال توسعه و تمرکز روز افزون جمعیت و فعالیت ها در برخی از مناطق، توازن و تعادل منطقه ای را برهم زده است. چنین ویژگی را می توان معلول سیاست های رشد قطبی شدن دانست که در نتیجه آن بخش عمده ای از امکانات کشور در یک یا چند منطقه متمرکز و سایر مناطق از پروسه توسعه باز می مانند. برای ایجاد تعادل مکانی و نظم فضایی، علم برنامه ریزی منطقه ای مطرح و هدف آن رفع نابرابری های منطقه ای و ناحیه ای می باشد. این مقاله در راستا تمرکز گرایی و تحلیل نابرابری های منطقه ای در سطح ناحیه ای (استان آذربایجان غربی) از نظر امکانات و خدمات در زمینه های مختلف می پردازد. تحقیق به دنبال پاسخ به این سوال است که تفاوت توسعه و نابرابری های ناحیه ای در شهرستان های استان آذربایجان غربی به چه اندازه است؟ آیا ارتباطی بین سطح توسعه و نرخ شهرنشینی در کشور وجود دارد؟ روش تحقیق به صورت توصیفی-تحلیلی بوده که در آن24 شاخص کمی و کیفی انتخاب و بعد از وزن دهی به آنها با استفاده از روش آنتروپی شانون،14 شهرستان استان آذربایجان غربی با روش تاپسیس خطی درجه توسعه یافتگی با تعیین رتبه بندی مشخص و سپس با استفاده از ضریب همبستگی ارتباط سطح توسعه با نرخ شهرنشینی در استان بررسی شده است. نتایج تحقیق ضمن ارائه رتبه بندی شهرستان های استان به لحاظ توسعه؛ موید ارتباط معنادار بین سطح توسعه یافتگی شهرستان های استان با نرخ شهرنشینی آنها دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: سطح توسعه، تاپسیس خطی، آنتروپی شانون، نرخ شهرنشینی، آذربایجان غربی
  • زهرا پیشگاهی فرد*، رقیه شریفی چابکی صفحات 15-30
    از زمان تشکیل مجلس شورای اسلامی تا به امروز 8 دوره انتخابات پارلمانی در ایران برگزار شده است. در این دوران رفتار انتخاباتی مردم در انتخابات چه در امر مشارکت و یا گزینش افراد با توجه به جناح های مختلف کشور روند یکسانی را طی نکرده و این موضوع در طی دوره های مختلف انتخاباتی از حوزه ای به حوزه ی دیگر متفاوت بوده است. همچنین با توجه به انتخابات برگزار شده در ایران تاکنون هیچ گونه بررسی علمی از پدیده جری مندرینگ در مرزهای حوزه های انتخاباتی صورت نگرفته است.
    این تحقیق با استفاده از روش تحلیلی- توصیفی و با استفاده نقشه و نمودارهای مختلف، ضمن بررسی و تجزیه و تحلیل جغرافیای انتخابات استان گیلان سعی دارد به سوال های زیر پاسخ دهد که آیا با توجه به موقعیت قرارگیری استان گیلان در نوار مرزی شمال کشور، روند مشارکت و همگرایی در این استان در طی دوره های انتخابات پارلمانی کاهش یافته است؟ با توجه به رفتار انتخاباتی مردم در گزینش نمایندگان، جهت و گرایش حوزه های انتخابیه استان گیلان با توجه به دو طیف عمده کشور، به کدام جناح سیاسی است؟ و آیا در طی هشت دوره انتخابات پارلمانی برگزار شده در ایران، پدیده جری مندریگ در استان گیلان روی داده است؟
    نتایج این تحقیق نشان می دهد که علی رغم این که استان گیلان در نوار مرزی کشور قرار گرفته روند بالایی در انتخابات طی نموده و گرایش جناحی مردم و نمایندگان آن به سمت جناح راست است. و یک مورد پدیده جری مندرینگ نیز در استان گیلان کشف شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: جغرافیای انتخابات، مشارکت سیاسی، جناح سیاسی، جری مندرینگ، استان گیلان
  • سید رضا حسین زاده*، رضا خسروی بیگی، مصطفی ایستگلدی، رضا شمس الدینی صفحات 31-51
    ارزیابی پایداری زیست محیطی، به عنوان یکی از مهمترین ابزار در فرآیند برنامه ریزی توسعه پایدار بوده و لذا توجه به آن در سیاست گذاری ها و برنامه ریزی ها امری اجتناب ناپذیر است. با توجه به تغییرات همه جانبه و سریعی که در شهرهای ایران از چند دهه گذشته شروع و در حال انجام است، ارزیابی پایداری زیست محیطی شهرها برای دستیابی به یک برنامه ریزی شهری مناسب و در عین حال همگام با متغیرهای محیط طبیعی ضروری به نظر می رسد. به همین دلیل هدف این مقاله روشی مناسب و جامع برای انتخاب شاخص ها و سنجش و ارزیابی میزان پایداری زیست محیطی در شهرهاست و شهر بندرترکمن بعنوان نمونه مطالعاتی انتخاب شده است. در ابتدای مقاله به بیان ادبیات موضوع در زمینه ارزیابی پایداری زیست محیطی پرداخته شده و سپس روش تصمیم گیری چند معیاره تخصیص خطی در نواحی پنجگانه شهری بندرترکمن آزمون، معرفی و تحلیل گردیده است. از آنجایی که هدف اصلی تحقیق ارزیابی و اولویت بندی پایداری زیست محیطی در نواحی شهری می باشد، نتایج بدست آمده از گام های مختلف مدل تخصیص خطی در قالب برنامه ریزی صفر و یک نشان می دهد که از بین نواحی پنجگانه بندر ترکمن، ناحیه 5 در اولویت نخست و نواحی 1، 4، 3 و 2 در اولویت های بعدی از نظر پایداری زیست محیطی قرار گرفتند. با این تفاسیر آگاهی از وضعیت پایداری زیست محیطی نواحی مختلف شهری و شناخت وضع موجود می تواند نقش مهمی در ارتقای مدیریت و برنامه ریزی و تخصیص بهینه منابع جهت بهبود رفاه ساکنین و حل مشکلات آنها داشته باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: پایداری زیست محیطی، ارزیابی، تصمیم گیری چند معیاره، تخصیص خطی، بندر ترکمن
  • مسعود صفری علی اکبری*، پرویز کردوانی، فرزاد مرادی صفحات 52-69
    نواحی روستایی ایران امروزه با چالش های اساسی روبرو می باشد یکی از این چالش ها بیکاری و پیامدهای منفی می باشد. در این راستا روستاهای شهرستان کرمانشاه هم مانند دیگر روستاهای ایران در طی سال های اخیر پیوسته با مهاجرت های روستا - شهری روبرو بوده است. برای جبران چالش بیکاری در این منطقه توسعه فعالیت های مرتبط با صنایع روستایی می تواند بسیار موثر باشد در همین راستا این تحقیق با هدف بررسی زمینه های سرمایه گذاری بخش خصوصی در راستای توسعه صنایع روستایی و تبدیلی و تکمیلی تهیه و تنظیم شده است. روش تحقیق از نوع توصیفی و تحلیلی با تاکید بر پیمایش میدانی و تهیه و تنظیم پرسش نامه می باشد. اطلاعات جمع آوری شده با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS مورد پردازش و تحلیل قرار گرفته است.
