فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 20 (بهار و تابستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • محمد بهنام فر، زهرا خوشامن* صفحات 1-27

    ایده جهان هولوگرافیک در قرن بیستم توسط بوهم (1930)، فیزیک دان دانشگاه لندن و پریبرام از دانشگاه استنفورد مطرح شد. مولوی، شاعر متفکری که همواره راه حل های تازه برای زندگی بشر داشته، اندیشه هایی را مطرح کرده است که بسیاری ازآن ها در بستر علم امروز؛ از جمله با این ایده علمی به ظهور رسیده است. همچنین لوبسانگ رامپا یک راهب تبتی شناخته شده و لاما و پزشک بوده که با تبیین مسائل پیچیده متافیزیکی به زبان ساده در کتاب هایش، برای آگاه کردن انسان ها تلاش کرده است. در این پژوهش تفکرات مولانا و رامپا در بستر ایده جهان هولوگرافیک با یکدیگر مقایسه شده تا به این سوالات پاسخ داده شود که چه اشتراکاتی میان مشاهدات مولوی به عنوان یک عارف مسلمان و لوبسانگ رامپا، عارف غیر مسلمان، وجود دارد و چه ارتباطی بین ایده جهان هولوگرافیک با مشاهدات عرفا دیده می شود؟ نتایج تحقیق بیانگر آن است که وحدت انسان با هستی، اعتقاد به وجود دریای مستتر انرژی ، جهان سایه ها ، اصالت اندیشه و عشق در قلمرو فرکانسی مهم ترین مشترکات این دو عارف است که آن را تحت تاثیر اندیشه شهودی دریافته اند و ایده جهان هولوگرافیک نیز به عنوان یک ایده علمی و فیزیکی، مشاهدات غیرعلمی و متافیزیکی عرفا را تایید می کند. چنین به نظر می رسد که با مطالعه و مقایسه اندیشه-های عرفای مسلمان و غیر مسلمان می توان به جنبه های تازه ای از واقعیت دست یافت.

    کلیدواژگان: مولوی، لوبسانگ رامپا، جهان هولوگرافیک، متافیزیک
  • زینب رستمی نسب* صفحات 29-55

    در فلسفه تعلیم و تربیت، نقش تربیتی خود بسیار مهم و مورد توجه است. به همین علت موضوع از منظر دو حکیم و در دو سرزمین مورد بررسی و تطبیق قرار گرفته شده است. هدف مقاله حاضر مطالعه مفهوم «نقش تربیتی خود» و چگونگی تربیت آن در نظام فکری و اندیشگی مولوی و اقبال لاهوری است. مساله ای که در این زمینه مطرح می شود؛ آن است که معرفت نفس یا شناخت خود و نحوه تربیت آن نزد مولانا و اقبال چه همسانی ها و تفاوتهایی دارد؟ روش این پژوهش کیفی بوده؛ و از تحلیل و توصیف داده های مربوط به این دو ادیب استفاده شده است.یافته ها، نشان می دهد مولوی و اقبال باتوجه به زمینه اجتماعی که در آن تربیت شده اند، نقاط قوت و ضعف نظام اجتماعی و فرهنگی زمانه خویش را در نوع نگاه به تربیت «خود یا نفس» می دانند. لذا تربیت «خود» را در اولویت نظام تعلیم و تربیت خویش قرار می دهند. وجه مشترک شناخت و تربیت «خود» از نظر مولوی و اقبال مواجه سازی مستقیم فرد با فطرت الهی، تربیت عقل و آگاهی از پدیده های طبیعی است. اما وجه تفاوت نظرات ایشان در میزان استفاده از عقلانیت و تجربه به هنگام تربیت «خود» است. مولانا بیشتر بر معرفت شهودی تاکید دارد و با تربیت سالک -عارف به فناءفی الله می رسد که نتیجه آن خودشناسی فردی است. اما اقبال با بکارگیری روش شناخت عقلی و نتایج تجربی آن، خود فردی را به من اجتماعی گسترش می دهد و به یک هویت جمعی در تربیت «خود» نظر دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: خود، مولوی، اقبال لاهوری، شهود، عقلانیت
  • محیا رفیعی * صفحات 57-75

    معرفت شناسی به عنوان شاخه ای از فلسفه، در مورد شناخت هستی و خالق آن بحث می کند. این علم یکی از مطرح ترین مباحث شناخت است که از دوره باستان نیز به شکلی عام و غیر مستقل مطرح بوده است. دیوید هیوم از جمله تجربه گرایانی است که در زمینه شناخت، آرائی دارد. او بر اساس حس تجربی، نظریه خود را استوار کرده و تنها، ادراک حواس ظاهری را مبنای شناخت قرار می دهد ؛ ضمن این که این حواس را برای شناخت کافی نمی شمارد. از نظر وی روابط علی، معلول وهم و خیال انسان است و نمی توان با توجه به این روابط به شناخت نائل شد. مولوی نیز یکی از متفکرین مسلمان است که در کتاب مثنوی خود، مطالب فلسفی مهمی راجع به شناخت و راه های آن مطرح کرده است. در این پژوهش نظریات این دو صاحب نظر در باب شناخت مطرح گردیده و با هم مقایسه شده است . نتیجه تحقیق این است که مولوی و هیوم هر دو از حس ظاهر شروع به شناخت نموده اند اما هیوم به خاطر عدم ارزش گذاری به ماوراء طبیعت، در حس باقی مانده و این در حالی است که، مولوی به دلیل قائل بودن به عقول متفاوت و مرتب طولی عقل، شناخت را از راه عقل کلی و کشف و شهود امکان پذیر می داند.

