- پیاپی 33 (پاییز و زمستان 1398)
- تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/01
- تعداد عناوین: 13
صفحات 9-26منظومه تمثیلی «رابعه و بکتاش» از الهی نامه عطار نیشابوری، با درون مایه عرفانی در 421 بیت با مضامین عشق عذری سروده شده است. رابعه با اینکه شاهزاده است، عاشق بکتاش (غلام برادرش حارث) می شود. منظومه «سلامان و ابسال» نیز در 10860 بیت از هفت اورنگ جامی، داستان تمثیلی شرح دلدادگی ابسال (دایه) به سلامان است. در هر دو داستان، دختران شروع کننده عشق اند. «رابعه» عاشق «بکتاش» و «ابسال» عاشق «سلامان» و عشقشان نسبت به معشوق پایدار و پاک است. هر دو شخصیت از خاندان سلطنتی هستند؛ پدر رابعه، شاه بلخ و پدر سلامان، شاه یونان است و هر دو از درون خانواده به زندگی خود پایان می دهند. «رابعه» توسط برادرش از بین می رود و «ابسال» خود را در آتش می سوزاند. این پژوهش که به روش توصیفی و تحلیل محتوا انجام شد، نشان می دهد که مهارت سرایندگان این دو منظومه در توصیف دقیق عشق و همچنین منش شخصیت ها، مخاطب را تا پایان داستان تحت تاثیر قرار می دهد و با وجود رمزآلود بودن هر دو حکایت، عشقی جذاب و پایدار در سیر داستان روایت می شود. مساله اصلی این پژوهش مقایسه منظومه های عاشقانه «رابعه و بکتاش» عطار و «سلامان و ابسال» جامی و بیان تفاوت ها و همانندی های دو منظومه، تبیین و توصیف دقیق عشق و همچنین منش شخصیت ها و تاثیر آن بر مخاطب است و اینکه فضای عاشقانه داستان چگونه در پیشبرد روند داستان موثر بوده است؟کلیدواژگان: رابعه و بکتاش، عطار نیشابوری، سلامان و ابسال، عبدالرحمن جامی، مقایسه
صفحات 27-40«غنا» در لغت به معنی سرود، نغمه و آواز خوش طرب انگیز و شعر «غنایی»، گزارشگر عواطف و احساسات شخصی شاعر است. در پژوهش حاضر به بررسی مولفه های ادب غنایی در شعر «یاد آر ز شمع مرده یاد آر» دهخدا می پردازیم. جامعه آماری پژوهش حاضر، شعر «یاد آر ز شمع مرده یاد آر» از علی اکبر دهخداست و تحلیل و بررسی شعر مذکور از بعد مولفه های ادب غنایی، هدف این پژوهش است.جامعه آماری و حجم نمونه، کل شعر است. روش تحقیق، توصیفی- تحلیلی و روش گردآوری اطلاعات، کتابخانه ای است. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات، فیش تحقیقاتی و روش تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات، تحلیل محتوایی است. عناصر غنایی شعر موردنظر عبارت اند از: امیدواری، اندیشه های فلسفی، تکیه بر نقش و نمود اجتماعی ادب غنایی، حبسیه، دلبستگی به آزادی، مرثیه سرایی، توجه به طبیعت وجودی انسان، هیجان و احساسات. یافته ها و نتایج آن، بسامد بالای عناصر ادب غنایی و نتیجه کلی این پژوهش، غنایی بودن این اثر با توجه به بسامد مولفه های غنایی است.کلیدواژگان: ادب غنایی، مولفه های ادب غنایی، یاد آر ز شمع مرده یاد آر، علی اکبر دهخدا
صفحات 41-64امروزه «رهبری» مهم ترین نقش را در پیشبرد اهداف سازمان ایفا می کند. موفقیت هر سازمانی در گرو داشتن رهبران تحول آفرین است؛ از سوی دیگر، بخش قابل ملاحظه ای از آموزه های اخلاقی و حکمی مرتبط با اصول مدیریت و رهبری در آثار ارزشمند ادبی نگاشته شده است. پژوهش حاضر ضمن بررسی منظومه های شرفنامه، اقبال نامه و هفت پیکر تلاش می کند به این پرسش اصلی پاسخ دهد: «مولفه های رهبری تحول آفرین در آموزه های نظامی گنجوی کدام اند؟» این مقاله به روش کیفی و با «راهبرد داده بنیاد» انجام شده است. در این روش بدون هیچ گونه پیش فرضی، داده های کیفی مرتبط گردآوری و دسته بندی شد. سپس با مقایسه و سنجش داده ها و مفاهیم، مولفه های رهبری تحول آفرین ترسیم شد. در پایان این فرایند، پایه های اصلی نظریه «رهبری تحول آفرین از دیدگاه نظامی گنجوی» شامل 43 مفهوم در قالب 7 مولفه ازقبیل مدیریت دانش، مدیریت ارتباطات، مدیریت انگیزش، انعطاف پذیری، مدیریت مشارکتی، مدیریت راهبردی و مدیریت اجرایی طراحی و تنظیم شد.کلیدواژگان: ادبیات، رهبری تحول آفرین، نظامی گنجوی
صفحات 65-96یکی از مهم ترین شگردهای هنری در کتاب «نیستان» ادیب قاسمی کرمانی که نقش بارزی در شهرت این اثر داشته، بهره گیری از صورخیال و عناصر علم بیان بوده که تشبیه، استعاره، کنایه و مجاز، متناقض نما و حس آمیزی را دربر می گیرد. علوم بلاغی از آغاز طلوع شعر فارسی تا به امروز، همواره مورد توجه شاعران بوده و حتی در نخستین اشعار عروضی فارسی نیز می توان جلوه هایی ازآن را جستجو کرد. کتاب «نیستان» که در قالب مثنوی سروده شده است، به لحاظ کاربرد صورخیال در ساختار زبان عامیانه، اثری ارزشمند محسوب می شود. در این پژوهش شگردهای هنری این اثر در سطح روساختی، به روش تحلیل محتوا مورد توصیف قرار می گیرد. ادیب کرمانی (1308-1238ه.ش) از شاعران حوزه ادبیات انتقادی و فولکوریک است و کتاب «نیستان» وی به پیروی از سبک بوستان سعدی سروده شده و او درمقابل جلوه های بلاغی و به ویژه صورخیال مطرح در بوستان، با بهره گیری از کلمات و تعبیرات خاص مردم کوچه و بازار و صنف شالبافان، اثر نقیضی در تقابل با بوستان سروده است. پاسخ به سوال اصلی تحقیق که دریافت مهم ترین شگردهای هنری و جلوه های بلاغی «نیستان» و میزان موفقیت شاعر در این زمینه است، هدف موردنظر نویسندگان را دربرمی گیرد. نتیجه پژوهش نشان می دهد که شاعر از واژگان محلی و عامیانه، تعبیرات و اصطلاحات صنف شالبافان و کنایات خاص مردم کوچه و بازار، به عنوان شگردهای هنری سبک خاص خود استفاده کرده و در این زمینه به توفیق نسبی دست یافته استکلیدواژگان: ادیب قاسمی کرمانی، نیستان، بلاغت، صورخیال
تحلیل نشانه شناسی معشوق در شعر شاملو براساس نظریه مایکل ریفاتر مطالعه موردی: شعر «سرود آن کس که از کوچه به خانه بازمی گردد»صفحات 97-116نظریه نشانه شناسی شعر مایکل ریفاتر، از نظریه های خواننده محور سده بیستم اروپاست که در تحلیل شعر های اروپایی بسیار تاثیرگذار بوده است. در پژوهش حاضر با بهره گیری از نظریه مذکور، موضوع معشوق در نمونه ای از شعر معاصر -از شاملو- بررسی شده است. پژوهشگران پس از خوانش اکتشافی، با بهره گیری از توانش ادبی به خوانش پس کنشانه شعر پرداخته اند. انباشت هایی با معنابن های «فرزند» و «معشوق»، اندیشه غالب شعر را نشان داد. از بررسی منظومه های توصیفی با هسته های «تولد»، «معشوق» و «خانه» و رابطه این انگاره های بنیادین با انباشت ها، جمله های حدسی در قالب هیپوگرام حاصل شد. ماتریس ساختاری شعر که دربرگیرنده ویژگی های خاص معشوق شعر شاملو است، به این ترتیب است: امید به آینده ای پربار -اشتیاق صادقانه معشوق- معشوق نخستین خواننده نوسروده های شاعر -حضور حقیقی معشوق انگیزه سرایش شاعر- تشویق معشوق از شاعر -معشوق پناهگاه شاعر- ناگزیری مردم از پذیرش شعرهای سپید شاعر. ویژگی های خاص معشوق در شعر شاملو از راه بررسی نشانه شناختی را می توان این گونه برشمرد: جلوه انسانی دارد، حقیقی است، دارای هویت فردی، یگانه، زمینی و در دسترس است. همچنین هم پا، هم راه، پناه، قابل اعتماد، کنش ور و انگیزه سرایش شاعر است. پاره ای از زندگی واقعی اوست. دوست دارد و دوست داشته می شود.کلیدواژگان: نشانه شناسی شعر، خوانش اکتشافی، خوانش پس کنشانه، توانش ادبی، معشوق، احمد شاملو، مایکل ریفاتر
صفحات 117-132شیخ فیضی دکنی (1595-1547م) از شاعران پارسی گوی هند است. او به دربار جلال الدین اکبرشاه راه یافت و به مرتبه امیری و ملک الشعرایی رسید. او در قصیده، غزل و مثنوی صاحب مقامی شامخ است. فیضی به تقلید از نظامی، مثنوی «نل و دمن» را به نظم کشیده است. پدیده پیکرگردانی (Metamorphoses) و (Transformation) که به دگرگونی چهره یا تغییر شکل موجودات تعبیر شده است، در قصه ها و افسانه های مردم هند جایگاه ویژه ای دارد. فراوانی پیکرگردانی در قصه ها و افسانه های جهان و به طور خاص در میان قصه ها و افسانه های مردم هند که نسل به نسل روایت شده است، نشان از اندیشه های ریشه دار اساطیری در تفکرات عامیانه مردم سرزمین هند دارد. شخصیت هایی که دارای قدرت سحر و جادو هستند، در هر جای افسانه ها و قصه ها که نیاز باشد، دست به تغییر حالت می زنند و در قالب استحاله های گوناگون نمایان می شوند. این پژوهش، به شیوه توصیفی- تحلیلی و استواری بر چارچوب نظری می کوشد به این پرسش پاسخ دهد که شاخص ترین انواع پیکرگردانی و همچنین کارکرد و نقش این پیکرگردانی ها در افسانه غنایی «نل و دمن» چیست؟ مطابق دستاوردهای تحقیق، بیش ترین نوع استحاله های موجود در افسانه «نل و دمن» مربوط به استحاله انسانی و استحاله انسان به حیوان است.کلیدواژگان: فیضی دکنی، نل و دمن، داستان غنایی، پیکرگردانی
صفحات 133-148کولریج شاعر انگلیسی اواخر قرن هجده، «هزار و یک شب» را خاستگاه تخیل خود می دانست و از این اثر بهره های فراوان برده است. در این مقاله به بررسی سهم «هزار و یک شب» در اندیشه و شعر این شاعر انگلیسی پرداخته ایم و حدود و ثغور این تاثیر را بیان داشته ایم. هدف از این مقاله مطالعه شعر کولریج و جستجو در آن برای یافتن رد پای «هزار و یک شب» است. روش تحقیق این مقاله، تطبیقی و از نوع ادبیات تطبیقی مکتب فرانسوی است که قائل به تاثیر مستقیم آثار بر نویسندگان است. از این دیدگاه باید میراث شاعر متقدم در شعر و اثر متاخر با دلیل و مدرک اثبات شود. نتیجه این بررسی نشان داد، «هزار و یک شب» نقش بسزایی در رشد ادبی این شاعر انگلیسی داشته است.کلیدواژگان: تاثیر، هزار و یک شب، تخیل، ساموئل تیلور کولریج
صفحات 149-168رابطه زبان و جنسیت در دهه های اخیر در حوزه های مختلفی ازجمله زبان شناسی اجتماعی و ادبیات موردتوجه پژوهشگران واقع شده است. متاسفانه در راستای شناخت و تحلیل دقیق فرهنگی براساس متون کهن فارسی، پژوهشی صورت نگرفته است. منظومه های غنایی از مهم ترین منابع نمود جنسیت ادبیات فارسی هستند. برای تحلیل زبان و جنسیت در ادبیات کلاسیک فارسی، دو منظومه «ویس ورامین» و «خسرو وشیرین» با دو رویکرد عمده به زبان و جنسیت، یعنی رویکرد تسلط و رویکرد تفاوت بررسی شده است تا مشخص شود که کدام رویکرد در دو منظومه مذکور ازنظر واژگان زنانه غالب است. روش تحقیق به هر دو شکل تحلیل کمی و کیفی صورت گرفته است. نتایج این پژوهش نمایانگر این است که شمار واژگان زنانه در «ویس و رامین» بیشتر است و برخلاف تصور اولیه، رویکرد تفاوت در واژگان به کار رفته در هر دو منظومه نسبت به رویکرد تسلط بیشتر است و همچنین میزان رویکرد تفاوت در «خسرو و شیرین» بیشتر از «ویس و رامین» است. نتایج این تحقیق می تواند تا حدودی بازنمودی از جایگاه زنان آن روزگار نیز باشد.کلیدواژگان: زبان، جنسیت، ویس و رامین، خسرو و شیرین، رویکرد تسلط، رویکرد تفاوت
صفحات 169-188بدیع الزمان همدانی از نویسندگان زبردست عرب زبان در قرن چهارم هجری است که ابتکار فن مقامه نویسی را به نام خود ثبت کرده است. او در بخش هایی از مقامات خود با هنرمندی خاص، از اسلوب کنایه برای القای معانی بهره برده است. کنایه اسلوب بلاغی است که نویسنده با بیان مبهم، مقاصد خود را بیان می کند. به عبارت دیگر، کنایه از اسلوب های بیان است که به روش مجاز به انتقال معانی می پردازد. این نوع مجاز قرینه مانعه ندارد و می توان معنای حقیقی را -با آنکه مدنظر نیست- در کنار معنای مجازی اراده کرد. این پژوهش در پی آن است که با بررسی کنایه در مقامات بدیع الزمان همدانی به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی، پاسخی برای این سوال بیابد که نویسنده هنر پرداختن به کنایه را با چه اغراضی به کار برده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که نویسنده انواع کنایات موردنظر علمای بلاغت را با اغراض مختلفی چون ترسیم امور معقول به محسوس، احترام، تفاول و تطیر، دلیل و برهان، ذم، فخر، استرحام، استهزاء، بزرگداشت، کراهت از ذکر نام، مدح، مبالغه و... به کار برده است.کلیدواژگان: کنایه، بلاغت، اغراض کنایه، مقامات، بدیع الزمان همدانی
صفحات 189-208نظریه ارجاع به بررسی روابط و خوانش بینامتنی و فرامتنی در متن ها می پردازد. این نظریه، آثار ادبی مخاطب را به دیگر متن ها و فرامتن ها ارجاع می دهد و مخاطب می تواند براساس آن، متن ها را با ارجاع به مصداق های عینی و بیرونی، یا با ارجاع به متن های دیگر درک و دریافت کند. پژوهش حاضر تمثیل های صائب را ازمنظر این نظریه بررسی می کند؛ چراکه صائب در هر تمثیلی، مخاطب را به یک متن یا فرامتن ارجاع می دهد. نویسندگان سعی کرده اند با شیوه توصیفی- تحلیلی به معرفی و تحلیل متن ها و فرامتن هایی بپردازند که صائب در ساختن تمثیل ها از آن ها بهره برده است. دستاورد این پژوهش بیانگر دو نکته مهم است: اول اینکه تمثیل مبنای ارجاعی دارد؛ یعنی شاعر برای اثبات هر مدعایی خواننده را به یک مثل ارجاع می دهد و دیگر اینکه این مثل ها براساس ارجاع بینامتنی یا فرامتنی ساخته شده اند. قرآن مجید، احادیث، احکام شرعی و سرگذشت انبیاء از مهم ترین متن ها و اجتماعیات و طبیعت نیز از اصلی ترین فرامتن هایی هستند که صائب در تمثیل پردازی از آن ها بهره برده است. شیوه پژوهش ابتدا جمع آوری و دسته بندی تمثیل های صائب براساس پیش زمینه های دینی، فکری و فرهنگی بوده است؛ سپس این شواهد با توجه به گونه های ارجاع درون متنی یا برون متنی و خوانش محاکاتی یا نشانه ای تحلیل و بررسی شده اند.کلیدواژگان: ارجاع، تمثیل، صائب، بینامتن و فرامتن
صفحات 209-232از دیدگاه روان شناسی تحلیلی، بر اساس نظریات کارل گوستاو یونگ، کهن الگوها عناصر مشترک در ضمیر ناخودآگاه انسان ها هستند و اسطوره ها از تجلی گاه های کهن الگوها به شمار می روند. پری، از جمله کهن الگوها یا میراث روانی مشترک بشر است که در بخش غنایی داستان های حماسی وجود دارد. هدف این جستار، شناسایی و بازشناخت پری و ویژگی های آن در روایات رستم و سهراب، برزونامه، بانوگشسپ نامه، فرامرزنامه، شهریارنامه و جهانگیرنامه است. قهرمانان اصلی این روایات، شامل رستم و دیگر پهلوانان که همگی از نسل اویند، در بخش غنایی داستان ها، درتقابل با پری قرار می گیرند. این پژوهش، به روش تحلیلی-توصیفی گرد آمده است. با واکاوی کهن الگوی پری در این داستان ها، آنچه دریافت شده آن است که پری، صورتی دوگانه دارد؛ گاهی نقش آنیمای پهلوان را به صورت مثبت و سازنده برعهده دارد و موجب تثبیت شخصیت و کمک به او در رسیدن به کمال یابی می شود و گاهی به صورت زن جادو، بازتابی از آنیمای منفی پهلوان و سایه است که مانع از رسیدن به فردیت یابی می شود و باید کنترل شود. همچنین به این نکته پرداخته شده است که چگونه کهن الگوی پری که دارای نقش مثبت در ایران باستان است، به زن جادو در ادبیات مزدیسنایی تبدیل شده است.کلیدواژگان: اسطوره، کهن الگو، آنیما، پری، زن جادو