    یافته ها تحقیق بیانگر آن است که بین سطح درآمد و تمایل به سرمایه گذاری رابطه ای وجود ندارد. بلکه سرمایه گذاری بخش خصوصی بیشتر تحت تاثیر عوامل دیگری مانند حمایت های دولتی از قبیل وام و آموزش های کارآفرینی و آینده شغلی دارد. همچنین از بین ویژگی های فردی تنها بین سن و تمایل به سرمایه گذاری رابطه معنادار وجود دارد. از یافته های دیگر این تحقیق تمایل زیاد پاسخ گویان برای فعالیت در بخش صنایع روستایی می باشد. در نتیجه گیری ذکر این نکته مهم است که بخش خصوصی تمایل زیادی برای سرمایه گذاری در بخش صنایع روستایی دارد اما عوامل تاثیر گذاری مانند پرداخت وام و حمایت های بخش دولتی می تواند روند سرمایه گذاری بخش خصوصی را بهبود بخشند.
    کلیدواژگان: صنایع روستایی، سرمایه گذاری، بخش خصوصی، نواحی روستایی، شهرستان کرمانشاه
  • مهرداد رمضانی پور *، محمود روشنی، عیسی پوررمضان صفحات 70-83
    امروزه نقش گردشگری به عنوان عامل موثر در ایجاد تحول در اقتصادیک منطقه بر کسی پوشیده نیست از آنجا که پایه و اساس بسیاری از فعالیت های گردشگری جذابیت های طبیعی است، اکوتوریسم در کانون توجه محققین قرار دارد که به ارتباط متقابل انسان و محیط می پردازد. اجرای پروژه های اکوتوریسمی مستلزم شناسایی دقیق قابلیت ها و تنگناهای آن مناطق می باشد. از اینرو در این پژوهش، مکانیابی مناطق گردشگری منطقه دیلمان بر اساس توان اکولوژیکی و استعداد طبیعی آن صورت پذیرفته است. برای مکانیابی مناطق مورد نظر بر مبنای مدل اکولوژیک از داده های مکانی برداری و رستری (شیب، جهت شیب، آفتابگیری، بافت خاک، پوشش گیاهی، دما و بارش) مورد نیاز و فن آوری توانمند سامانه های اطلاعات جغرافیایی جهت تحلیل داده ها استفاده شده است. از آنجایی که زمان گردشگری در این منطقه غالبا در فصول گرم سال صورت می پذیرد لذا از اطلاعات این فصول استفاده شده است. پس از تحلیل، با توجه به مدل اکولوژیکی توریسم و با در نظر داشتن شرایط طبیعی منطقه، مناطق گردشگری مستعد منطقه مورد مطالعه در زمین های کم شیب، حواشی رودها و نزدیکی روستاهای محدوده قرار داشته و اکثر مناطق به جاده های قابل دسترسی راه دارند. از این رو با توجه به شرایط منحصر به فرد طبیعی منطقه، توزیع متناسب مکان های مستعد گردشگری و در نظر گرفتن تمهیدات لازم در سطح منطقه، می توان اقتصاد بومی ناحیه را متحول ساخت.