صفحات 233-256در این مقاله مفاخره یا خودستایی به عنوان شیوه ای آزاد در نقد شعر مورد بررسی قرار می گیرد. مساله این است که آیا می توان مفاخره را تاحدودی به عنوان یکی از مظاهر و ابزارهای نقد شعر در میان شاعران تلقی کرد؟ شاعران عموما در تمجید از آثار خود یا ترجیح آن بر آثار دیگران تحت نفوذ احساسات و تاثرات درونی خود بوده و معیار دقیقی برای داوری در نظر نداشته اند؛ ازاین رو تحت تاثیر وضعیت حاکم بر زندگی فردی و اجتماعی خود، دیدگاه های عموما تاثری خود را درباره آثار خود در اشعارشان آورده اند. روش این مقاله برای تحقیق درباره این مساله مبتنی است بر تحلیل محتوا و توصیف نمونه های آثار منظوم به همراه بررسی رابطه مفاخره با سبک شعری شاعران و ذکر دلایلی برای روی آوردن شاعران به مفاخره؛ در نتیجه، مفاخره در مطاوی آثار ادبی فارسی به عنوان عنصری سبک ساز دیده می شود که می توان آن را از منظر نقد ادبی حائز اهمیت دانست؛ ولی آن را در قالب نوعی از نقد موسوم به نقد بی معیار و نقد ذوقی یا نقد تاثری می توان بررسی کرد و به طور کلی مفاخره در شعر با هر دیدگاهی که صورت گیرد، در بسیاری از مواقع می تواند دربردارنده نقد شعر خود یا دیگران باشد.کلیدواژگان: مفاخره، نقد تاثری یا ذوقی، نقد شعر، نقد فتوایی
صفحات 257-280مدح، سنتی رایج در میان شاعران فارسی زبان و ازجمله راه های امرار معاش بوده است. انوری در کنار قصاید مدحی، قطعه های تقاضای گاه حقیرانه و در عین حال زیبایی نیز سروده است. به دلیل این تقاضاها از میان صدها شاعر، بعضی از پژوهشگران فقط او را متکدی دانسته اند. برای معلوم کردن صحت و سقم این نسبت، تقاضاهای برخی از شاعران را بررسی کرده ایم و مشخص شد عواملی چون: عدم امنیت شغلی، دشواری شرایط شاعر شدن، امساک ممدوحان از دادن صله، احتیاج شاعران و اهمیت مدح برای ممدوحان باعث شده است مدیحه سرایی و به تبع آن تقاضاسرایی هرروز رایج تر شود. بی ثباتی موقعیت سیاسی از دوره سنجر و برکیارق بن ملکشاه و از دست رفتن ثبات شغلی و درآمد شاعران، سبب شده تا آن ها در این برهه از تاریخ نسبت به دوره های قبل تقاضای چیزهای کم بها تر کنند. همچنین دریافتیم که اشعاری از انوری که تکدی خوانده شده، مشابهات زیادی در دیوان های شاعران دیگر دارد؛ از این رو دادن عنوان تکدی گری تنها به انوری عادلانه نیست. موارد زیر را می توان عامل دادن این نسبت به انوری دانست: اقرار انوری به اینکه «گدایی شریعت شعر است» و معروف شدن او به عنوان یکی از سه پیغمبر شعر باعث شده محققانی که او را در این پایه نمی دیدند، عیب هایش را بیشتر آشکار کنند.کلیدواژگان: انوری، تکدی گری، تقاضا، ممدوح، مداحی
Pages 9-26The allegorical verses of Rabe'e and Baktash from the ElahiNameh of Attar Neyshaburi, have been written with a mystical source in 421 bits of love with the theme of love, and Raba'a, though a prince, loves Becketash, his brother Al-Harith. The Salaam and Salam are 10860 Verses of the HaftOrang of Jami, an allegorical story of Absal -Dāyā- With Salaman. In both stories, Women are the beginnings of love. Rabe'e likes Baktash and Absal likes Salaman and their love for the beloved are stable and clean. Both characters are from the royal family; Rabe'e's Father is the king of Balkh and Absal's Father is the king of Greece, and they both end their lives from within the family. Rabe'e is destroyed by his brother, and Absal burns himself in fire. This research, which has been done through descriptive and content analysis, shows that the creativity of the two poets in affecting the exact description of love as well as the character of personality influences the audience until the end of the story, and despite the mysterious nature of both narrations, An attractive and lasting story is told in the story. The main issue of this research is the comparison of the romantic verses of Rabe'e and Baktash of Attar, Salaman and Absal of Jami, and the expression of the differences and similarities of the two poems, the explanation and precise description of love as well as the character of the characters and its impact on the audience, and how the lyrical atmosphere of the story is in Has the story progressed effectively?
Keywords: Rabe'e and Baktash, Attar Neyshaburi, Salaman and Abasal, Abdolrahman Jami, Comparative.
1.IntroductionSince love is the basis of rich literature and the skill of the poets in expressing artistic expression and presenting pure love images is one of the issues of interest in the field of literature; a comparison of the romantic poems of 'Rabe'e and Baktash' of Attar and 'Salaman and Absal' of Jami, the explanation and exact description of love, as well as the character of the characters and its effect on the notes in these two poems as the main issue of this research, were considered by the authors. Also, comparing and adapting the characteristics of the same story and analyzing their content and expressing the way of describing love in the love poems of Jami and Attar and comparing their literary functions were also considered and that: 1. The way of describing love in the joy of the romantic poems What did Attar have in the progress of the story? 2. Differences and verses of the poetry of 'Rabe'e and Baktash' and 'Salaman and Absal' of Jami are the main characters in the description of the characters as well as the lyrical atmosphere of the story. The famous poetry of Rabe'e and Baktash is from Mantegh Al- Teyr of Attar, a well-known poet who has no knowledge of his life other than what Attar has revealed in his book. In the earliest remark of Persian poetry, Lobab al-albab, it reads: "Rabe'e Bent Ka'b al-Qozdari, daughter of Ka'b, although she was a woman, but laugh at the grace of the men of the world. Horseman both the square and the governor of both expressions, were able to grasp the ghastly order, and in the Persian poetry, highly skilled, with a high degree of intelligence, a sense of coherence, and continuous love, you lost control and witnessed. It has been quoted that, as Sheikh Abu Saeed heard his story, he said: "I reached out to me and asked daughter of Ka'b whether he was a mystic or a lover." They said that the poetry that flowed on his tongue was that it was not possible to create such a burning sensation in virtual love. (Aowfi, 1930, p. 2:16)
Jami - the poet and mystic of the ninth century poets - in the book of HaftOrang, he has regulated the story of Salaman and Absal. In fact, this story is a codenamed story written in the third century AH by Honayn Ibn Ishaq from Greek to Arabic. (Rozatian, 2009: 98) He lives in Greece, who does not have a spouse and child, but has a wise and wise man. After having the wise guidance of a boy and giving young and beautiful Daya for his education, until Salaman (the son of the King) and Absal (Daya) are very Age difference, and with enduring difficulties, the father of the two he does. Absal will burn in the fire and the wise will solve the problem and make an example of Absal to relieve the pain of salvation and then destroy that face and slowly speak of Venus until he salutes his love to Venus and ultimately With consent of the king's father to Salaman (Ashrafzadeh, 1382: 22). These two stories have many mystical aspects that are controversial in their place, although in the first story of Rabe'e and Baktash, they love excuses and do not get together, and the king's daughter, She loves the servant, but Absal, the dare loves the king's son and hugs him hard.
2. Research methodThis research studies the richness of the two great poets, Attar Neyshaburi and Abdul Rahman Jami in his two novels, Rabe'e and Baktash, and Salaam and Absal, with a descriptive and content analysis approach, and also explains the delicacies of two stories and methods of analysis. The storytelling in the verses of Rabe'e and Baktash, and Salaam and Absal is based on a comparative approach. In this study, the authors first examined the rich manifestations of two stories from different angles, and then pointed out the differences and similarities of the tow Story.
3.DiscussionIn the literary works of narrative structures, various meanings are brought into the mind. The narrator, in turn, employs structures in his work that are diverse and able to affect the audience. In the middle of the story, the letter begins with the father of Rabe'e: One King was a great supporter ... this is a steady at the start The story has a twofold impact on the reader. The King was the epicenter of the city of Balkh and its name Ka'b. Very adorable, just and awesome, so that at the time of his rule, not only did people have no problems at all, and they were peaceful alongside. Jami also begins the story with Salaman's father, a powerful King. This power and enthusiasm in the story tells the reader hard to curious who this Alexander is, who is the crown? Then he gained this greatness: the father of Salaman is a King who lives in Greece and, like Alexander, has a throne with fairness and dowry.
In each story of space and color, the relation is closely related to the element, since the description in the story focuses on the creation of a particular mood, and the element "is the emotional state that shadows a part of a literary work or all over it" (Abrams, 2005: 19). This emotional atmosphere is strongly reflected in Rabe'e and Baktash's stories. Because when Ka'b's death comes, his daughter will give Rabe'e to Hares, his son, who cares for him very well and says that many kings chose him from me, but I was not satisfied. In the story of Salaman and Absal, He was deprived of him to Daya; he is very beautiful and his name is Absal, and it is about twenty years old. Daisy kindly absorbed and saluted Salaman, and that Salaman reached the age of puberty, was a very beautiful and enchanting boy who fell in love with her heart, but she kept hiding this love forever and tried to use her every means. He fell in love with him so that he became very enthralled and enthusiastic.
In the poems of Rabe'e and Baktash, both lover and lover die both of them, as Hares, brother of Rabe'e, imprisoned him in the bathroom and handed over to Minister, slamming his arm and then murdering Rabe'e. Baktash, who was imprisoned in the well, was rescued after a few days. He first went to Hares, the brother and murderer of Rabe'e, and cut off his head. Then he went to the tomb of Rabe'e and swallowed the stick in his liver and gave life to the soul and joined the beloved. But in the reign of Salaman and Absal, Salaman was saved by Wise, with Magic, and surrendered to his father, but Absal gave up on fire and life to the soul. Therefore, contrary to the story of Rabe'e and Baktash, Absal burns in fire, but Salaman will be freed from the death of the wise father and wise.
4.ResultSalaman and Absal is a rational and allegorical story that has been introduced in the mystical literature of Iran. The king's purpose in this story is the first reason that he is responsible for the management of all things. The unassembled word of the body and the outside of the womb, without any combination, makes the foot in this world, and the wise, which is the grace of grace, creates him. Absal is also meant to be a lustful person. They belong to each other and they are often caught in the strap. The sea cup is a symbol of animal lust, Venus is also a symbol of excellence and perfection. The story of Rabe'e and Baktash Attar is also a fairy tale of love and mystery. Rabe'e grows with his brother (Hares) after his father's death. The same fraternity that brings him to perfection and places so much in his education that he is even a partner with his brother in the affairs of the kingdom. But this Hares, is so angry with the smallest news, and when he comes from the love of Rabe'e and Baktash He gets acquainted with the commandment of his sister Rabe'e's murder, and although he sacrifices his action to Baktash, Hares, the brother and murderer of Rabe'e. Attar describes the scenes very beautifully. In this story, the main hero, a girl who falls in love, is a symbol of her soul and beloved, Baktash, a cipher of the human soul that begins with the end of this story, describes the stages of the soul-Rabe'e salvation-and the evolution of the soul-Baktash-.
From the comparison of the description of the states of love in the romantic verses of Rabe'e and Baktash of Attar, Salaman and Absal' of Jami, and given the mysterious nature of both stories, one can conclude that it is possible to achieve spiritual perfections and to ignore erotic desires, despite the many difficulties. In the process of the story, we find that the testimonies begin with earthly love, and with its problems, such a Stay away and sacrifice, it continues, but in both stories the way of describing love is entirely with its codified and allegorical aspects as a pure and heavenly love and signs It ends like divorce, separation, restraint, avoidance of pollution, and finally the death of a lover and beloved or one of the lovers. There are many similarities in these two stories: the father was both prince's character, one king of Balkh and the other king of Greece. Rabe'e and Absal are both loyal to love. Rabe'e is destroyed by his brother, and Absal burns himself in the fire. There are also differences: Rabe'e and Baktash do not go together. There is no marginal love in Rabe'e's story, but there is such love in the story of Salaman. Also, improper judgments, spying and informing Baktash friends make their letters fall into the hands of the brother, and anger takes the place of love for the brotherhood.
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12) Razizadeh, Ali; Abbasi; Ali; Hosseini Dehraha; Seyyed Abolghasem; The Process of Meaning in the Masnawi of Salaman Jams' Affiliation Based on Signs-Semantics Patterns, Journal of Language Research, No. 28, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran: Pages 164-143, February and March 2013.
13) Rezaei Ordani, Fazlullah, Comparative analysis of Khosrow and shirin's poetry and Leyli and Majnoun Nezami Ganjavi, Journal of University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Volume 6, Issue 11, Pages 112-87, Autumn and Winter 2008.
14) Rozaatian, Seyedeh Maryam, Decoding the Salaam and Abbas Honayn Ibn Ishaq according to the Archetype of Yong, Journal of Literary Techniques, University of Isfahan: Number 1, Autumn and Winter, Pages 106-97, 2009.
15) TamimDari, Ahmad, Book of Iran (History of Persian Literature, Schools, Courses, Literature Style), First Printing, Tehran, Hoda, 2000.
16) Toghiani, Isaac and Aramaid, Leila, A Revelation in Salaman and Absal of Jami, Literary Thoughts, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 103-87, Spring 2010.
17) VahedDoost, Mahvash, Philosophical, Mystical, and Psychological Approaches of Salaman and Absal of Jami, Journal of Farsi Language and Literature, Faculty of Human Literature and Human Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Volume 35, Number 3-4, pp. 414-459, 2002.
18) Zolfaghari, Hassan, 100 love poems. 2Edition, Tehran: Charkh, 2015.Keywords: Rabe'e, Baktash, Attar Neyshaburi, Salaman, Abasal, Abdolrahman Jami, Comparative
An Investigation into Ghanaee Literature in Ali Akbar Dehkhoda’s Poetic Work Named “Rememebr, Rememebr the Dead Candle”Pages 27-40The current study explores into the elements of Ghanaee litetaure in Ali Akbar Dehkhoda’s poetic work named” Remember, Remember the Dead Candle”. By definition, Ghana means anthem, music or pleasant and mesmerizing song or lyrical poem projectingthe poet’s hidden emotions and feelings. To this end, in the current study, the samples were extracted from Ali Akbar Dehkhoda’s poetic work named” Remember, Remember the Dead Candle”. The main purpose of the study is to investigate the variables of Ghanaee literatures in the related poetic works. The design of the study is descriptive type; in data collection, various tools were employed; in the main, for data analysis purposes, content analysis was conducted. The elements associated with Ghanaee literature in the study include hopefulness, philosophical thinking, reliance on the role and social manifestation of Ghanaee literature, dependency on freedom, requiem or elegy, attention to the nature of human being as well as human emotions and feelings. The findings of the study indicate the depth of intensity and the highness of the quality of Ghanaee literature; also, the overall result of the present investigation displays the very existence of its being “purely Ghanaee” with reference to the intensity of Ghanaee variables.
The time of constitution made a contribution to the political, economic, and social structure in Iran; the poets at the time of constitution were more sophisticated and enlightened and with use of poetic tools the paved the way for the revolution of constitution. At present study, the purpose of the researcher is to analyze some of the ins and outs of contemporary Ghanaee literature with reference to detailed analysis of the variables of Ghanaee literature in Dehkhoda’s poetic work, i.e. Remember, Remember the Dead Candle. The reason why I did this referes back to the fact that the contents of Ghanaee literature and its related issues and structures and changes relevant to it have not been well-investigated. Therefore, this is in need of being more thoroughly explored. In particular, an exploration into Dehkhoda’s poetic work has not been a matter of concern to most of the researcher and authors. These all in mind, the necessity of research into his poetic work in terms of the variable of Ghanaee literature came to the forefront, so that a detailed exploration into extracting and interpreting the deep structure of his poetic work, i.e., “Remember, Remember the Dead Candle” came to be the main purpose in the present study.2- Research methodologyUpon deliberate thought on the topic at issue, in the current study, the elements of Dehkhoda’s works were analyzed and elaborated. To this objectives, the references and resources were collected from various credited libraries. An attempt was made to make use of very recently published articles and references in the current study. By the way, the method of the study was librarian, so that I did the research with personal attendance at the libraries and providing flashcards required for the study in order to make the details more organized. As regards the sampels in the study, I analyzed Dehkhoda’s poetic work and also an extraction of the variables of Ghanaee literature used in his work were made. The design of the study was descriptive- analytical and also for data analysis purpose, content-based analysis was conducted.3- DiscussionThe term “Ghanaee” is in stark contrast to French Lyrics referring to a piece of poem sung together with a musical instrument. It was used in ancient Greece and then entered European literature and finally opened its way to Arabic and Persian Literature (Hakemi, 2007). As regards the pinnacle of progress of contemporary Ghanaee literature, it follows that in the first half of fourteenth century together with Constitution Movement and the familiarity of a group of enlightened thinkers and researchers with European literature, dramatic changes were observed in various literary and disciplinary sciences; this given, the two elements of Persian literature, i.e., verse and poem, were dramatically changed (Haji SyyedJavadi, 2003). These all led to some huge changes in the variables of Ghanaee literature which were unnoticed in previous era, so that poetry of the Constitution Era came to existence and Ali Akbar Dehkhoda was himself more hugely affected by the changes undergone in the era of Constitution. Ali Akbar composed his poem named “Remember, Remember the Dead Candle”in remembrance of his separation from his beloved one. The most significant motifs and implications in Ghanaee literature are below: - Hopefulness for the future:One of the literary features of Ghanaee literature in the era of Constitution is giving hope to the future; in fact, in the poetry of the era of constitution, the social dimension of romanticism has dominance over the other dimensions (Ghanouni, 2017). Dehkhoda gifts hope to his friend Mirza Jahangir Khan and is optimistic that by the passage of time, the world will be devoid of oppression and cruelty.
- Philosophical Thought
Philosophical poetry is one of the brnaches of Ghanaee literature; it is indicative of permanent hope for the dominance of goodness over evil; it finally heralds of the theend of the wickedness by God and administration of justice in the world: this is the main implication in philosophical poetry.
- Reliance on the Social Role and Manifestation of GhanaeeLitearture:This feature of Ghanaee literatures places emphasis on social identity; this is in contrast to the poetry of the previous era when poetry was associated with romance and separation related to the lover and beloved ( RastegharFasaee, 2000).
- Habsiye( or Prison Letter)
Habsiye or Prison Letter is another feature and motif of GhanaeeLitearture which the poet relates it to the imprisonment of his friend- Jahangir Khan- who was imprisoned by the tyrannical ruler of the time.
- Reliance on Revolution and Freedom
The poetry of Constitution era is variously featured by dependency on revolution and Freedom seeking, oppression fighting, and thepain resulting from lack of access to this freedom and idealistic world. In Dehkhoda’s mind, the main reason for the imprisonment of his friend, i.e., Jahangir, is Jahangir’s interest in freedom.
- Requiem or Elegy
Dehkhoda expresses his deepest grief for missing his friend with a view to the memories of the childhood memory he had with his friend.
- Attention to the Nature of Human
“Development of interest in the nature of human and the primitive and uncivilized life is one or perhaps the first element of romanticism(Servat, 2006,71-72). Dehkhoda repeats the deepest grief for and separation from his friend in this piece of poem.
- Feeling and Emotion
From the view-point of romanticists,” The romantic artists notices more his tution and internalfeeling rather than hi wisdom and thinking, so that Dehkhoda addresses his friend Jahangir and starts some speech to him; this while Jahangir is not alive; he is dead! Such kinds of feeling are just fit and emotions arising from inside, nowhere else!.4- ConclusionAli akbarDehkhoda is one of the revolutionary poets of the Constitution Era composing his poem in classic style. Among all his poem the one with Ghanaee implication is “ Rememebr, Rememebr the Dead Candle”; here, some rich Ghanaee implication and motifare observable. The most significant ghanaee features of related to his poetry include:hopefulness, philosophical thinking, reliance on the role and social manifestation of Ghanaee literature, dependency on freedom, requiem or elegy, attention to the nature of human being as well as human emotions and feelings.
Therefore, the intensity of the features of Ghanaee literature in “Rememebr, Rememebr the Dead Candle” refers to the fact that Dehkhoda has included these implications purposefully and intentionally.The overall result of the present investigation displays that Dehkhoda was interested in Ghanaee literature and these all indicate “the existence ofGhanaee literature” in Dehkhoda’s poetic works.1- references
1- Ariyanpour, Yahya, Az Nima ta rouzgar ma, Tehran: Zavaar Publications, 2008
2- Estelami, Mohammad, Adabiyat Doraan Bidari, Tehran: University of SepahaiyanEngelab Iran, 1976
3- Servat, Mansour, Ashnayi Ba Maktabhaye Adabi, Tehran; Sokhan Publications, 2006
4- Jafary, Masoud, Seire Romantism dar Iran as Mashrooteh ta Nima, Tehran: Markaz Publications, 2007
5- Haj seyed javadi, Hassan, Barresi Va Tahgig Dar Adabiyat Moaser Iran, Tehran: Pazhoheshgaran Iran Publications, 2003
6- Hakemi, Ismael, Tahgig Darbare Adabiyat Genaee Iran Va Anvae Shere Genaee, Tehran: University of Tehran, 2007
7- Hosseini, seyyed Reza, Maktabhaye Adabi, Tehran: Negah Publications, 2005
8- Dehkhoda, Ali Akbar, Divan Dehkhoda, Edited by Seyyed Mohammad Dabir Siyaghi, Tehran: Tirazheh Publications, 1361
9- Razmjoo, Hussein, Anvae Adabi Va Aasare an Dar Zaban Farsi, Mashhad: University og Firdausi Publications, 2006
10- Rastegar Fasayi, Mansour, Anvae Shere Farsi, Shiraz: Navid Shiraz Publications, 2001
11- Shafei Kad kani, Mohammad Reza, Advare Shere Farsi Az Mashrotiyat ta Soghote Saltanat, Tehran: Elmi Publications, 2008
12- ………………………,Literary kinds and Persian poetry, The Roshd Journal of Persian literature teaching, eighth year, No: 32,33, P 4- 9, Tehran: Spring 1993
13- Safa, Zabihollah, Tarikh Adabiyat Dar Iran, Tehran: Hamkelasi Publications, 1998
14- Zafari, Valiyollah, Habssiyeh Dar Adabe Farsi, Tehran: Aagah Pulications, 1989
15- Ganoni, Hamid Reza, Analyzing community-oriented romanticism with emphasis on Shahriar's poems, Language and lyrical literature Studies Quarterly , Persian literature group, Islamic Azad University of Najafabad, Sixth year, NO: 22, P 63 – 76, Esfahan: 2017
16- Motamen, Zein-al-Abedin, sher Va Adabe Farsi, Tehran: Zarrin Publications, 2015
17- Muain, Mohammad, Farhang loghat, Tehran: Zarrin Publications, 2003Keywords: Ghanaee Literature, Variables of Ghanaee Literature, Rememebr, Rememebr the Dead Candle, And Ali Akbar Dehkhoda
Pages 41-64Today, "leadership" plays the most important role in advancing the goals of the organization. The success of any organization depends on having transformational leaders. On the other hand, a considerable part of the ethical and verbal teachings related to the principles of management and leadership have been written in valuable literary works. The present study, while reviewing the poems of Sharaf nameh, Eghbal nameh and Haft peakar, attempts to answer the main question: "What are the components of transformational leadership in the teachings of Ganjawi military?"This paper has been conducted in a qualitative and " Grounded Theory " strategy. In this method, without any presupposition, relevant qualitative data was collected and categorized. Then, by comparing and measuring the data and concepts, transformational leadership components were drawn up. At the end of this process, the main foundations of the theory of "Transformational Leadership from the Nezami Ganjavi Perspective" included 43 concepts in the form of 7 components.1- IntroductionThe growth and development of organizations depends on the proper and efficient use of all resources, facilities and manpower. Undoubtedly, among the human resources of each organization, "leadership" plays the most important role. Leaders play a critical role in advancing the goals of organizations; therefore, they must have certain characteristics and skills. Leaders, with their role as messengers, are an example of a complete and understandable model for the behavior of other employees. " (Mirkamali, 1378: 178). Today "leadership" plays the most important role in advancing the goals of the organization. The success of any organization depends on having transformational leaders; on the other hand, a considerable part of the ethical and verbal teachings associated with the principles of leadership and leadership have been written in valuable literary works. The present study, while reviewing the poems of Sharaf name, Eghbal name and Haft peykar, attempts to answer the main question: "What are the components of transformational leadership in the teachings of Nezami Ganjavi?" The elders of Persian poetry and Persian literature have taught us how to live better in the light of this; in other words, many years ago, in Nezami Ganjavi poetry, modern issues are expressed in literary and yet simple language. Hakimi's Nezami Ganjavi is aware of the social and ethical issues that, with a deep look, reveal to humans a great deal about human affairs. Nezami Ganjavi has become famous for the lyrical poetry of the dominant attitude, but his detailed analysis of his works reveals another truth from the true military form for man today. The rational and wise words depict a comprehensive picture of the military; therefore, the general doctrines of the universe are global and bring a new message to man today. " (ghobadi, 1391: 57). Nowadays, looking at literature from the aesthetic point of view, it is considered superficial and simplistic. One of the neglected circles in this regard is the recreation of literary texts and the communication between literature and other sciences. In other words, literary works can be a source of inspiration, so that they can create new theories by studying and interpreting some concepts. Therefore, in this article we intend to draw up a new plan for the old texts; by reviewing the literary doctrines and creating the applied propositions, we examine the dimensions of transformational leadership in military teachings. The ultimate goal of this research is to identify transformational leadership components in Nezami Ganjavi teachings. Therefore, by studying the valuable ideas of this poet and utilizing the Persian treasury, the indices and related concepts were extracted and classified. To apply literature in other sciences; Applying literary works according to the needs of the present; Injecting spirit and vitality in the collective manpower; Establishing organizational unity and solidarity; Developing the attitude of the authorities; Reflection of speech