    کلیدواژگان: توریسم، اکوتوریسم، مدل اکولوژیکی توریسم، مدل همپوشانی GIS، دیلمان
  • نورالدین عظیمی *، نصرالله مولایی هشجین، علیرضا علیزاده صفحات 84-98
    عمران روستاها با تاکید افراطی بر عناصر کالبدی و بدون برقرار ارتباطی نظام وار و هدفمند با سایر وی‍ژگی های ساختاری- کارکردی حاکم بر فضای جغرافیایی از اولویت خاص برخوردار شده است. مقاله حاضر عوامل موثر در موفقیت اجرای طرح های هادی روستایی در بخش شرقی استان گیلان را با تاکید بر عوامل جغرافیایی مورد بررسی قرار می دهد. روش کلی تحقیق در این مطالعه توصیفی- تحلیلی بوده و داده های اصلی مورد استفاده در آن بر اساس نظر سنجی از ساکنان روستاهای مورد مطالعه بدست آمده است. نتایج عمده بدست آمده از این تحقیق عبارت است از: موقعیت استقرار، فاصله روستا از مراکز شهری و اندازه جمعیت روستا با میزان موفقیت اجرای طرح های هادی روستایی دارای رابطه قوی می باشند. روستاهای واقع در نواحی کوهستانی با اندازه جمعیتی متوسط و دورتر از مراکز شهری از نظر اجرای طرح هادی نسبت به روستاهای واقع در نواحی جلگه ای، نزدیکتر به شهر و با جمعیت بیشتر از موفقیت بیشتری برخوردار بوده اند. شناخت و آگاهی روستائیان از طرح هادی و میزان مشارکت آنها در جریان تهیه و اجرا، از عوامل مهم دیگر در دستیابی به اهداف این طرح ها هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: روستا، طرح هادی روستایی، اجرای طرح، عوامل جغرافیایی، شرق گیلان
  • محمد باسط قرشی میناآباد*، سیده طیبه میرواسع صفحات 99-114
    اردو یک فعالیت مهم دانش آموزی است که به صورت گروهی و تحت نظارت مربیان، خارج از محیط مدرسه صورت می گیرد. اردو می تواند در غنی سازی اوقات فراغت دانش آموزان نقش موثری داشته باشد و میزان این تاثیر باید تبیین گردد که در این مقاله به بررسی این تاثیر پرداخته شده است. جامعه آماری در این پژوهش، دانش آموزان مقطع متوسطه آموزش و پرورش ناحیه دو رشت می باشند که 400 نفر به عنوان نمونه با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه ای انتخاب گردیده است. ابزار مورد استفاده برای گردآوری اطلاعات پرسش نامه ساخته می باشد که پس از گرد آوری اطلاعات با استفاده از آزمون رگرسیون و در سطح اطمینان 99 درصد مورد تحلیل قرار گرفته است. نتایج یافته ها نشان داد که تعداد کمی از دانش آموزان در اردوها شرکت داده می شوند و اردوها به میزان کمی از اوقات فراغت دانش آموزان را در بر می گیرد. دانش آموزان تمایل زیادی به برگزاری اردوهای بیشتر در ایام فراغت خود دارند و تمایل دختران در این خصوص بیشتر از پسران می باشد. معلمان و مربیان به عنوان نیروی انسانی متخصص به میزان کمی در یادگیری و بازدهی علمی دانش آموزان نقش داشتند.
    کلیدواژگان: اردو، اوقات فراغت، نیروی انسانی، آموزش و پرورش
  • جعفر میرکتولی *، مصطفی قدمی، معصومه مهدیان بهنمیری، سحر محمدی صفحات 115-133
    در دهه های اخیر شهرهای ایران مانند بسیاری از شهرهای جهان سوم دچار تحولات چشمگیری شده اند، به طوری که روند رشد شهرنشینی در پی تحولات اقتصادی، اجتماعی، موجب رشد لجام گسیخته و بی قواره شهرهای با نقش ملی و ناحیه ای گردیده که در اغلب شهرهای کشور ناشی از فقدان سیاست های مناسب ساخت و ساز و بی برنامگی در بهره برداری از زمین شهری می باشد. شهر بابلسر نیز مانند بسیاری از شهرهای کشور از این تحولات مصون نمانده است. بررسی داده ها نشان می دهد جمعیت شهر طی 50 سال اخیر نزدیک به 6 برابر رشد داشته که این رشد فزاینده جمعیت، گسترش بی رویه شهر را نیز در پی داشته است، به طوری که این شهر با گسترش فیزیکی 24 برابری طی این دوره، مشکلاتی از قبیل: تخریب زمین های کشاورزی اطراف شهر، مشکلات زیست- محیطی، کمبود امکانات زیربنایی و… را ایجاد کرده است. روش تحقیق در پژوهش حاضر تحلیلی- توصیفی بوده و با بهره گیری از مدل های آنتروپی شانون و هلدرن به تحلیل چگونگی گسترش کالبدی- فضایی این شهر پرداخته است. نتایج حاصل از مدل آنتروپی شانون که در طی سال های 1379-1389 انجام شده، نشان می دهد الگوی گسترش شهر خطی می باشد و بر اساس مدل هلدرن 60 درصد از رشد فیزیکی شهر در فاصله سال های 1385-1335 مربوط به رشد جمعیت بوده و 40 درصد مربوط به رشد افقی و اسپرال شهر می باشد که این عامل نتیجه عدم نظارت و کنترل مدیران شهری و نداشتن طرح و برنامه ای مدون جهت گسترش فیزیکی شهر بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: گسترش کالبدی، فضایی، رشد افقی و اسپرال، مدل شانون، مدل هلدرن، شهر بابلسر
  • اصغر نظریان *، نادر شوهانی صفحات 134-151
    افزایش بی حد و ناگهانی جمعیت شهری ناشی از رشد طبیعی و مهاجرت روستائیان و شهرهای کوچک به شهرهای بزرگ و نیز تحولات شگرف فرهنگی و تکنولوژی و همچنین جهانی شدن و تاثیرات آن بر جوامع مختلف باعث بوجود آمدن مسائل و مشکلات فراوانی در حوزه مدیریت شهری گشته است. این جریان باعث اختلال و چالش در مدیریت شهری شده و لزوم توجه به برنامه ریزی در جهت استفاده از خرد جمعی، تکثرگرایی، مسئولیت پذیری، مشارکت شهروندان، عدالت و حقوق شهروندی، پاسخ گویی به شهروندان، جهت توانمندی مدیران را ایجاب می نماید. مدیریت شهری،در درجه اول ارتباط تنگاتنگی با جامعه شهری در سطح خرد، شکل گیری و شکل دادن به جامعه مدنی محلی و شهری، شهروندسازی محلی، ارتقای شهروندمداری شهری، تثبیت حقوق و وظایف شهروندی، تقویت مشارکت شهروندی و عدم توجه به خواست و نظر شهروندان در اداره امور محلی و شهری دارد. این مقاله توانمند سازی مدیریت شهری را در بستر مفاهیم عدالت اجتماعی، مشارکت شهروندی، مدیریت شهری مشارکتی و پاسخ گو و شهروند مداری که تاثیر فراوانی در توسعه انسانی پایدار دارد را در شهر ایلام مورد بررسی قرار می دهد. شهر ایلام که در طول سه دهه بعد از انقلاب با امواج رو به افزایش مهاجرت روبرو بوده، تحولات زیادی در ساختار کالبدی و اجتماعی پیدا کرده است این امر برنامه ریزی صحیحی را طلب می کرده و در حال حاضر نیز مدیریت نظام یافته ایی را می طلبد. در این میان تقویت روحیه مشارکت و شهروند مداری ازعواملی هستند که می تواند این نظم در هم ریخته را انتظام بخشد. در ادامه تحقیقاتی که برای انجام رساله در چارچوب توانمند سازی نظام مدیریت شهری و شهروند مداری در شهر ایلام تدوین گردیده و راهکارهای مناسب با استفاده از روش های کمی و کیفی ارائه شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: توانمندسازی، مدیریت شهری، شهروند، مشارکت شهروندان، شهر شهروند مدار، ایلام
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  • Rahmatollah Bahrami *, Khalil Atar Pages 1-14
    Introduction
    Increasing concentration of population and activity in some regions, regional balance is disrupting. Such features can be disabled policies considered growing polarization that results in a major part of the country's resources in one or more focus area and other regions such as the open development process. To create balance and order, spatial location, regional science planning and raised its target and eliminate regional inequalities is the area. In this regard, this paper analyzes the regional inequalities at the regional level (West Azerbaijan province) in terms of facilities and services in various fields. Research seeking to answer this question, which is different from development and regional inequalities in the cities of West Azerbaijan province, is to what extent? And whether the relationship between development and urbanization rates in the country there?
    Research
    Methodology
    In this field research methodology descriptive analytic that was the 24 indicators in quality and quantity of selected parameters and weighting them using the (entropy, Shannon), the 14th city in West Azerbaijan Province using (Tipsy line) in terms of ranking the degree of development and then using the correlation coefficient associated with the development level of urbanization rates in the province have been investigated. Announcements area of ​​43,660 square kilometers is equal. Equivalent to 2.65% of total area of ​​the country.
    Located in the northwestern West Azarbaijan, Iran. Relative position of the country north of Azerbaijan and Turkey, the Maghreb countries, Turkey and Iraqi Kurdistan to the south and east of East Azerbaijan and Zanjan provinces is limited.
    Results
    The findings indicate that the level of enjoyment, the city of Urumiyeh, Salmas and Khoy city in half the city and 11 had other non-province. Best of West Azarbaijan province in the city of Urmia and the worst rating scale, where 60 equals 317, and the city of Sardasht. Scale development in the cities of West Azarbaijan province ranked last out of the city of Urmia and the city has Chaldoran.The calculated correlation coefficient between variable rates of development and urbanization in the country scale, the 54,7 percent and at the provincial scale, 43,8 percent. The confidence level of 5 percent, despite the significant and positive relationship between the two variables has almost the entire country level, although this relationship was stronger than that of the province.
    Conclusion
    The results show that the centers of the provincial capital of West Azarbaijan province are expected to be thirty-seven different countries. The country is ranked 60th in total. In other words, only the cities of Urmia and the second deciles Salmas and Khoy in the fourth and seventh to tenth deciles are in other cities. Hence the need for regional planning as a system to overcome challenges and achieve balanced development is recommended. System development and the best conditions possible for all people in all areas considered. This way of living differences between regions may be minimal. The first step in planning a system, identify the status quo in terms of environmental powers. And the distribution of the funds and resources are distributed among different regions
    Keywords: Development, West Azerbaijan, rates of urbanization, tipsy line, Entropy, Shannon
  • Zahra Pishgahi Fard*, Roghayeh Sharifi Pages 15-30
    Introduction
    With the Islamic Revolution in Iran, people's participation in the political destiny of the country than was provided. In the election or selection of the various factions of the same process has to the election of the people involved. And during the course of this election was different from area to area. In the Research took place about the subject parliamentary elections Geography in Iran, It was concluded that a dramatic change in the border provinces of the country is emerging. The political geography of the province in Iran was named as the divergent territories, In recent years a great demand to participate in national decision-making have shown, Indicate that the republicanism effective role in strengthening the identity - the former is national rather than local identity. Due to the elections in Iran so far no scientific study of the phenomenon gerrymandering in boundaries of electoral districts has been done. In this research, the electoral participation of the Gilan province than all country, the majority of people tend to have explained the country's political factions and finally, gerrymandering phenomenon has been studied in areas of the province's vote.
    Research
    Methodology
    This paper documents the methodology and approach to descriptive - analytical issues geography of the province's election has been analyzed. Thus the first eight courses in parliamentary elections during the province of Gilan Province and the Ministry were prepared. And the statistical tables and graphs of the type of political participation and representation of each the separate spheres and Gilan province in the form of graphs and GIS maps was drawn.
    Results
    This paper examines the parliamentary electoral geography of Gilan province in elections in Iran is eight courses. In this research we examine the geographical and political significance as one of the border provinces of Gilan and marginal country landscape of the province to participate in parliamentary elections the country has been assessed; At the same time in the process of obtaining a formal representation to the ups and downs that have addressed the delegates on their way and political aspirations of the people in each electoral period of four main groups, namely the liberal right (the clergy), left (Clergymen) and has been independently assessed.
    Notably, of course, for certain considerations, to be divided into two sections: the first section of the first course to sixth, and the next stage of the sixth to eighth, both of which have their own characteristics. Finally, Gerrymandering phenomenon (the spatial organization of any party to provide specific benefits) has been studied in the areas of the province's area.
    Conclusion
    The survey results show that despite the province is located in the border country. But the turnout in all elections held after the province of the eight assembly elections; the country has been higher than average percentage of participation and this convergence of people in this province, Islamic Republic of Iran.
    Given the tendency of factional representatives in the province; Most of the activities during this period of eight parliamentary faction of the clergy (right) has had. The power of the clergy-wing (right) in advance of your goals too high and the probability that the next government in the province and power of the clergy of all parliamentary seats to be very high. As in all the eight Assembly seats in the parliamentary faction of the clergy in the province (right) was given.
    In examining changes in the boundaries of electoral districts (Gerrymandering), only one area in Astanehashrafieh during the Fifth Parliament has been discovered. But it appears that such changes have occurred in other areas. But due to weakness in the election of candidates from all areas of Interior Ministry, and the lack of accurate information to researchers, the phenomenon of Gerrymandering is very difficult to do.