and good behavior in all aspects of life, including.2- Research methodologyThis paper has been conducted qualitatively and with the "Strategy Data Foundation". In this method, without any presupposition, relevant qualitative data was collected and categorized. In this way, theories are extracted directly from the data. The main characteristic of the data theory of the foundation is to emphasize the careful examination of the collected data without any bias and bias. In this method, qualitative methods are used to gather information about a phenomenon, and the main question of the research is instead of defining the problem based on research literature and in the form of independent and dependent variables. " (Danayi fard, 1383: 86) In the first stage, qualitative data was extracted. In the second step, the related abbreviations were encoded. By comparing the codes, the multi-code, which refers to a common aspect, became the concept of a concept; Then, for the same items in each field, common components were defined. In the end, based on the relationship between the concepts involved, propositions were extracted.3- DiscussionIn this paper, the abstract of the Sharaf nameh, Eghbal nameh, and Haft peakar were studied, and concepts were extracted based on examples of "management and leadership". After the identification and categorization of related concepts, the theory of "transformational leadership" was formed. In sum, the components of transformational leadership from the Ganjavi military perspective are a set of: collaborative management, motivation management, communication management, knowledge management, Participatory Management, strategic management, flexibility and executive management that leaders and rulers can take to integrate them in order to grow and empower their followers, as well as increase the efficiency and improve the performance of the organization's staff.Row Component meaningscommunication management Good art of listening - having intimate contact with all people - the right tone of speech knowledge management Assigning Distinguished Ministers-Information and News- Considering the Role of Teaching-Inquiry for Knowledge-Not-Taking Irregular and Irrational Speech-Narratives and Tipping-Experience strategic management Maintaining dignity and dignity - Paying attention to the role of education - Clinical - Right and accurate selection - Determination - Meritocracy - Avoidance of impolite people Participatory Management Consultation with thinkers and elders - unity and solidarity - Avoiding pride and selfishness flexibility Patience - controlling anger and wrath - avoiding laziness and comfort - neglecting hypocrites and flatterers - obedience executive management Responsible for doing things - Continuous pursuit of affairs - Accurate and clever responses - Taking promises - Commitment and responsibility motivation management Supporting new ideas and plans - Positive thinking - Anthropology - Creating spirit and hope - Confidence building - Protecting human dignity - Succeeding in the covenant - Moderation and moderation - Justice and justice4- ConclusionIn this paper, using the data foundation theory strategy, the data related to the statistical society were extracted and classified using the coding method, related concepts and components. In the end, 43 concepts were compiled in the form of 7 components (knowledge management, participatory management, motivation management, communication management, strategic management, flexibility and executive management) by studying the issues and identifying relevant concepts.References- Azhari, Behrooz; Farzanafard, said, A Look at the Management Elements in the Nezami Ganjavi Scenar nameh, International Management Conference and Social Sciences, March 2013. - Amiri, Mojtaba, The Role of Literature in Management and Leadership, Management Knowledge, Quarterly Journal, No. 16, pp. 37-29, 1992. - Pashayi, Kamran; Adelzade, Parvane, A review of the position of management in Persian literary texts, Tabriz: First edition, Mola Ali Publications, 2012. - Servat, Mansoor, The Treasure of Wisdom in Nezami Ganjavi Works, Second Edition, Tehran: Amir Kabir Publishing, 1999. - Danayifard, Hasan; Mahdiy, Alvani; Adel, Azar, Methodology of Qualitative Research in Management, First Printing, Tehran: The Publishing of Saffar, 2004. - Rajayi, Farhang, Politics and the Mindfulness in Nezami Ganjavi Thought, The Quarterly of Culture, No. 10, pp. 190-179, 1371. - Zarinkoob, Abdolhossein, Pierre Ganja in search of Nakoja Abad, Tehran: Sokhan Publication, 1372. - Fazeli, Ghader, The Way and Rule of the Rule in Nezami Ganjavi Thought, The Journal of Political Science, University of Bagher-ol-ulum, No. Twenty, Pages 283-200, 2002. - Ghobadi, Hosseinali; sadegi, Maryam, Nezami Ganjavi Human Messages for Concerns of Contemporary Man, Explore Persian Language and Literature, No. 25, pp. 86- 57, 1391. - Ghanipoor, Ahmad; Mohseni, Ahma; Personality and personality element in the poetic cycle of the Haftpeykar Nezami Ganjavi, Journal of the Encyclopedia of Literature, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, thirteenth, No. 25, pp. 116-97, 1394. - Karimiyan, Abaas, Alexander from the myth to the date, the book of the month of history and geography, No. 149. Pages 105-99, 1389. - Madani, Mostafa; Absalan, Mohammad, The Impact of Transitional Leadership on the Promotion of Combatum Power in a Defense Organization, Military Management Quarterly, No. 59, pp. 58-32, 1394. - Mazloomi, Nader; Nasehifar, Vahid, The Relationship of Transformational Leadership and Creativity and Organizational Innovation in Private Insurance Companies in Iran, Research Journal of Insurance, Vol. 28, pp. 56-33, 2013. - Mirkamali, Mohahad, Leadership and Educational Management, Tehran: Seitron Publishers, 1999. - Nezami Ganjavi, Abu Muhammad Ibn Elias, Sharaf nameh, correcting Hassan Vahid Dastgerdi, by Saeed Hamidian, Sixth edition, Tehran: Ghatre publishing, 2013. - Nezami Ganjavi, Abu Muhammad Ibn Elias, Eghbal nameh, correcting Hassan Vahid Dastgerdi, by Saeed Hamidian, Sixth edition, Tehran: Ghatre publishing, 2013. - Nezami Ganjavi, Abu Mohammad ibn Elias, Haftpeykar, correcting Hassan Vahid Dastgerdi, by Saeed Hamidian, Fourteenth edition, Tehran: Ghatre publishing, 1395. - Strauss. A & Corbin. J (1998), Basics of Qualitative research: Granded Theory procedures and Thechniques, Thousand oaks, CA: sage. - YaGhoobi, NoorMohammad; Yazdani, Badrodin, Investigating the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership Style, Executive Management Research Journal, Ninth Year, Pages 144-139, 2009.Keywords: Literature, Transformational Leadership, Nezami Ganjavi
Pages 65-96One of the most important artistic techniques in "Neyestan" Adib Ghasemi Kermani's book that has played a significant role in the reputation of this work is utilizing fantasy imagery, that means elements of the science of expression that includes simile, metaphor, metonymy and irony. From the begining of oersian poetry to today, rhetoric science has always been a matter for the poets and even can be found it in the first persian poems.
The "Neyestan" book that written in the Masnavi form is one of the most important Adib Ghasemi Kermani's compilations that is considered to be a valuable work in term of the use of fantasy imagery in folk structure. In this research the artistic techniques of "Neyesan" are reviewed and analyzed, that its most important function can be searched in the expression elements used in this work.
Adib Kermani (1859-1929) is one of the poets in the field of critical and folklore literature and his book "Neyestan" follows the Sa'di's Boostan style and he has composed contradictory work in contrast to Boostan, utilizing certain words and expressions of the popular people and weavers union, opposes the effects of rhetoric and in particular the fantasy imagery of explained in Boostan. The writers goal is answering the main research question, that means using fantasy imagery in the folkloric language structure and Ghasemi's success rate in it. the research result shows that the poet has used local and slang vocabulary, interpretations and terms of weavers union, special metonymies of popular people, as artistic techniques that can be classified as important works of that emphasize using rhetoric science, specially the science of expression and he has been partly successful in this fiel1-IntroductionLiterature is a description of the ideal life of mankind, one of the most prominent branches of art whose most delicate branch is poetry, a poem that has been described as "the word of evil", and its foundation is based on imagination. Poetry is also the breakdown of the normal and logical norms of language, and in the field of literature, these norms are sometimes broken by "imaginary imagery" that is called semantic abnormalities. In defining the imaginary forms, we must inevitably explain the constituent parts of it (imagination and image). The most imaginative element of poetry is the mental image of objects and phenomena that have already been felt and experienced and are now not available to the senses. In order for the poet to set his imagination and his sensory experiences and arrange them in the form of artistic imagery, he needs imagination. An active force that organizes imaginary passive imagery. The imagination takes on the name of the image in order to get the concrete and tangible shape and to be touching others. "Literature consists of a collection of written and spoken works that best guesses and emotions in the form of selection The most beautiful words and the best faces. "(Shafiei Kadkani, 2008:34)
In the words of Jalil Tajlil, "Tale of Imagination, the science of expression, is one of the important issues in the history of literature, the poets have been subconsciously and less consciously concerned with it, and its history dates back to the beginning of the formation of Persian poetry. "(Tajlil, 1983: 43). In the field of the science of expression, poets such as Abusalik Gurgani, HanzalaBadghissi and FirouzMoshreqi have been experimenting and have been somewhat successful. In this area, poets have tended to use the essential basis of the episode, such as simile and metaphor, in their poems, and it may be said that the use of similes and simple metaphors in the poems of the poets of the 4th and 5th centuries Ajdh madrasas had a better effect.
In this research, Ghasemi Kermani'sMasnavi "Nistan" has been analyzed from the point of view of the artistic techniques and techniques of expressing science and writing on the portrait using folklore and in a relatively folkloric structure that has been used for verbal purposes.
The problem of this research is the analysis of the artistic tricks of the science of expression in Adib Ghasemi Kermani's book "Nistan" (1308-1238 AD), a contemporary poet and writer of Kermani, which has not been studied until now. This work is located both in terms of names and in terms of lexical and idiomatic aspects in contrast to Sa'di's "Boostan", using the words, phrases and expressions commonly used among the people of Kerman's street, especially the Shalbafan class. An example of a satirical objection to "Sa'diBoostan" is considered to be something unlikely due to innovation in the poetic style and its controversial aspect. In this regard, the present research attempts to answer the following questions while analyzing the work's artistic structure:-What are the most important artistic techniques and rhetorical noises that have a folk structure?
-Qasemi Kermani has been successful in using the vocabulary and terminology of the classmates and the linguistic functions of the language in the creative creation of his work?
The necessity of research is that the analysis of the artistic techniques of the present work can show the effective role of artistic tricks in creating and highlighting comic and tongue language.
The main purpose of the research is to analyze the most important artistic techniques, which are the same rhetorical and non-imaginary forms in its folk form, and thus respond to research questions.
2_ Research MethodThis research is conducted in a descriptive and librarian manner and by analyzing and accurately reviewing the poems contained in Adam Ghasemi Kermani's Nistan books and extracting the most important examples of the portrait as one of the most prominent artistic techniques embodied in this valuable work.3. DiscussionIn the history of Kerman, four characters with the name "Adib Kermani" have been found: Gholam Hossein Khan Afzal al-Mulk, AdibKermani, Sheikh Ahmad Aghili, AdibKermani, Adib al-SaqqirinKermani, Hakim Qasim bin Zain al-Abedin Kermani; In this paper, Qasim bin Zain al-Abedin Kermani. His most important works are "Nistan" and "Khrustan". The book under review in this study is Masnavi "Nistan", which apparently was the first written by AdibQasemiKermani, and was written in a literal and imitative manner from the book of Sa'diBostan. This book of poetry imitating Saadi's boson, or according to his own words, is in response to Sa'di's booth.
One of the techniques of creating beauty in poetry is the use of verbal imagery that has a long history and language of life in Persian. The history of the compilation of rhetorical books dates back to the fifth century AH, one of the most important works in this field is the book "Tarjomān al-Balagheh" by Mohammad bin Omar Raduyani, "Al-Mueiam Fi Muayyar al-aJam poems", Shams Qeys Razi and "Hadaeq al-seh r", Rashid and Vatvat Hint Had Rhetoric, in the term, is to match the word to the present and the audience. This knowledge is divided into three parts: meanings, exegesis, and exquisite. One of the most important of these, which is always and throughout the history of Persian poetry, even in the poems of the first poets of the third century AH, such as: Abu Salik Gorgani, Hanzale Badgheysy and Firouz Mashreqi, can also be manifested It has been found to be the science of expression, the equivalent of which is "the original" or "semantic abnormalities"
The science of expression in the lyrics of poets affects the nature and the surrounding environment, as AdibQasemiKermani is a poet who is more closely connected with the lush nature of the surroundings of Kerman and the city of Bardsir, and the effects of this connection in the context of his poems The theme is beautiful and subtle. The expression is devoted to the four topics, the permitted, the likeness, the metaphor, and the envy. As a result of this, the poet also uses them wherever these elements are needed and his artistic language is appropriate. His poem is decorated with this literary dimension.
4-ConclusionThe Masnavi of Nistan Adib Kermani has been influenced by the influence of Sa'di Boostan and even in the same marriage of Bousaneh, the pious sea, and its poet in the field of portraiture has also somewhat influenced Sa'di's valuable work. The Masnavi Neyestan, in terms of the appearance of the text, is particularly impressive in interpreting the classifications of the Kerman classifiers, it is a relatively rich work. And wherever the poet needs to draw a picture for the development of the subject and the subject of the subject, has taken.
The most important approach of the poet to the portrait of the poet in the Masnavi is the simile. metaphor, irony, and , metonomy, which can be said that simulation is one of the most important, most used and most effective rhetorical industry in this work, in such a way that Mirza Adib Kermani The poet is a humorous, humorous, folk song. Types of Morsal, Singular, Composite, and Allegoric Symbols are the most commonly used analogies of the aforementioned. The types of objects that are objective and tangible, including: different animals and birds, objects in the living environment, names of people or famous places in Kerman, idioms and tools are used in making these similes. Sometimes likeness to reasonable things , Spiritual and intangible can be seen in the context of Adib Kermani's poetry, but there are not many such tales.
The fact that metaphor is less used in Neyestan Masnavi, maybe for the simplicity of the word and for the sake of understanding the reader, which is generally a general audience because the metaphor, in addition to the beauty, also provokes the complexity of the word. The most commonly used metaphor for Neandert is Wenders' Assertion, and is a serious description of this.
In Neyestan Masnavi, due to the poet's tendency in slang and special attention to the classifications of the classmates and translators, attention has been paid to bringing folks and folk themes into account, especially with the use of anathema such as cougar sucking and towing an ant in someone's bag. ... Kenya's language has also come close to satire. Often, the sidewalks of this work are invented and implicitly, which has led to psychological and easy access to meaning for the general public. The most important goals of this poem are exaggeration and humiliation, and the nominal and current forms have been used in the same direction in the Neyestan Masnavi.