    Keywords: The election Geography, political participation, political party, Gerrymandering, Guilan
  • Seyed Reza Hosseinzadeh*, Reza Khosrobeygi, Mostafa Istgalday, Reza Shmsoddini Pages 31-51
    Introduction
    Demand for urban sustainability and a resilient city is one of the important challenges of humanity in the twenty first century. In other words, today the main world opportunities and challenges are embedded in cities and the rapid growth of urbanization accompanied by industrial activities led to inefficiency of urban infrastructures and an intensive increase of environmental destruction. In the current situation, assessing environmental sustainability is one of the most important tools in the process of planning for sustainable development. This assessment is a type of ecological assessment which would be carried out in different levels in sequential way to present a framework for analyzing and assessing the impacts of plans, strategies and polices on environment in a comprehensive method by offering some recommendations to mitigate environmental pressures. So, providing an appropriate milieu for assessment and measuring environmental sustainability is inevitable in the process of urban development and planning. In this paper by a short review on environmental sustainable literature and measuring methods we tried to present a background and appropriate method for selecting the indicators and assessing the level of sustainability in the different parts of Bandar Turkman city.
    The main research question is: what is the level of environmental sustainability in the different parts of Bandar Turkman? The findings were assessed using multi-criteria methods and in the structure of linear assignment model.
    Research
    Methodology
    Discovering the main components and indicators of environmental sustainability in a comprehensive and organized way for evaluation and assessing sustainability in urban areas is multi-criteria techniques in the structure of integrated satiability assessment. Such technique helps the users to understand the results of integrated assessment like evaluating policy aims and applying these results in a system and proposed decision making for sustainable development. There are various tools in the field of multi-criteria decision making models which could help planners and policy makers to solve decision difficulties with respect to different and contradict opinions. These models are TOPSIS, SAW, LINMAP, AHP, ANP, ELECTRE, Linear Assignment, PROMETHEE I & II, Compromise Programming and other methods. In the present paper linear assignment was applied which is a concordance subset. Coordinate subset is the third subset of compensatory models in MADM which their output would be a set of ranks so that provide necessary coordination in a most proper way. This subset includes ELECTRE and linear assignment methods. The data and information of the research were collected by reviewing different documental proofs in the related offices. Also a field survey was conducted to gather main research data and information by completing questionnaires in five different zones of the city in classified random sampling. The number of samples (380) was obtained using Cochran method and the head of households were interviewed. The statistical society of different areas was chosen by cluster sampling and based on each zones population.
    Results
    The obtained results of using Shannon Entropy for finding out the indicator's weights are shown. In this study zones are showed with Aj and i= 1,2,3,4,5 indicators with xj and j= 1,2,…,26 in tables 1 and 2.
    Results of Shannon entropy method used to determine the weights of indicators. Also ranking of the zones was done regarding 26 indicators. The stages of linear assignment algorithm and the ranking results of five zones were analyzed based on rank and case limitations. The following table shows the results obtained from the model for five zones. In overall, zone 5 placed in first priority and zones of 1, 4, 3 and 2 have the next priority respectively by their environmental sustainability.
    Conclusion
    Environmental sustainability assessment can be as important tool in the process of urban sustainable development to direct development trend towards sustainability and consequently desalinate an optimum perspective of urban environment. Accordingly since many models and techniques were applied in different levels to measure and assess sustainability, however have not been able to reach an appropriate framework for measurement and assessment in urban areas. So, in this context and with regard to the literature review, different indicators were selected which finally the integrated approach and multi-criteria assessment based on linear assignment technique were applied for the present research. Also, the view of different experts was considered to determine the value and importance of criteria, the given weights were incorporated in decision matrix and the final weights of indicators were calculated using Shannon entropy. The result from model application revealed that zone 5(Isteghlal) gained the first priority and zone 1 (Farmandari), 4 (back of eastern rail way), 3 (back of western rail way), and 2 (city center) were placed in the next priorities respectively regarding their environmental sustainability. Also the results from field survey in the different zones of the city of Bandar Turkman showed that the model of linear assignment has the capacity to determine the level of sustainability in different parts of the city and then prioritize these zones. So that direct observation showed that the results from model application correspond with existing conditions in the ground.
    Keywords: Environmental sustainability, Assessment, multi, criteria decision making, linear assignment, Bandar Turkman
  • Masood Safari*, Parviz Kardavani, Farzad Moradi Pages 52-69
    Introduction
    Rural areas of the country in the last decades economic were of high Vulnerability. Industrial growth in the big cities, but also rural areas development, exacerbation of poverty found in the increase and the gap between the earning between urban and rural areas was not reduced. Rural challenges faced today is essential in Iran is one of the challenges is the lack of employment and negative consequences, Rural industries is one of the solutions that can be used in tandem with other activities in rural regions apply so as to solve the problem of employment.
    Research
    Methodology
    The main objective of this study was to Determination of Private sectors investing fields for developing the rural industries activities in rural Kermanshah Areas. The study area was the city of Kermanshah is like that of other rural regions of Iran in recent years with continuous migration during in the countryside-urban.The community was studied in this research include households residing in the city in the rural regions of Kermanshah is based on census 2006, range studied with 732 points, household and 163095 people of the rural population is 36047.Due to the high number of villages of the city, the study was not all possible statistical society and Cochran sampling was used. The number of community-based samples analysis unit is the household number 320 sample attendants The research method is based on using questionnaire. In order to analyze variables it used statistical method includes correlation regression and nonparametric statistic with SPSS software.
    Results
    Results of this study, two types of descriptive and analytical findings has been divided into more descriptive findings of de demographic situation, such as age, sex, education and income level of households has been investigated.
    A study of field associated with a tendency to investment by the private sector for the creation and development of rural industries in the rural city of Kermanshah, indicating that it is 23.1 per cent of the total response maps Guyana's enormous, 47.5% options, 22.5 percent of low-and high-6.9% have very little choice. Findings show rural areas is no relationship of Between income level and the tendency to investment, But private sector investment more under the influence of other factors, such as governmental support, such as loans and training in entrepreneurship and future career. Also among the individual properties only between age and inclination to investment a significant relationship exists. Other findings of this study, the tendency for high response in rural areas.