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A Semiological Study of The Beloved in the Shamloo's Poetry Based on the Theory of Michael Riffaterre (a case study of Shamloo's poetry: The one who returns home from the Alley)Pages 97-116Semiological of poetry by Michael Riffaterre is a reader based theory which is influential in European poetical analysis. In the present article the subject "beloved" has been studied in a poetical specimen of Shamloo. In semiological study of the given poem, while using a heuristic method, the readers using their literary competence have a postreading act of the poem. The thought running over the poem is primarily based on "beloved" and the "child". By studying the accumulating relations and fundamental patterns of the poem, some guess sentencses were achieved based on hypogram model. The resulting matrix containing the special traits of the beloved in Shamloo's poem are as follows: hope for a lively future, the beloved's honest passion,the beloved's encouragement of poet, the beloved as a shelter for the poet. Moreover the special semiological features of the beloved in Shamloo's poetry can be accounted for as follows: it is of human effect, it is realistic, it is of individual identity, it is unique, it is available and terrestrial. besides, the motif of the poet to compose are concordance, sympathy, shelter, trustworthy, motif and agency. she likes to love and to be loved.
1. IntroductionComposing love poetry has long been recognized as one of the main branches among the ways poems have been written. In literature of many countries, these poems are those that are enriched with the expression of the private feelings of the lover towards the beloved. In the written Persian poetry, this specific treatment of poems was first seen in the composition of Khorasani style Qasidas. “The beloved of the poem, is a special one whose renditions have gradually been settled in literature and has been observed since then in the poems of the following periods of history.” (Shamisa, 1370:42). Thus, ‘the Beloved’ has always been one of the prominent subject matters from the beginning of poetry until today. The ways in which different poets have treated ‘the Beloved’ has always been in constant change during different ages of Persian poetry. Even the descriptions of the face of ‘the Beloved’ differs from one poet to another. In the literature of old ages, not only the beloved has been deprived of any physicality, but also she was attained with any voice and identity of her own. In the modern period, Neema composes his portraits of the terrestrial and real beloved, a love that has its own identity and belongs to a natural person as well as a specific community. The modern love poetry “in a detaching movement from the traditions of the old age poetry, bases itself on the dissociation and parsing of a human and leans towards the inability to experience its unified essence. Therefore, it engages itself in a distinct theory of love and sets its structure upon a different foundation. With this orientation, a relationship is inaugurated that its culmination is union, alliance, also the independence and freedom of the individual.” (Mokhtari, 1378:91)This research, with an application of Michael Riffaterre’s theory of poem’s semiology, focuses on the notion of ‘the Beloved’ in a selected piece of Persian poetry within the framework of an analytic-descriptive manner. To achieve that, the poem “the One Who Returns Home from the Alley” written by Ahmad Shamloo is discussed which is filled with apt signs for this study and is then a perfect paradigm for a semiological analysis.
2. Approach and Methodology
3. ArgumentIn the present study, the researchers initially attend to an exploratory reading of the poem “The One Who Returns Home from the Alley”. In this reading of the poem we are confronted with rather vague images of the Beloved. We will detect and analyze these vague illustrations. In post-action reading, whose aim is to study the ongoing relationships in the text, the notions ‘the Beloved’, ‘the child’, ‘birth’ and ‘home’ are analyzed. Then, the hypograms are presented that are the infra-structures of the poem which make a specific representation in the mind of the reader and are tools to establish relations between the poem and its origin as well as determining the layered semiological structure of the poet.In the semiology of poetry, which is an exploratory reading of the figures in the poem, Rifatterre only reaches to the surface meaning, however, it must be noted that this meaning is essential for delving into the deeper levels of the text. The second stage of Rifattere’s theory is concerned with post-action reading which is based on the reading capabilities of the reader. Following Riffatter’s model, the researchers have put their readings of the accumulations of descriptions in the poem into the following: accumulations regarding the notions ‘the child’ and ‘the Beloved’ showing that the main thought running over the poem is that concerned with the poem itself and the Beloved. Moreover, in the descriptive matrixes of the poem the tropes revolving around ‘birth’, ‘the Beloved’ and ‘home’ show that the meaning behind the birth of the child is, in actual terms, the poetry of the poet which is getting composed in a tranquil home with the presence of the Beloved.
Another part of Riffaterre’s theory is about the patterns of hypogram. To put it succinctly, the inferred infra-structures of the present poem are as follows: The presence and the pure love of the Beloved impregnates the poet’s imagination and finally turns into poetry. The real Beloved is the first reader of the poems who reads them passionately and with unrelenting support. She rewards the poet for his composition of poetry. Her presence makes the poet neglect the fault-finding people and continue writing poems full of hope for the future. In the end, the relations between the accumulations, the descriptive system and the initial ideas, on the one hand, and on the other hand the structural matrixes of mathematics helps the authors of this research to draw a specific conceptual structure in the form of the following matrix: hope for a fruitful future, the honest enthusiasm of the Beloved, the Beloved being the first reader of the poet’s poems, the presence of the Beloved being an inspiration to the composition, the encouragement of the Beloved, the Beloved acting as the poet’s shelter, people’s indispensability of allowing the free verse in. The whole structure indicates the specific qualifications of the Beloved in Ahmad Shamloo’s poetry. The semiological study of the Beloved in this piece of poem from Ahmad Shamloo makes it evident that this Beloved has different attributes in comparison to the beloved in the old age poetry. Shamloo has regarded the Beloved with its human insight. A real Beloved that has an individual identity, is terrestrial and is not conquered over and silenced. A Beloved who is just like everyone else and likewise of the open-minded serves as an inspiration to the composition of the poet. She is a conscious soul, a company and a friend. She has set foot in the realm of poetry from poet’s real life, and before she has been a part of his poetry, she has been a central part of the poet’s reality. She has corrected his faults and together they become a unired. Shamloo’s love lingers on after the marriage, in the house, in his poetry and among the community. The Beloved of Shamloo’s poetry loves and is loved back. Union in his poetry is the beginning of adoration, growth and flourishing, reaching integrity and love. He can trust his Beloved and run to her in moments of agony. The results accounted from studying the Beloved in this sample of the modern Persian poetry, demonstrate that the mentioned quiddities in poetry could be analyzed and extended to reach the hidden signs of the text, if one is to use Michael Riffattere’s specific semiology.References
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Pages 117-132Sheikh Faiz Decani (1595-1547) is a Persian poet of India. In 1588, he came to the court of Jalal al-Din Akbar Shah, the great Emperor of Gurkani of India, and reached the rank of Amiri and Malakul Sha'ari. Feyzi is the speaker of Persian language in India. He is the son of a poet and son of Masnavi. Faizi, in imitation of the military, has brought Masnavi "Nell and Damman" into order. The metamorphoses and transformation phenomena that have been interpreted as transforming the face or the transformation of beings have a special place in the stories and legends of the people of India. The abundance of exponents in the stories and legends of the world, and in particular among the stories and legends of the people of India, which has been narrated for generations, reflects the rooted mythological thoughts in the folk thoughts of the people of the land of India. Persons who have magic powers move around everywhere in the myths and stories that they need, and they appear in the form of various transformations. The present article tries to investigate sculptors in the beloved fairy tales of Nell and Dean Faiz Dakni.1-IntroductionShaikh Faizi (1547-1595) was a Persian speaking Indian poet who was introduced to Akbar`s court, the great emperor of Mughal Empire in India, and became poet laureate. Faizi was the leading Persian literature scholar in Indian subcontinent. He hold a high position in composing Qasida, ghazal, and masnavi. Faizi written Nal o Daman in imitation of Nizami Ganjavi.
Metamorphoses and transformation implies on a change of form or nature of a subject/person in the story –either a myth, an epic, etc.- and is a frequent and exemplified issue just like other supernatural incidents in mythology and epic, is considered to be a symbolic report of curious ancient man`s desires and wishes. Metamorphoses or transformation which is defined as facial transformation or change in the form of the creature, holds a specific position in Indian people`s stories and mythology. Affluence of metamorphoses in global stories and myths, especially in Indian mythology the way it is narrated from one generation to the other, implies on rooted and deep mythological thoughts in folk thinking setup of Indian nation. Characters having supernatural and magical powers, would transform in myths and stories whenever it is required and appear in various transformed shapes. The story theme of Nal o Daman follows the Nala and Damayanti story in Mahabharata, the ancient Indian epic, and just like Mahabharata it is full of supernatural incidents and extraordinary events. Presence of entities such as demons and fairies and occurrence of incidents which does not belong to the actual world put an emphasis on the idea. Of course unbelievable and amazing phenomenon is observed in almost every Indian myth. Reincarnation, transduction, soul transportation and transformation are elements observed in Nal o Daman epic. In Hindu religion it is believed that beasts benefit character, intelligence and perception thus every beast in the story which turns to a hero, has a specific name. In present study, descriptive-analysis methods are applied based on theoretical framework to answer this fundamental question: what are the most significant types of metamorphoses in Nal o Daman epic? What are the function and impression of them?2-Research methodologyThe research method in this article is an underlying case with a correlation approach.In this research, documentary methods (surveying descriptive)and surveying have been used to collect information.3-DiscussionNal o Daman is a new narration from Indian epic Nala and Damayanti of Mahabharata. Faizi rewrote the mentioned epic with few change in details. Nal o Daman is edited in the same conceptual framework as is found in Mahabharata. The major theme of Nal o Daman is love. In Nal o Daman, main character is a woman who is beautiful, wise, kind and creative. Sometimes the main character turns to the pioneer hero of the story.
In Nal o Daman epic, metamorphoses is often done by Brahman. The Brahman as a Pir – a spiritual master- is one of the brilliant features of the epic. He is representative of wisdom and knowledge. He realizes the code language, forecasts and guides Nal. Sometimes he appears as an oracular assistance on Nal`s way, guides him, and even appears as a young hero himself.
“Snake” plays an effective role in metamorphoses in Nal o Daman epic. Snake is the renewing agent for vital force. She jolts the poison into Nal`s body, thus the snake becomes gestated from him and gives a further birth to Nal. In Nal o Daman epic, snake actually represents the constant transformation of death into life and double polarization of the universe. That indicates the life is permeated from the death, and vice versa.
Metamorphoses, as an extraordinary and supernatural incident is an integral part of Indian story and myth. In Nal o Daman too, we observe that every incident is rooted in supernatural forces. In this epic, emphasize on supernatural phenomenon is taking place to transform and concept the characters. What is contemplative in Nal o Daman is multiplicity and variety of metamorphoses.
4-ConclusionBased on the research founding, the most happening transformation in Nal o Daman epic is related to human transformation, and transformation from human form to animal form. In this epic subjects such as stability and endurance in facing troubles, sacrifice and forgiveness, patience and fortitude, love and attachment, instability of oppression and injustice, and importance of family life and its position are highlighted. The major theme of the metamorphoses narration is based on love and attachment. Women play a vital role in incidents of the epic. In this myth, metamorphoses happens to the hero due to passing from one level of the story to the other, and eventually, the hero would reach his primitive state at the end. In Nal o Daman, metamorphoses happens to award or punish people or entities. Actually, human being is transformed and breaks the rational order of the world to create a new world beyond the existing one, in a search for eternal peace and meaning. Faizi`s Nal o Daman epic holds a significant value as a text in which the author attempts to picture the Hindu mental setup to image mythological beliefs in his love story. Thus, because metamorphoses and transformation is shaping the major foundation of the story, this valuable epic would be reviewed to recognize the sacred elements involved in Hindu metamorphoses.References1- Disaee, Zia-ol Din. Faizi Life and Work. Translated by Mohammad Mansour Asemi. Persian Journal, number 13. Pp 25-59. 2000.
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Pages 133-148The English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) in the late 18th century considered the origin of his imagination to be Arabian Nights and has benefited enormously from it. He knew the source of his dream was Arabian Nights. This article examines the contribution of Arabian Nights to the thoughts and poetry of this English poet, and outlines the extent of this effect. The purpose of this article is to study Coleridge's poetry and scrutinize it to find the trace of Arabian Nights in his poetry. The research method of this article is based on the French comparative school, which deems the direct impact on writers of the earlier writers. From this perspective, the legacy of the early poet in poetry of the later poet should be proved by evidence. Results of this study showed that Arabian Nights played a significant role in the literary development of this English poet.
1- IntroductionThe romantic poetry of England owes Thousand and One Nights a lot. William Wordsworth, Robert Southey, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Lord Byron are romantic poets of the United Kingdom. These romantic poets were informed by Thousand and One Nights. Each one of these romantic poets looked at it from his own perspective and made his own and created new designs out of it. The following article examines the poetry of these English poets, influenced by Thousand and One Nights. Although Thousand and One Nights stories are narrative, but based on it thousand works have been formed in the world. William Wordsworth, for example, refers to Thousand and One Nights in Prelude. Influenced by Thousand and One Nights, Coleridge wrote the poem "Kubla Khan" and "Cristobel”. Robert Southey, is also indebted to this Eastern art, and has written two of his poems, "Thalaba: the Destroyer" and "Curse of Kahomah" based on Thousand and One Nights. Byron wrote his poem "Giauor" and "The Bride of Abydos" following Thousand and One Nights. Alfred Lord Tennyson wrote his poem titled "Reflection on The Thousand Nights of Nights" under the influence of Thousand and One Nights.2- Research methodologyThe theoretical framework of our research in this essay is adaptation of the signs and the basis of this article is on the comparative influence theory of the French school of Claudio Guillen on the "Aesthetic of Influence". According to Guillen's theory, literary influence creates literary works, and literature is the creator of literature, that is to say, the effect of a literary work makes others write and publish their own literary works. What Guillen means by influence is the conscious borrowing of another poet, or reflection of the early poet that his later poet is unaware of. As for the reflection of the influence of the earlier poet on the later poet, he must refer to the set of elements preserved in the memory of the earlier poet. (Guillen, 1971: 18) Guillen makes a distinction between influence and parallelism. He sees the influence as an important and recognizable part of the origin of the work of art. "The discovery does not modify the effect of the value and value of a poem, but the study of influence attempts to make a judgment of value and does not seek to measure reality," he says (Ibid., 19). A critic and researcher should evaluate the performance or influence of the poet and writer A on poet B (ibid.). Therefore, the focus in this article is on the impact of Thousand and One Nights on the English literary Romantics, and to prove from this perspective the contribution of Thousand and One Nights to the English literary romanticism.3- DiscussionSamuel Taylor Coleridge born on October 21, 1772 – Died on July 25, 1834, is a romantic poet, critic, and philosopher of English romanticism and, along with his friend William Wordsworth, he was one of the founders of the British Romantic School. Coleridge is best known for his two works, "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner" and "Kublai Khan", as well as his influential "Literary Biography," one of the most important works of the literary criticism of the Romantic era (Abrams, 1974: 324).
Coleridge himself says about Thousand and One Nights
"At six years old I remember to have read . . . the Arabian Nights’ Entertainments—one tale of which . . . made so deep an impression on me . . . that I was haunted by spectres, whenever I was in the dark—and I distinctly remember the anxious and fearful eagerness, with which I used to watch the window, in which the books lay—and whenever the Sun lay upon them, I would seize it, carry it by the wall, and bask, and read—My Father found out the effect, which these books had produced and burnt them. So I became a dreamer"(Quoted by Marcel, 2009: 6).
Coleridge’s father, who saw the influence of Thousands and One Nights on Coleridge, burned Thousand and One Nights books. Coleridge, afterwards, disobeyed his father for burning of the books. His father believed that Thousands and One Nights stories might be addictive stories. Gilfillam quotes a conversation of Coleridge with Hazlitt, in which Coleridge tells Hazlitt, "Do you like the Thousands and One Nights? In answer to Coleridge, Hazelit says no. "That’s why you are not a dreamer" (Jillfilam, 1849: 223). From this conversation we can comprehend that Thousand and One Nights is the source of Coleridge’s dream and imagination, and he still recommends to his friends that they should pay attention to Thousands and One Nights, because one Thousand Nights and One Nights makes the authors imaginative. Not only does he recommends his dear friend reading this oriental work, but Coleridge also advises all his poets to read it, because Thousand and one Nights can be the source of poetry and imagination. Hence, the element of the imagination of the Thousand and one Nights has influenced the poetry and thought of this English poet. The poem "Christabel", "Kabala khan" and the poem "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner " are influenced by Thousands of Nights (ibid., 21).4- ConclusionColeridge’s verse has been influenced by Thousand and One Nights. Lyric poems like "Kublai Khan", "Christobel" and " The Rime of the Ancient Mariner " can be said to have benefited from this eastern work, and Coleridge himself is aware of the effect of Thousand-Nights and has repeatedly read this work. He considered Thousand and One Nights to be the source of his imagination and has benefited prominently from this work. He knew the source of his dream was Thousand and One Nights. It can be said that one of the sources of the poetry of "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner " was the Sindbad Bahri travels that Coleridge has read and took inspiration from. Both tracks the theme of travel and see travel as the source of human sophistication. Both the Ancient Mariner and Sinbad lose their crew in the sea on their journeys; they wander in the sea, they encounter a storm, and they are left alone for a long time. Both are saved by prayer. Both the Ancient Mariner and Sinbad are great story-tellers. “Kublai Khan” also uses the themes that exist in Thousand and One Nights.
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12. Tasouji, Abdullatif. Thousands and One Arabian Nights (trans). Qom: Qalam Publication. 2012.Keywords: Influence, Arabian Nights, Imagination, Samuel Taylor Coleridge
The study of the Representation of Feminine words in Khosro and Shirin and Veys and Ramin by language and gender approachPages 149-168The relationship between language and gender attracted the researcher's attention in different fields of study such as sociolinguistics and literature. Unfortunately, this kind of studies is very rare in Classic Persian literature. The representation of gender is very important in Persian love literature. Two lyrics Khosrow&Shirin andVeys&Ramin are selected for the investigation of feminine words. These two stories investigated by two approaches; Dominance and Difference. For achieving best results, these words studied qualitatively and quantitatively. The results represents that feminine words applied more in Veys&Ramin and these words arranged by Difference approach more than dominance approach. But Difference approach applied more by Nezami in Khosrow&Shirin.
The study of language and gender has attracted many scholars in different fields such as sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, critical discourse analysis and literature. Two main approaches have been developed in area of gender linguistics since 1970s, namely, dominance and difference approaches. In the former approach (Lakoff, 1975), some pre-established characteristics such as speaking indirectly, rapport talk, and cooperation are attributed to women's talk. By contrast, characteristics such as speaking directly, report talk, and competitiveness are attributed to men's talk. In the latter approach, the differences between men's and women's talk are treated as a result of different subcultures and different ways of socialization. In a sense, gender is not a predetermined factor as it is considered in dominance approach; rather, it is constructed in the process of socialization and in interactions. In addition, there are two kinds of feminist criticism; the first is "women's effect" which focuses on the women in men's books by their roles. The second which is called "women's criticism" focuses on women writers. In the second one, the critics focus on women's literary books to understand their psychological activities (Payande, 2007:122). This research is about women's speech style in Khosro and Shirin and Veys and Ramin by focusing on lexical items. So the research questions are as follows:a. How the lexical items attributed to women in Khosro and Shirin and Veys and Ramin are applied?
b. Which poet was more successful in applying feminine language?
c. Which approach is dominant in these two lyrics?2- Research methodologyThe research methodology is qualitative – quantitative analysis. First the research theoretical framework is explained which focuses on two main gender approaches, dominance and difference approaches. Then two lyrics, Khosro and Shirin and Veys and Ramin, studied carefully to extract feminine lexical items. Then they are categorized in different groups under two main approaches and other effective factors such as contest are also considered. They analyzed qualitatively. In the next stage these words are analyzed quantitatively to reveal the better answers to the research questions .3- DiscussionTwo works studied carefully to extract feminine lexical items. According to the speaker status, context, co-text and other factors, the research data is investigated by dominance and difference approaches. For instance words like dream, waiting and regret are very frequent which can be analyzed by dominance approach. In contrast, the credibility of superstition and magic by women can be analyzed by difference approach. The quantitative analysis reveals that the representation of feminine lexical items is more in Veis and Ramin (296 vs 117). The outstanding point is that both poets apply difference approach more than dominance approach. In other words Asade G organi apply difference approach in 60% of cases whereas Nezami in 78% of cases. This also reveals that even in ancient time and literature, they disapproved the dominance approach which represents, to some extent, women's situation on that time.
4- ConclusionAs it is said two main approaches have been developed in area of gender linguistics since 1970s, namely, dominance and difference approaches. In the former approach (Lakoff, 1975), some pre-established characteristics such as speaking indirectly, rapport talk, and cooperation are attributed to women's talk. By contrast, characteristics such as speaking directly, report talk, and competitiveness are attributed to men's talk. In the latter approach, the differences between men's and women's talk are treated as a result of different subcultures and different ways of socialization. In a sense, gender is not a predetermined factor as it is considered in dominance approach; rather, it is constructed in the process of socialization and in interactions. This research also considered the interactional situation and context and speakers status. In result of this research and after investigating and categorizing feminine lexical items and in response to the first question, it can be said that in Veis and Ramin, the women'd discourse is based on crying, moaning, shame, scandal, noticing on details, love, praying, cursing, promising, waiting, faithfulness and unfaithfulness and envy. But in khosro and Shirin, women's discourse is based on reason and in comparison to Veis and Ramin used less feminine words (117 vs 296). Words related to magic have the most frequency,and the other words related to feminine lexical domain are very rare.it can be said that their speech style became masculine which is the response of the second research question. In other words it can be said that Asade gorgani apply these lexical items more artistically than Nezami. In response to the third question which focuses on the most used approach, it can be said that the difference approach is applied more in both works and Nezami applied this approach more than Asade gorgani. Since both artists denied the dominant approach to some extent. For better investigation, women's social status can be studied in these two outstanding lyrics.
References1- Asade Gorgani, F. Veis and Ramin, corrected by M Rowshan. Tehran: Sedaye Moaser, 2007.
2- Bakhtiyari, M. et al. "The representation of patriarchal thought in Persian language", zan dar farhang va honar, N. 4. Pp. 91-107. Summer 2011.
3- Coates, J. (ed.). Language and Gender: A Reader. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998.
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5- Damchi, H. "The investigation and comparison of khosro and shirin and Veis and Ramin". MA thesis, Shahid Beheshti University, 1997.
6- Fayaz, E. & Rahbari, Z. "The feminine voice in contemporary Persian Literature". Pazhuheshe zanan, V.4. N. 4. Pp. 23-50. Winter 2006.
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8- Gumperz, J. Discourse Strategies, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
9- Hosseni, M. "The criticism and investigation of feminist narrative in Women's stories". Ketabe mahe adabiyat va falsafe, n. 93. June 2005.
10- Lakoff, R. Language and Woman's Place. New York: Harper and Rowe, 1975.
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12- Maltz, D. &Borker, R. A cultural approach to male-female miscommunication, In J.
13 Modaresi, Y. Daramadi bar Jameshenasi zaban. Tehran: Pazhuheshgahe olume ensani va motaleate olume farhangi, 2012.
14-Naghdi yusefabadi, E. "The investigation of stylistic characteristic of Nezami lyric work", M.A. thesis. 2006.
15-Najafi arab, m. & Bahmani motlagh, Y. "The application of words in shazde ehtejab novel by language and gender view". Faslname takhasosi tahlil va naghde motune zaban va adabiyate farsi, N. 20. Pp. 121-142. summer 2013.
16-Nezami ganjavi, E. khosro shirin, corrected by B. servatiyan. Tehran: Amirkabir, 2007.
17-Paknade Jabaruti, M. Faradasti va forudasti dar zaban. Tehran: Game no, 2002.
18-Payande, h. The feminist criticism on An Hour Dream, Adabiyate dastani, N. 44. Pp122-134, summer 1997.
19-Razavi, F. & Salehiniya, M. The comparison of the style of Tajo saltine va Azizo sultan. Faslname takhasosi naghde adabi, N.26. pp .44-66. Summer 2013.
20-Rezvaniyan, GH. & Malek, S. "The investigation of the effect of Gender on contemporary woman poets", Sher Pazhuhi, N.17. September 2013.
21-Roshan fekr, K et al. "The investigation of feminine applicational variety in contemporary elergy". Jostarhaye Zabani, N.16. pp. 111-136. December 2013.
22-Yazdani, Z. Zan va sher, Tehran: Tirgan Press. 2007.Keywords: Language, Gender, Khosrow & Shirin, Veys & Ramin, Dominance approach, Difference approach
Pages 169-188Badi-ul-zaman is one of the tremendous writers of arabic language in the fourth century ( a.H ) which has recorded the art of maghame writing in his name . he has used his officials with a special skill of irony to induce meanings . irony is rhetorical style which the writer expresses in his purposes ambiguous expression . in other words , irony is one of the modes of expression which is a in a way license that is allowed to transfer meanings . this kind of authorized does not symmetrical mirror. it can be true - though it is not considered - in addition to virtual meaning . the purpose of research is to find an answer to the question that the author used descriptive - analytical method to find the answer to the question that the writer used the art of dealing with check irony in maghemate badi-ul-zaman hamedani. ~~~ the results research show that the author uses types of irony with various purposes such as drawing reasonable to sensible , respect ,omen and bad omen ,reason and argument blaming and. Condemned pride.omen and Relax bathroom" ridicule,commemoration,reluctant to mention the name praise,exaggerationIntroductionRhetoric science and in particular the science of expression in the recognition of beauty and the deep understanding of the words of the literary profession plays a prominent role, because of the beautiful and beautiful means of using the rhetorical elements in the structure of theology. Ghayni style is used as one of the most important parts of the science of expression in its various forms in the literary works of the literary elders, as Badia'Azaman Hamedani has used it in his collection of authorities. There is an examination of the magnanimous verses with a variety of origins, which in fact the writer The non-textual and non-mysterious feature of this style has been used to express concepts and meanings for its intended purpose. On the one hand, Badia'Azaman Hamedani, in order to express his intentions, has focused on various forms of expression, and on the other hand, theologians of the rhetoric have regulated the literary texts in literary texts and literary modes. This research seeks to provide the enthusiasts with an adaptation of the opinions of some scholars of rhetoric on the newly established authorities of Badia'Azaman Hamedani, with a focus on the style of rhythm, to learn more about rhetorical rhetoric and literary texts, and how to use the styles and types of it in The authoritative authorities will reveal and answer the following questions: Firstly, what types of indignation are in favor of the credibility of the devices and intermediaries in the authorities of Badia'Azaman? Secondly, how long has the oversight of the use of guilty designs been followed?
ResearchMethodologyThis is a descriptive-analytic study. The theoretical foundations of the research are based on the sources of the authorities of Badia al-Zaman Hamedani and rhetorical books such as Meftah Al-uloom Sakkaki, Al-Mathal al-Sair ibn al-asir, Mokhtasar al-Ma'ani Taftazāni and Javaher al-Balāghah Ahmad Hashemi. In this research, the analysis of the content of literary texts with a reliance on aesthetics and the accuracy of how we use our literary slap in the discovery of concepts and themes that are intended to be the main owner of the work.DiscussionBadia-ul-Zaman is one of the Famous Arabic writers in the fourth century of the lunar who is rightfully known in this particular kind of literary mastery and innovator. The literary performance of this Arabic in the use of a variety of verbal and spiritual industries, while expressing admiration and admonition, has raised his prominence in this artistic arena. The compilation contains stories that have been read in meetings and circles with topics such as wisdom, preaching and begging. In this literary genre, the author embodies his word for a variety of verbal and syntactic industries and metaphors and similes. The structure of the Omnamah relies on the two elements of the narrator and hero of the story, and since the dialects have a social aspect; the audience is the general public; therefore, the author attempts to show the ugliness and disorforts of his community in order to be reformed as a social reformer. Corrupted by his time. An almighty has 51 titles, in which he talks about the imaginary personality of Abu Al Fateh Eskandari. He has named his authorities as cities and individuals or topics which are the main axis of his story, and his main goal is in addition to educational aspects , Showing its rhetoric and the rhetoric industry As is the case throughout the industry, he can be found in abundance, "rhyme, pun, balance, simile, metaphor, irony, ambiguity, allusion, metaphor stipulated and Mknyh and Proverbs" (Tabibian, 1392: 12)
Innuendo and its variants: Innuendo is a non-existent expression for the transmission of various concepts and purposes. In the nutshell, there is no need to talk about equipment and vehicles between necessities and to the other.
Tafazani says that the word is a shabby word of speech (Taftazani, 1391: 257), and Zamakhshari says: "It is a shame that it should
mention anything other than the one stated for it" (Zamakhshari, 555: 1427)
An excerpt in the rhetorical books has been divided into various forms and terms after the definition and expression of the lexical meaning:The poem is divided into three categories in terms of the meaning to which it refers: the shadow of the meaning, the indignation of the trait and the indignation of the relation (Tafazani, 2008: 642)
The shout is divided into the validity of the intermediaries and the louis vuitton between the true and the true meaning of the four vows; the extension, the implicit, the cipher, and the ego (ibid., 646)
Ibn Aitra is one of the great eloquent scholars of the rhetoric that divides the calligraphy in a different way. He says that the phrases are divided into several ways: allegory, narration, proximity, and none (see Fazeli, 1365: 344)
The rhetorical rhetoric in the Badia al-Zaman authorities
Like other forms of rhetoricalism, it is accompanied by exaggeration, which is intended to be presented by the writer or theologian. At the same time, in the hands of his authorities, with good skill and ability, he used the omen for exaggeration, the most important of which are:-Trust of reasonable things to tangible -Altitude -Tapture and trickery - Reason and argument - Dignity and condemnation - Fascism and pride - Sparham and Mehrjui - Mocking and waking - Prayer and wish of goodness - Expression of the end - Bowing and commemoration - Mankind of mentioning the name - Praise - exaggerated - puzzle plotConclusion1. Types and types of allegations in the authorities of the Immaculate Conception, whether it is desirable and purposeful (adjective and attribute), both in terms of supplies and vehicles (extensions, implications, codes, symbols), are widely used. In the meanwhile, More than my name is. This may be due to the author's careful consideration of the characteristics and characteristics of individuals so that they can explain and better image issues and make meanings meaningful to the reader.