    Conclusion
    One of these sources in the direction of the creation of employment and earning income in rural activities related to rural industries and technology and studies in rural regions. Facilitate the process and conditions of repayment of the loan and get finally contribute to the process of marketing products small scale at the level of District Board can improve the process of the development of rural industries.
    Creating data station according to the understudy area potentials.
    Keywords: Rural industries, Private Sector, rural areas, Kermanshah Township
  • Mehrdad Ramzanipour*, Mahmood Roshani, Eisa Pourramzan Pages 70-83
    Introduction
    Today, tourism is known to be one of the big industries in the world that imposes direct and indirect effect on economy and social sections of human life. Some scholars argue that tourism is an independent section and emphasize the industrial being of it. In the world of today, tourism has a comprehensive approach toward ecotourism because people are travelling to natural settings and try to enjoy the natural views, wild animals, plants, etc. In addition to making money for government and the natives, this section has a significant role in preserving plant and animal environment.
    Research
    Methodology
    To work out data on the map of plant coverage, Land sat 7 satellite data estimating ETM was utilized. Similarly, to work out digital layers of slope, and its direction, intensity of sunlight, co-height elevations, spatial data collection such as co-temperature, co-precipitation, and soil tissue for analysis and locating purposes, DEM latitude model with a high spatial resolution of 80 was used. Tourism ecologic model is divided to two recreationally focused and extended ecological models. Each model can be split into three talented, semi-talented, and untalented classes. Based on the tourism ecologic model, the present study tries to recognize talented class in the region under the study. According to the given criteria, needed layers for co-coverage analysis in Geographical information system with raster format and in conditional method were produced. After the layers were transformed to format taking, talented regions were identified and calculated through cooperation method.
    Results
    In order to recognize suitable ecotourism places, the most desirable temperature conditions, that is the average co-temperature level of between 13 and 17 centigrade in six warm months and co-precipitation level of between 20 and 50 milliliter were used. The slopes having less sunlight were considered as talented classes because the shadowy regions are more desirable to tourists due to intensity of sunlight in mountainous areas. On the other hands, the presence of resistant geological rocks (volcanic rocks) has been considered as a one of the factors of locating. Meanwhile, since condensed plant coverage acts as an obstacle in moving and watching abilities of tourists, the best possible plant coverage of suitable places was considered as semi-condensed area. Accordingly, since tourists choose leveled lands as their deployment factors, the slope parameter of between 0 and 5 percent was considered. Here, the eastern slope is considered as 67.5 to 11.25 degree compared to northern slope since these slopes enjoy more desirable condition of shadow taking (figure 8).
    Conclusion
    Using Geographical information system and factors involved for locating places in the region, the researchers recognized that all talented regions for conducting tourism projects are located in the country region of Deylaman. It is obvious that the mentioned regions enjoy more desirably climatic conditions in warm seasons of the year than other regions. Based on the final model resulted from the common layers that are used in locating places, it was possible to have easy access to all sites and all are located in a rather close distance from roads. As the final model indicates, it is clear that all sites are located in bottom line of rivers with a slope of 5 percent, which makes accessibility to water resources easier. These sites provide temporary deployment of tourists, and if more welfare facilities are provided, tourists may stay in these sites for longer time. Finally, it can be said that based on ecologic criteria, suitable sites of tourism can be identified and matched with natural condition of the region through satellite system of GIS.
    Keywords: Tourism, Ecotourism, ecologic model of tourism, co, coverage model of GIS, Deylaman
  • Noroaldin Azimi*, Nasrollah Molaei Hashjin, Alireza Alizadeh Pages 84-98
    Introduction
    With about 22 million inhabitants, rural areas of Iran contain 29% of the population in the country in 2011. During the past two decades, rural development policies of the government have aimed to improve the living conditions in rural areas. One of these policies was the preparation and implementation of rural guide plans which mainly have tried to organize the physical development within the villages. Even though a great number of rural guide plans have been prepared over the past years, a small number of them have been put into action, mainly because of the shortage of financial resources. Also the success of implemented plans has not been the same within the villages. The main objective of this research is, therefore, to analyze the influencing factors in the success of executed rural guide plans in the east of Guilan Province, Iran.
    Research
    Methodology
    The research method utilized in this study is descriptive and analytic method. Most of the employed data comes from a field survey. Thirteen villages in which rural guide plans had been implemented were selected in the eastern part of Guilan province in the north of Iran to evaluate their achievement level in implementation process.
    These villages included Dehka, Dehshal, Espili, Golsefeed, Lialestan, Moridan, Mousa kellayeh, Peerkooh, Reza mahalle, Roud baneh, Shoveel, South Chof, Tool Lot Nine of the villages were located in the plain area and four in the mountainous area. 25 person in each village and a total of 325 residents were interviewed for this research. The selected villages were evaluated for the level of achievement for plan implementation for which 18 indicators used for the analysis. Pearson correlation analysis was used to find out the causal factors for the achievement level of selected villages for plan implementation.
    Results
    In the first part of this study, the selected villages were evaluated in terms of their achievements in the implementation of rural guide plans using 18 parameters. Based on this evaluation, the average achievement for 13 villages was 52.77%. Among the villages, three of them including Mousa kellayeh, Peerkooh and Espili with 77.3%, 72.2% and 65.6% respectively had the biggest achievement, three other villages including Shoveel, Roud baneh and Lialestan with 55.6%, 52.4% and 51.1% had around the average achievement while the remaining villages had below the average level. The least achievement was related to South Chof village with 38%.