2- From the point of view of supplies and vehicles at the time of the reign of the times, it is more and more evident, and it seems that with this way of doing so, it seems that the modesty wants to transfer the latent meaning to the reader's mind more quickly and make it difficult and difficult to convey the reader's mind to the devil And avoids ambiguity.
3. Theological concepts are presented in the form of indentations in different periods of time, as the author writes for the reason, the plot of the puzzle, the commemoration, the aversion to the mention of the name, the meaning, the fiction, the exhortation, the exaggeration, the stroke, the disposition, the trickery, the mockery, the expansion, Azaz, Akram, and EndeavorReferences1-Holy Quran
2-Aouni, Hamed, Al-Manhaj, Al-Wahid, Larblagh, Bija: Al-Mechty Alāṣarīṭa Lltraat, Bey
3-Fazeli, Mohammad, Derasaton va nagh don fe masael Balaghiya Hameh, Mashhad: Ferdowsi University Press, 1365.
4-Ganjian Khannari, Ali, Sadat Tabatabaei, Somayeh, Class Contradiction and Its Consequences in the Authorities of Badia- Al-zaman Hamedani, Year 4, Vol. 4, No. 1, 28 p. Tehran University: Spring 2012.
5-Hafez, Shamsuddin Mohammad, Divan Hafez Shirazi, to the efforts of Mohammad Hassan Shirazi, Tehran: Payam Mehrab Publishing, 2014
6-Al-Hamadzani, Badi a-al-Zaman Abolfazl Ahmad ibn Hussein, Authorities, Translation by Sayyed Hamid Tabibian, Tehran: Amir Kabir Publishing (2013)
7-Al-Hamadzani, Badia-al-Zaman Abolfazl Ahmad ibn Hussein, officials of Aby al-Fadl al-Badr al-Zaman al-Hadidani, descriptions of Mohammad Mohiyeddin Abdul Hamid, Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-'Almaya (1923)
8-Al-Hashemi, Ahmad, Jawahir al-Balaghah al-Me'ani and al-Bayān and al-Badi, Beirut: Dar-ol-Fekr Publications (2012)
9-Hedayati, Abdul Rahim, Storytelling in the Graduates of Badie-al-Zaman Hamadani, No. 2, 13 pages, Birjand University: Summer 2003.
10-Hosseini, Ja'far, Alisab al-Bayan fi al-Quran, Tehran: Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, 1413
11-Jorjani, Abu Bakr Abdul Qa'ir ibn'Abd al-Rahman ibn Mohammad, Dela'il al-Ja'az; Suspension of Muhammad al-Shakir, Egypt: Maktab al-Khanji, 2004
12-Sakkaki, Yousef bin Abi Baber, Meftah Al-ulum, Researcher, Abdul Hamid Hendway, Beirut: Dar al-Kabul Al-elmmia, 1420.
13-Sheikh, Mohammad, The Real Inventor of the Officials, Second Year, No. 2, 12 pages, Sistan and Baluchestan University: Autumn and Winter 2005.
14-Al-Tafazani, Saad al-Din Mas'ud ibn 'Umar, Mutasar Al-Me'ani, Research by Jalili Ibrahim Khalil, Qom: Dar al-Kabul al-Ma'miyah, 2012
15-Al-Zamakhshari, Abu al-Qasim, Mahmud bin Umar, Al-kashsha an haqayq Al-Tanzil and the oyoun al-Aqa'wil fi in the form of the Al-Ta'awil, Qom: The Bills of Lives (1427 CE)Keywords: Irony, rhetoric, Maghamat, Badi, o, zamane hamedani
Pages 189-208Referral theory addresses the intertextual and transactional reading texts. Based on his theory, the literary works refer to other texts and transcripts. Or the audience can the understand and receive the texts by referring to objective instances, or by referring to other texts. In this study, the allegories of Saeb have been chosen from the perspective of this theory.Because in each allegory; Saeb has referred the audience to a text or an external. The authors have tried to describe and the texts and transcriptions that Saeb has used in making allegories in a descriptive-analytical way؛ the results of this research show two important points. First, the allegory has a referential basis; the poet has refereed the reader to a parable in order to support each claim. The other is that these parables are based on intertexttual or translated text referrals.The Quran, hadiths, and prophets the prophets of the most important texts ,social and natural are also the main transcripts that Saeb has used in his paraphrasing.The selection method is to collect and categorize the Saeb allegories based on types of referrals.
1.IntroductionCross-referencing in literary texts is the central idea in the intertextual approach to literary criticism which has its roots in the works of Saussure and Bakhtin. For Saussure, “a sign can be imagined as a two-sided coin combining a signified (concept) and a signifier (sound-image)” (Allen, 2016 : 21). Bakhtin, however, believes that “the abstract linguistics of Saussure strips language of its dialogic nature, which includes its social, ideological, subject-centred and subject-addressed nature” (ibid.: 36). In this context, two general views were formed in intertextual criticism about cross-referencing in literary texts: “reading” and “referencing”. The main difference between these two is that reading takes place when the reader, whom Barthes considers as “a collection of texts” (Modarresi, 2011: 68), reads a text in the context of his previous knowledge of texts. In this definition, language “refers to other texts instead of the reality and society” (Namvar-motlagh, 2016: 166). This can be illustrated by the use of literary tropes like metaphor, metonymy, and analogy which do not conform to ordinary language usage; that is, their signs cannot refer to the objective and conventional instances. To understand literary language, therefore, one should seek instances other than ordinary reality and significance. This is why Riffaterre developed his ‘theory of reading’ and proposed two types of reading: mimetic and semiotic. “Mimetic reading refers to the formal comparison of the text with external, real sources” (Namvar-motlagh, 2016: 236). In this type of reading, the text represents the real world and its linguistic instances can be interpreted by reference to the reality. According to Riffaterre, the problem of this type of reading is that only the superficial meaning is noted, thereby reducing a poem to unrelated bits and leaving its usually ungrammatical aspects unresolved (Selden and Widdowson, 1392: 85). Semiotic reading, however, is defined on the basis of the associations of the text with itself and other texts (ibid.). In other words, the text is perceived and understood by referring to instances in the world of texts rather than in the real world. It is only at this level that the reader can surmount the mimesis hurdle (Allen, 2016: 16) and analyze as well as understand the ungrammatical mysteries of the text. This second type of referencing is the one that is prevalent in academic research and makes use of both visible and hidden devices in the text to refer the reader to the absent texts.
Analogy, which is a kind of intertextuality, has always been widely used by literary authors for the purpose of providing evidence, argumentation, and persuasion. In analogy, a similar experience that is often rooted in the reader’s knowledge is referred to for proving an epistemological, intellectual, moral, or any other claim. Importantly, the realistic nature of analogy readily lends itself to an interpretation based on mimetic reading. In addition, it can also be approached through semiotic reading due to its poetic manner of expression. The present study intends to analyze the analogies of Sa’eb Tabrizi, which are of a great number and variety, from the viewpoint of both types of referencing. Sa’eb has both made extensive use of analogies to create texts and hypertexts and referred the reader to numerous texts and hypertexts to persuade, witness, and argue on a more solid basis. There are three research questions: 1) Can we analyze Sa’eb’s analogies on the basis of the theory of referencing? 2) What are the main texts and hypertexts which Sa’eb has referred to in his analogies? 3) Should the reading of these analogies be mimetic or semiotic?
2. Research MethodBased on a descriptive-analytical method, this study seeks to introduce and analyze the texts and hypertexts that are the point of departure in Sa’eb’s analogies. For this purpose, analogies were extracted from Sa’eb’s ghazals and classified according to their religious, intellectual, cultural, social, and natural background. The analogies were then analyzed in terms of intratextual and extratextual references as well as mimetic and semiotic reading.
3. DiscussionSa’eb’s skill in creating analogies lies in his use of numerous texts and hypertexts which is manifested in intertextual and hypertextual modes of referencing. In terms of intertextual referencing, which denotes “one text referring to another” (Namvar-motlagh, 2016: 51), Sa’eb mainly touches upon four sources, i.e. the Quran, hadith, religious law, and historical anecdotes (usually those of the life of prophets). These types of analogy can be analyzed through three approaches. The first one is intertextual referencing which means that these analogies link the text to other texts. The second one is mimetic reading because texts like the Quran, hadith, and historical anecdotes tend to put emphasis on the reality instead of imaginary aspects. The third one is semiotic reading because the analogies are narrated within a poetic context. In terms of hypertextual referencing, which denotes “one text referring to the world outside the text” (Namvar-motlagh, 2016: 52), two umbrella hypertexts which form the basis of a large number of Sa’eb’s analogies are society and nature. He has made use of the capacity of nature and society to create relevant analogies and support his claims. These types of analogy can be interpreted with reference to both mimetic and semiotic reading because they chiefly rely on the realities of the nature and society. Furthermore, due to the poetic expression of these realities, a deep understanding of the analogies requires semiotic reading.
4.ConclusionSa’eb pays so much attention to analogy and is so skillful at creating analogies that some scholars consider it as the dominant technique in his poetry. With the help of his dynamic imagination and creativity, this famous poet of Hindi school has made extensive use of intertextual and hypertextual contexts to create analogies. There is a realistic tendency in his analogies in a way that he moves from depth to surface in an attempt to objectify abstract concepts by translating them into their sensual equivalents. These sensual equivalents, or analogies, are mostly based on shared religious and historical knowledge and collective experience which is concrete and noticeable the context of nature and society. References, therefore, are mostly made to objective instance in the real world, or to categories that are taken for granted among the audience groups. Thus, they can be approached through mimetic reading. On the other hand, since all these realistic notions are expressed in a poetic language, their mysteries should be discovered by semiotic reading. The main sources involved in Sa’eb’s analogies are the Quran, prophet’s hadith, and historical anecdotes. The main hypertexts are the realms of society and nature. Being aware of these sources, the reader can come to an understanding of the cultural and intellectual roots of Sa’ed’s analogies and interpret them at a mimetic or semiotic level. Furthermore, this awareness can also act as an inspiration for other literary authors because the great variety in Sa’eb’s poems is due to his effective use of major religious, intellectual, and cultural sources as well as his close examination of the nature and society.ReferencesThe Hoy Quran, translated by Makarem Shirazi.
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Pages 209-232From viewpoint of analytical psychology, according to ideas of “Carl Gustav Jung” archetypes are common elements in collective unconscious of the man, and myths including among revelations of archetype. The Fairy, is among archetypes or common spiritual heritage of the human that exist epical stories with mythical foundation and there is in lyric part of those. Purpuse of this query is Identify and recognize of The fairy and her signs, in the stories of “Rustam andsohrab”,”Borzunameh”,”Banugoshaspnameh”,Faramarz nameh”,”Shahriyar nameh” and “Jahangir nameh”.Topic Champions of these stories, contains of “Rustam” and other heroes, that are all of them from his generation, in the lyric part of stories opposite with the fairy. This query collected to method of analytic- descriptive check up on archetype of “The fairy” in these stories, terminate to this issue that The fairy has a twofold shape; sometimes fairy is responsible of role of anima's hero in form of positive and effective, that terminate to consolidation of character and helping his for attain to perfection and sometimes is in form of witch, a reflection of negative anima's hero and shadow, that prevent from attain to individuality and must be control. Also checked up this point that how archetype of the fairy, from positive role in Ancient Persia changed to the witch in Zoroastrianism literature.
1- IntroductionArchetypes are common elements in collective unconscious of the man. The Fairy, is among archetypes that exist in in lyric part of epical stories. In the stories of “Rustam and sohrab” from Ferdousi's shahnameh,”Borzunameh”,”Jahangirnameh”,“Banugoshasp namehShahriyar” and Faramarz nameh”; this archetype opposition with hero, appear to role of positive or negative anima. Purpose of checking this element of fairy opposition with six heroes is recognize a mythical woman that opposition with hero, helping the hero for attend to object with her love. She sometimes has a devil face and show herself in the face of a beautiful woman that ejected of hero. The fairy in the both her shape has a topical role in the mind of story's hero and helping he for attain to perfection.
-Is the witch in the stories a fairy that changed her face?
-Are fairies and witches appears obviously in the stories?
-How appears The fairy and the witch opposition with six heroes and what is their ….?2- Research methodologyCollective of this query is to method of analytic-descriptive and type of writing is library form. Topical sources of used are six epical stories contains Borzunameh”,”Jahangirnameh”,“Shahriyar nameh”,“Banugoshasp nameh”,“Faramarz nameh” and Rustam and sohrab” from Ferdousi's shahnameh,”; that fairy recognized in those.
3- DiscussionOne of efficiency of collide with female face (or male) of personality for hero that is it witch he disparate, even for a short time from his warfare persona and close to world of sensibility and his real of personality; This separation cause that he acting better in his way and effect of this tear of personas is an attractive anima like The fairy. Among of some of women with the fairy seen some similarities that the fort this supposition that they are fairies. Some of this properties are: Suddenly appearance of The fairy against hero in distance, reveal herself to hero and dazzling beautiful of The fairy, Relate of The Fairy with hunt and hunting-ground and ability of turn to another existent, relate with forest that The Fairies in the various stories and mythology, The fairies live in forest or spring... (Aydenloo, 2010, 78-80)
Opposition with The Rustam and Borzu, cause properties of fairies can Tahmineh and Shahrou consider generation of fairies or goddess that appear front of heroes and act in consolidation of man hero of stories. In the story of Faramarz nameh and Banugoshasb nameh. The fairy appears front of heroes in the shape of positive anima and animus. In these stories The Fairies show themselves to form of prey (zebra and gazelle). Change the face to prey is methods of The fairies to entice of heroes. She with this miraculous method mediation to interested hero to herself. (Lahiji, 2003: 303) Seems we can’t The Witch same with The fairy, but in the many of stories she has properties that are same with The fairy and try for seduce of hero. The witch that is a villain anima, also can be The shadow archetype. We facing with The witch or negative shape of anima. Also shadow is dark part of mind and is rejected but don’t have to ignore because although shadow reject but these are essential for personality.
4- ConclusionIn the six epical stories that checking here, was a personality by name “The Fairy” that exist in the lyric part of epical stories; means when hero falls in love and acting his role as e lover not a hero. The fairy is one of the Archetypes that exist as a femme enticing woman in stories and legends of more old lands. And also she is anima and animus of hero that has twofold shape. Positive fairy is a sign of beliefs of pre-zarastor Iranian people. This view of fairy, seem in the Tahmineh, Shahrow, girl of king of fairies and king of fairies that he is a sign of animus of Banugoshasb, also among Banu and king of fairies not created a link, but instruct of needlework to Banu by king of fairies cause Banu link to her animus, means Giiv. The fairies in this stories have many properties like, beauty, acting supernatural deeds, love-making and connection with water, forest and prey; They are also positive anima of hero that cause to compelete feminine part of their soul. In the Zoroastrianism versions against of stories The fairies are villain existing that these villain fairies or witches there are in Shahriyar nameh and Jahangir nameh. Sometimes have signs of fairies like Marjaneh that has properties like, beauty, be side of spring and hunting-ground, be in castle and trying to seduction of hero. And sometimes like Melikha and Rahile opposition to Jahangir nameh don’t have signs of fairies and will be control because
They are shadow and dark part of unconscious.Keywords: Myth, Archetype, Anima, Fairy, witch
Pages 233-256In this article, Boasting is considered as a free way in critique of poetry. The question is, can one consider the bloodshed to some extent as one of the manifestations and means of critique of poetry among the poets? Poets are generally influenced by their emotions and inner influences in praising their works or preferring them to the works of others, and have not considered a precise criterion for arbitration. The method of this paper for research on this issue is based on content analysis and descriptive examples of poetic works, along with an examination of the relationship between poetry's poetic style and the reasons for turning poets to the forefathers. As a result, it is seen in Persian literature as a lightweight element, which can be considered as literary criticism. However, it can be examined in the form of a kind of critique called "uncritical critique" and "critique of criticism" or critique. Generally speaking, in the poetry, in any case, it is possible to include a critique of poetry or others, in many cases.1- IntroductionMofakhereh (boasting) in the term "literary" refers to poetry that is a poet in terms of bounty and perfection and speaking to the good ethics and the righteousness of mankind due to the nature of self-esteem and courage and generosity and the likes of it, and perhaps the honorary and familial honors and In short, he has written in his honor and perfection. "(Mautman, 1364: 258). In this article, self-righteousness is considered as a free way in critique of poetry. Poets have generally been praised for their works or their preference for the works of others under the influence of their inner feelings and influences, and have not considered a precise criterion for arbitration; therefore, influenced by the state of governing of their individual and social life, their general viewpoints About their works in their poems. In many cases, poetry can include criticism of the poetry or others, in many cases.2- Research methodologyThis research is analytical-descriptive and based on content analysis. To do this, collecting information from library resources provided a good example of the poetic works of the poets. Then, based on the opinions of researchers and contemporary scholars, the theoretical foundations of the research were explained, then the collected samples of the poems were adapted to those theoretical foundations.3- DiscussionBecause of the fact that the existence of literary works is undeniable, it can be arranged as a matter of research; however, the problem is that selflessness or self-sufficiency in a free manner in the discussion and analysis of poetry among past poets and Contemporary has been prevalent, and it seems that it can be regarded as some of the manifestations and means of critique of poetry among poets. Although the foolishness seems to be two sides of a coin (see: Parsa, 2006: 57); however, the study of Fakhr in the works of poets, as an independent perspective in critique of poetry, can be understood in light of their styles and perspectives. It can be very influential. Because, in order to identify the way of speaking and gaining knowledge of the poet's thoughts and feelings, we can pass through various ways. One of these ways is to examine the things the poet tells about himself and, possibly, to present his thoughts and opinions about his individual and social life and others. Hence, although it is overlapping with other literary subjects, due to its particular prominence in the context of Persian literary works, it is possible to discuss it with specific boundaries.4- ConclusionFrom the review of this topic, the following results can be obtained: The poem is generally unrelated to poetry style of the poets. Because some of the poets, by means of melancholy and discourse, put strange words and sophisticated scientific terms in the way of inventing a new style of poetry. The rejection and acceptance of discrimination in poetry is a relative subject and depends on the circumstances and circumstances. However, observance of moderation is more artistic. Some scholars bring poetry containing self-esteem into uncensored critique, which in terms of definitions and descriptions is similar to critique. Criticism is the most widespread critique, and most of all, criticisms have emerged. There are some reasons why he has a poem: First, praise for his arts and his abilities in composing poetry, which is the most commonly used form for maintaining the position of the poet and his artistic status. Second, a thought expressed in the form of imaginary language and imagery: this idea creates a poem that shows the personality and vision of the poet. Therefore, poets generally have tried to celebrate their thoughts. The poet is partially influenced by his family and his individual education and social status. Therefore, his thoughts, themes and style of speech are inspired by his personal manifestations. Like Khaghani, whose lyrics are from the point of view of technical and social critique, of course, with some kind of insight. But a poet like Mowlana, described in Masnavi, is more descriptive of the factors and attributes that influenced the creation of this book. In the face of self-righteousness, the poet is sometimes humbled by the poetry of another poetry. Perhaps in this perspective, a way of critique of poetry can be found. Because the poet compares his speech to the art of others, he criticizes his poems. Therefore, it can be said that there is no doubt in poetry with any point of view, it ultimately involves criticizing the poem itself or others.References1- Dargahi, Mahmoud, poetry critique in Iran, Tehran,: Amir Kabir, 1998. 2- Dashti, Ali, kakh E Ebda, Tehran: Javidan, 1979. 3- Farghani, Saifuddin, Divan of Poems, Correction and Introduction Zabihollah Safa, Tehran: Ferdowsi, 1986. 4- Fazilat, Mahmoud, Principles and Classification of Literary Criticism, Tehran: Zwar, 2011. 5- Ferdowsi, Abolghasem, Shahnameh (based on Moscow printing), by Said Hamidian, Tehran: Ghatreh, 2005 6- Firoozabadi, Majd- al- din Mohammad, Al-Qamous Al-Muhit, Beirut: Al-Rasullah Institution, 2005. 7- Fromm, Erich, Man for Self, Tr. by Akbar Tabrizi, Tehran: Behjat, 1983. 8- Hafiz, Shams al-Din Mohammad, Divan of the poems, corrected by Mohammad Ghazvini and Ghasem Ghani, by Abdolkarim Jorbozedar, Tehran: Asatir, 1998. 9- Ibn Qutibah, Abu Muhammad Abdullah, Introduction to al-Sha'r va al-Shoara, Tr. by Azartash Azarnoush,Tehran:AmirKabir,1985. 10- Khaghani, Afzalodin Badil, Divan of Poems, Correction of Ziaeddin Sajjadi, Tehran: Zavar, 2003. 11- Khojandi, Kamal, Divan of Poems, Correction of Ahmad Karami, Tehran: Ma, 1994. 12- Mu'tamman, Zain al-Abedin, Persian Poetry and Literature, Tehran: Zarrin, 1986. 13- Nezami-e- Aruzi, Ahmad bin Omar, Chahar maghaleh, corrected by Mohammad Qazvini, Tehran: Jami, 1993. 14- Nezami - e - Ganjawi , Elias bin Yusuf, Khamseh . Correction of Vahid Dastgerdi. Reviewer Baha'addin Khorramshahi, Tehran: Friends, 2004. 15- ___________, Makhzan-al-Asrar, Correction of Bart Zanjani, Tehran: Tehran University, 1993. 16- Onsori, Hasan ibn Ahmad, Divan of Poems, Correction by Mohammad Dabir Siagi, Tehran: Sanai Library, 1985. 17- Parsa, Ahmad, Stylistics of Hajviat-e - Khaghani, Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol. 25, No. 3, Pages 57-67, Shiraz University: Autumn 2006. 18- Rumi, Jalal al-Din Muhammad, Masnavi, correction of Reynold Nicholson, Tehran: Amir Kabir,2003. 19- Sa'di, Moslehoddin, Boostan, Description by Mohammad Khazaeli, Tehran: Javidan, 1993. 20- _________, Golestan, Correction and Explanation of Gholam Hossein Yousefi, Tehran: Kharazmi, 1996. 21- __________, Kollyyatl, efforted by Mohammad Ali Foroughi, Tehran: Amir Kabir, 1985. 22- Shafiei Kadkani, Mohammad Reza, Fiction in Farsi Poetry, Tehran: Agah, 2001. 23-___________, Poetry Language in Sofia Prose, Tehran: Soxan, 2014. 24- ___________, Poetry Music, Tehran: Aje, 2003. 25- Shamisa, Syrus, Literary Criticism, Tehran: Mitra, 2016. 26- Tolstoy, Leon, What is Art, Tr. by Kaveh Dehgan, Tehran: Amir Kabir, 1993. 27- Zaif, Shoqi, Literary Criticism, Tr.by Lamia Zamiri, Tehran: Amir Kabir, 1984. 28- Zarrin Koob, Abdolhossein, Literary Criticism, Tehran: Amir Kabir, 1995.Keywords: boasting, Impressionistic criticism, Judicicial criticism, poetics
The demand for livelihoods in the poetry of praise poets is based on the ratio of the individual to AnvariPages 257-280Persian poets and it has been one of the main ways of earning livelihood for them . AnvariEulogizing people in power has been a common tradition among ancient Abivardi is one of these poets that besides his demand odes he also composedbeautiful but sometimes belittling verses and this has been a reason for some researchers toconsider him among hundreds of poets as a beggarly person. Inorder to verify this accusation in current study the demands of some poets have been investigated. Analysisof these poets' demands showed that factors such as lack of jobsecurity, vissicitudes of time, difficulties on the way of becoming a poet, refusing some of praised people togive rewards, needs of poets and especialimportance of poets' praise for the praised ones caused eulogizing and composing demandingpoetry became more common on that era. Instability of political position of ministers andgovernment's men from Barkiaragh- ben Malekshah and king Sanjer era onwards and instability of poets'jobshad caused demands of this era to be trivial in comparison with previous time. Withinvestigating demands of above-mentioned poets it bacame clear that there are many versesin these poets' divans that are similar with Anvari's poems, so only accusing Anvari as abegger is not fair. It can be said that Anvari's confession in his words such as ''beggary is thereligion of poetry'' and some of his words that he considered himself as ''like us a bunch ofbeggar'' and his popularity as one of three harbingers of Persian poetry which stimulatedthose researchers who did not consider him as a superior poet trying to show his faults are. among the most important reasons for this vindication.
1- IntroductionIn persian literature many poets eulogized kings, commanders, agents and accountants and they expected to recieve reward for their livelihood. Due to this, there is a section in persian literature entitled demands. Among poets of persian literature there were poets who did not belittle themselves for meeting their daily needs in this way, but if we compare the life conditions of these poets and their life situations with each other we will percieve that most of times they were inevitable to behave in such a way and also comparing people from moral point of view is correct when they have the same conditions. So, it is not correct to attribute beggary to these poets and it is not a fair judgement..
Anvari is among those poets that researchers consider him as an excellent poet. However, from moral point of view some of contemporary literati with dismissing historical, social and cultural situations and Anvari's personal life conditions have called him a beggar.
In this research demand poems of poets such as Rudaki, Onsori, Farokhi, Manoochehri, Masood Sad, Ghataran Tabrizi, Moazi, Sanaie, Amaghe Bokhari, Adib Saber, Osman Mokhtari, Abdolvase Jabali, Ghavami Razi, Osman Mokhtari, Soozani Samarghandi, Asir Akhsitki, Jamal Al din Abdorrazagh Esfehani, Khaghani, Bilghani, Rashid Vatvat, Zahir Faryabi and Kamal Al din Esfehani are investigated to understand that whether the accusation of beggary attributed to Anvari by many researchers of persian litrature is right or wrong and also we investigate the development of material demands of poets and the causes of such demand poems.
2- Research methodologyFirstly, related versus and causes of composing demand poems were extracted and then through analytical- discriptive method the reseach questions were answered.
3- DiscussionMaazi as the poet laureate of Saljugh era demanded horse tent, horse, camel, silver cup, incense, amber, musk, last year prize, Turkish beautiful woman and sumptuous cloth. In his poems he explicitly demanded rewards and prizes. The development of demands from Samanid to Saljugh era can be observed through comparing demands of Rudaki, Onsori and Mazi as three distinguished poet laureates. Not only in the poems of Mazi( as the poet of Saljugh era) but also in the poems of other poets from this era trifle goods are demanded, for example Sanaie demanded rice, bread,fruits, prize, money( Derham), silver. Osman Mokhtari also demanded bread, cloth, wine, gold, prize, loan and silver. Abdolvase Jebeli also demanded wine, cloth, house, and loan. Another poet Ghavami Razi demanded bread, meat, mistress, horse, prize, price of turbun, saddle and cloth. The last poet is Asir Akhsitki who demanded straw and barely for his horse, meat, camel, wine, horse, paper, money ( Dinar), silk cloth and robe.
4- ConclusionAnvari can not be vindicated from beggary accusation, but as it can be seen in most poets' Divans that we investigated including Rudaki, Manoochehri, Farokhi, Onsori, Masoud Sad Salman, Sanaie, Zahir Faryabi, Rashid Al din Vatvat, Jamal Al din Esfehani, Osman Mokhtari, Soozani Samarghandi, Kamal Al din Ismaeil Esfehani, Mojir Al din Bilaghani, Abdolvase Jebali, Ghataran Tabrizi, Moazi,Khaghani, Asir Akhsitki and Ghavam Tabrizi, there are explicit and implicit demands. Almost all the trifle demands that Anvari due to those was accused exist in poems of pre- Anvari poets and especially in poems of those who lived in Anvari's period. Persian language demands transformed gradually. In Samanid era in which eulogies were normal and far from exaggeration the poets demanded more generosity and the goods did not include trifle things and they were expressed indirectly. In Ghaznavi era praising odes were more exaggerated and demands were expressed more direct and explicit and gradually trifle demands were penetrated poems. In Saljuk era in which praising odes reached its climax and the praised people were portrayed in full exaggeration, it seemed that others did not deserve those odes and they did not understand the value of poets and in result demands of poets were expressed more explicitly in comparison to prior eras and they included other trifle goods, too.
Reasons such as lack of job's security and lack of income sources and special importance of poets' praising for people in power led poets to compose demand and praising poems.
Instability of political situation of ministers and governmental agents led them to pay more attention to their power position and they did not have necessary time and composure for other poets. In addition, the poets had to praise two rivals simultaneously and this made the praised ones annoyed and they did not give expensive rewards and this caused many poets were satisfied even with trifle demands.
Finally, at the end of this research it can be mentioned that it is not correct to consider Anvari a beggar, because it is a historical fact that demand poetry was a common issue among all persian poets and it was ont restricted to Anvari.
The difference among Anvari's demand poems and other poets' was due to political, social and cultural condition of that period. Perhaps one of the reasons that caused that some of contemporary researchers consider Anvari as a beggar is that in past some people such as Hatefi Jami and Azar Bigdeli considered him as one of the three pinnacles of persian poetry and positioned him beside great poets such as Ferdowsi and Saadi and dismissed poets such as Mowlavi, Hafez, Sanaie , etc. It should be noted that Anvari like Sanaie at last put the demand poetry aside and he considerd it as begging and he composed poems in praising needlessness which are unique in persian litrature.
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