    The second part of study analyzed the underlying factors for the achievement levels of selected villages for plan implementation. One of the main factors regarding the degree of achievement is distance from city centre and access to urban services. Despite our assumption that closer villages to city centers would have higher level of achievement, the Pearson correlation indicated that there is a significant positive relationship between distance and plan achievement level (R= 0.85). This means that the more distance between a village and the city centre, the more achievement level in plan implementation. The main reasons for this, perhaps, could be related to the lesser expectation and higher cooperation of the residents of remote villages compared with the closer villages to city centers. Another important factor considered for the plan achievement level was the geographical situation of the selected villages. As stated earlier, four of the villages were located in mountainous region, two in the foothills and the rest in plain area. A significant correlation of (R= 0.8) indicates that villages located in mountainous area have higher level of plan achievement. The reason for such relationship could be incorporated to the older physical structure of the buildings and the higher cooperation level of residents in these villages in comparison with the villages located in plain area.
    Another underlying factor for achievement level of plans is the time gap between preparation and implementation of the plan. Even though a correlation of (R= -0.43) does not indicate important relation between these variables, however, it shows a medium level inverse relationship between preparation and implementation time gap for the guide plan in a way that the less time gap between preparation and implementation of the plan, the more achievement level is for the plan From social perspectives, the most important factor in the achievement level of plans is public participation in the process of preparation and implementation of the plans. A significant relation of (R= 0.92) indicates how public participation matters in the achievement level of rural guide plans. All of the villages with higher achievement level had higher public participation level. Villager's knowledge about the guide plan before implementation and the objectives of guide plan with (R= 0.78 and R= 0.72 respectively) were other important factors in the achievement level of plans. This means that if villagers know more about the plan and its objectives, probably, they might have more cooperation in the implementation process of guide plan. The last factors examined here was the size of the population. It appears that villages with medium or smaller size population have had a better achievement level. This could be related to the smaller amount of physical activities in smaller villages and the possibility of higher cooperation compared in them compared with larger villages.
    Conclusion
    This article analyzed the influencing factors in the success of the implementation of rural guide plans in the east of Guilan Province, Iran. The main findings of the research are: 1) the geographical location of villages and their distances from cities are found significantly correlated with the degree of the success of rural guide plans. 2) Villages located in the mountainous areas with medium size population and farther from cities seems have been more successful than those located in the plain areas, closer to cities and with bigger population. 3) The knowledge of rural residents from guide plans and their participations in the preparation and implementation of rural guide plans were other important factors in achievement level rural guide plan in the study area.
    Keywords: Rural, Rural Guide Plan, Performance Plan, Factors Geography, East, e Guilan
  • Mohammadbaset Ghoreshi Minabad*, Seyedeh Tayebeh Mirvase Pages 99-114
    Introduction
    Student camping is a type of touring activity done in group and controlled by trainers outside school environment. Camping if done with a suitable management and purpose can be an appropriate activity to fill parts of student's leisure time in addition to being effective activity regarding different educational approaches. It requires study and survey to recognize the type and degree of this effect. The present article tends to study the role of camps in enriching high school student's leisure time with an emphasis on the role of human experts to increase the efficiency of camps from different facets.
    Research Methodology The methodology used is of descriptive-analytic type. The information on the condition of holding camps for boys and girls, in state and private schools, consequences, and different roles of camps in student's opinions are investigated.
    To collect data documentary and field studies have been carried out. Documentary study is used to collect data to show number, time, period, camps destination, and company of people in them. Field study is conducted to gain information on the student's views about the process of holding camps and their consequences in schools. In field study, a questionnaire in Liker Scale has been used. The area of study encompasses high schools in district 2 of education office in Rasht city.
    The subject population includes all the high school students totaled 15909, in the educational year of 2007-8. Based on Morgan Table, the sample population consists of 375.
    Due to likely defects of questionnaire and the probability that some of them
    Are left unanswered, 400 questionnaires were finally distributed using random sampling. Tools used to collect data are a researcher-made questionnaire. To analyze findings, t test and correlation coefficient are utilized.
    Results
    Findings reveal that few numbers of students are taken to camping. The highest rate is 15 percent of private school girl students, and no camp was held for boys in private schools. Thus, camps have small role in filling student's leisure time. As expected, most students are willing to participate in these camps, and girl students are somehow more willing than boys are in this regard. Around 80 percent of students believe that camps are not effective in enriching their leisure time unless it is held at an appropriate time. At present, camps are mostly held in April that is not, in fact, an appropriate time for student's leisure time activity regarding educational calendar, whereas this season is high time for students to study and review their lessons for final examination. That is why students are highly willing for the camp to be held in their leisure time that is school off time or season. The mind-triggering issue here is that teachers and trainers as human experts have very small role is student's academic efficiency and learning. Around 60 percent of respondents certified this issue referring to the management of camping that is being heeded inadequately.
    Conclusion
    The results of research present that camps have influence to enrich the times of leisure of students and the students think that role of teachers as expert manpower rated in moderate science efficiency but in opinion of that students who participate in these camps, the role of teachers is less than lower bound. Results of regression testing confirm that camping is effective in enrich the times of leisure. Also gathering expert manpower is effective in science efficiency of students and this effect is %27 so there are the other effective factors in science efficiency of students.
    Keywords: Camp, times of leisure, manpower, Education, nurture, studets
  • Jafar Mirkatooli*, Mostafa Ghadami, Masoomeh Mahdian, Sahar Mohamadi Pages 115-133
    Introduction
    With The wave of industrialization to the third world, production and income and consequently demand for municipal services. From the early twentieth century, has increased. This trend raised the number and size of cities in these countries and led to urbanization and. So cities were encountered with specific problems. Cities Physical development and urban population growth and subsequently changes in physical and spatial development of cities to become a problem or issue in recent decades. And attention to urban issues - particularly the physical issues - in the form of a scientific framework is the importance and necessary. Babolsar city with having a natural, tourism, academic attractions and ... has grown as one of the main poles of attraction of population in the Mazandaran province, in recent years. This trend of population growth and Entry Immigration and tourism led to the construction without plan and large change in the space - physical structure of city and its development in the coastal strip and surrounding agricultural land.
    Research
    Methodology
    Methodology depends on the purpose and nature of its research and administrative facilities.
    Thus, the approach of this research is field, library and descriptive - analytical.
    Data and information needed to research has been taken from field and processed. So, after select the topic, at first with examining documents and library data bank Online, physical development and population trends of Babolsar in different periods of history was determined. After collecting the required data, with relying on the information obtained, the physical development and population trends of Babolsar in different periods of history was determined. After collecting the required data with relying on the information, obtained the physical development and expansion of Babolsar city with use of Shannon`s entropy and holder models. But the main research approach has been based on descriptive- analytical methods.
    Results
    Today, knowledge of space form of city can be one of the most important affecting factors in success rate of urban planners to meet the needs of present and future, In this paper have been helped two models: Shannon`s entropy model to analyze the physical development of Babolsar City in 1379 and 1389 which are respectively 11 and 22 quarters (Map 3),
    Shannon`s entropy model: we use this model to analyze the Ugly urban growth phenomenon. The overall structure of this model is as follows:
    The results found that amount of entropy in Babolsar city was 20166 / 2 in 1379. While the maximum value is Ln (11) = 2 / 3978 is Can be mention to being close the amount of entropy to maximum amount (2 / 3978). This issue represents dispersed (sprawl) the physical expansion of the city. 11 neighborhoods of the city were separated into 22 neighborhoods in 1389. The estimated amount of entropy is calculated equal to 94214 / 2, while the maximum value isLn (11) = 3 / 0910 that it shows, the physical expansion of the city, was scattered over the past ten years.
    Holdern model: Results of the Holdern model about the Babolsar city shows that within the 1385-1335 years About 60 percent of physical growth, population growth related to population growth and 40 percent of physical growth was related to horizontal growth and urban sprawl that it`s result was decrease density Gross population and increase of Per capita net urban land and eventually ugly Horizontal spread (sprawl) of Babolsar city.
    Conclusion
    In this paper has been discussed and analyzed pattern of physical development of city in different periods and with use of related models. the amount of Shannon`s entropy of Babolsar City showed diffuse growth (sprawl) in 1379 and 1389 that led to destruction of part of quality agricultural land. In survey of appropriateness of the size of the city’s development with population during the decade (1385-1335) with Holdern model came to the conclusion that About 60 percent of the city expansion was consistent with population growth and 40 percent of physical expansion, was due to Ugly urban growth and inharmonious (sprawl) of city. This is the result of uncontrolled urban growth And not having a written plan for the physical development of city. Population growth and limitless expansion of the nearby city of Babolsar, Cause excessive pressure on water resources and other infrastructure, the destruction of good agricultural land around the city and has many other issues. We found out that something's helps city to prevent uncontrolled physical expansion; can be developed within the context of the city, expansion the culture of vertical wings the city, and eventually Providing facilities in the villages to prevent migration of villagers to the citys.
    Keywords: Physical, Spatial Expansion, horizontal, sprawl growth, Holdren's model Shannon's Entropy Model, Babolsar city
  • Asghar Nazarian*, Nader Shohani Pages 134-151
    Introduction
    In urban life, city includes three major parts: citizen urban context and urban management. At first, urban management has a close relationship with urban community in the macro level, formation and developing of local and urban civil community, local citizen-making, promoting urban citizenship, establishing citizenship rights and duties, improving citizen partnership and giving attention to citizen's opinions in administration of local and urban affairs. This paper is about to discuss urban management reinforcement through concepts of social justice, citizen partnership, collaborative and responsible urban management and citizenship affecting durable human development in Ilam. In citizen-oriented city, to improve and reinforce urban affairs management, participation of all users including government (municipalities), private sector and non- governmental organizations, people and citizens are inevitable things and citizens should in turn take more important steps to improve their city: Qualities of a citizen-based city are as follows:1. The city in which urban management besides clarity and responsibility in its performance makes attempt to fulfill social justice and pay attention to people's demands.
    2. The city in which citizens besides responsibility and partnership in all urban affairs trust in urban management and belong to their city in terms of place.
    3. The city in which access to urban facilities and services for citizen's use is appropriate and citizens access to facilities easily (source: student)

    Research
    Methodology
    The expected approach in this paper is descriptive-practical and survey-based. Descriptive because it deals with non-manipulated variables and survey-based because it relies on questionnaire, data collection and extension of findings for population. Ilam, the central and the most important city is located in the north of province. Ilam as a first regional city, has more than 25 percent of the whole population and 45 percent of the whole city-dwelling population in province.
    Results
    This city has an area with 17 square kilometers in terms of specified (limit by comprehensive city plan. In this paper, more than 70 questions of citizens and urban directors were asked in forms of questionnaire randomly to study the citizenship state for reinforcing urban management in Ilam. In these questions, urban management performance, citizen's partnership state and the relationship of these variables with urban management reinforcement has been evaluated. According to these qualities, urban management performance has been measured with mixture of more than 30 questions in all areas.
    According to extracted statistics, 27,8percent of respondents evaluated urban management performance as well, 24.6 percent average and 47.6 percent considered it to achieve citizen-based city. The participation rate has been evaluated in several questions combined together which of all respondents 54 percent showed high, 21 percent average and 24.3 percent low participation. It implies that the participation rate among people is 54, namely half of people are active in urban affairs. In terms of attitude and intellectual needs, most people agree on participation in urban affairs and consider it a useful act to improve urban affairs but in practical dimension, most resist for different participation, this shows that a kind of balance recognition has been developed among citizens and their recognitive view dont correspond to common practical approaches.
    Conclusion
    The main challenges of citizen-based urban management in Ilam includes:The loss of independent regional identity, the lack of city-dwelling background, tribal life and culture in Ilam (rural culture). The regions of Ilam city in terms of a citizen-based city (participation and) is not of good results and this shows that Ilam city is not directed based on citizenship principles and most citizens and also urban managers are not mentally enough prepared to understand citizen-based city. Although, final comment on this issue is due to future studies and its comparison with previous researches. To achieve this vital concept, approaches will be offered to get research goals for reinforcing urban management.
    Keywords: reinforcement, Urban Management, Citizen, citizen's participation (partnership), citizen, based city