    کلیدواژگان: معرفت شناسی، شناخت، مولوی، دیوید هیوم
  • محمداکبر سپاهی* صفحات 77-96

    داستان رستم و سهراب، در میان داستان های پهلوانی شاهنامه فردوسی جایگاه والایی دارد. اگر چه هسته اولیه و ریشه داستان رستم و سهراب شاهنامه هنوز بر ما معلوم نیست اما نمونه های مشابه و قابل تطبیق بسیاری از آن در ادبیات جهان وجود دارد. در ادبیات اقوام ایرانی نیز داستان هایی مشابه ماجرای رستم و سهراب دیده می شود. این داستان به صورت تغییر شکل یافته ای در منظومه های داستانی ادبیات بلوچی با نام «محمدحنیفه» حضور دارد. در داستان منظوم «محمدحنیفه» نیز ماجرای نبرد ناخواسته پدر و پسری که همدیگر را نمی شناسند رخ می دهد ماجراهای فرعی دیگری نیز مشابه ماجرای رستم و سهراب در این داستان رخ می دهند. در پایان این داستان نیز پسر شکست می خورد. تفاوت عمده این داستان با رستم و سهراب، پایان خوش آن است که از پدر یا پسر، کسی به دست دیگری کشته نمی شود. بر اساس شواهد چندی که در داستان محمد حنیفه وجود دارد، می توانیم به یقین بگوییم منشا این روایت، همان داستان رستم و سهراب است. این داستان با شکل کنونی آن، بازمانده دوره رونق ادبیات دینی بلوچی است.

    کلیدواژگان: شاهنامه فردوسی، رستم و سهراب، محمد حنیفه، ادبیات بلوچی، مقایسه
  • عنایت الله شریف پور*، زهرا سلیمانی صفحات 97-118

    نیما یوشیج، از برجسته ترین شاعران معاصر در ادبیات فارسی است. او با تحولی که در شعر سنتی فارسی به وجود آورد، عنوان «پدر شعر نو» را به خود اختصاص داد؛ در اشعارش به مضامین مختلفی چون: طبیعت، جامعه، وطن و... پرداخته است.احمد شوقی، از مشهور ترین شاعر معاصر در ادبیات عرب است که به سبب شایستگی اش در شاعری، لقب امیرالشعرایی به او داده شده است . او از مرحله شعر سنتی عبور کرد و در مرحله مابین شعر سنتی و شعر نو، اشعارش را سرود. شوقی در اشعارش به مضامین مختلفی چون : اخلاق، جامعه، وطن، تعلیم و تربیت و... پرداخته است. در این تحقیق که با روش کتابخانه ای و سندکاوی تنظیم و تدوین شده است، ضمن پرداختن به مقدمه کوتاه، مضامین اجتماعی در اشعار دو شاعر معاصر ایرانی و عربی، نیما یوشیج و احمد شوقی با نگاهی تطبیقی بررسی شده است. در این بررسی پی می بریم که هر دو شاعر به مضامین اجتماعی توجه کرده اند و تحت تاثیر ادبیات معاصر غرب به خصوص ادبیات فرانسه، به شیوه سمبولیسم، این مضامین در اشعارشان انعکاس یافته است.

    کلیدواژگان: شعر معاصر، نیما یوشیج، احمد شوقی، مضامین اجتماعی، ادبیات تطبیقی
  • علی صادقی منش، مهیار علوی مقدم*، ابراهیم استاجی صفحات 119-144

    ضرب المثل ها به عنوان یکی از بهترین زمینه های پژوهش بر روی اندیشه های گویشوران یک زبان، بخشی از ادبیات هر سرزمین است که مردم آن را به عنوان بهترین راه برای بیان اندیشه های رایج میان خویش برگزیده اند. بررسی همسنج ضرب المثل های پارسی و عربی با تمرکز بر موضوع زن، با اتکا بر امثال و حکم دهخدا و مجمع الامثال نیسابوری میدانی، می تواند نمایانگر بخشی از ذهنیت گویشوران زبان پارسی و عربی باشد؛ به ویژه زمانی که این بررسی همسنج با بهره گیری از دیدگاه های روان شناسی اریک برن و آلفرد آدلر صورت گیرد. آموزه هایی که تحت عنوان اصطلاح آلودگی در روان شناسی برن و اصطلاح اشتباه های بنیادی در روان شناسی آدلر مطرح شده است، می تواند زمینه را برای تحلیل دقیق ضرب المثل های این دو مجموعه فراهم سازد؛ بررسی دقیق و آماری ضرب المثل ها بر پایه دیدگاه های یادشده، رهگشای درک دقیق و واکاوی تطبیقی جایگاه زنان در ضرب المثل های دو زبان خواهد بود. بررسی تطبیقی دو مجموعه ضرب المثل یاد شده، این نکته را بر ما آشکار می سازد که بسامد ضرب المثل های سالم و غیر آسیب زا، طبق دیدگاه روان شناختی آدلر و برن در امثال و حکم به میزان 3.51 درصد از ضرب المثل های مجمع الامثال افزون تر است.

    کلیدواژگان: مثل، بررسی تطبیقی، امثال وحکم، مجمع الامثال
  • یحیی طالبیان، سیده نرجس سیدکاشانی* صفحات 145-163

    مقاله پیش رو، با هدف بررسی استعاره مفهومی عشق دایره وار است در اشعار مولانا وتطبیق آن با شعری از جان دان -از شعرای دوره الیزابت انگلستان- تدوین شده است. مبنای نظری مقاله، نظریه استعاره مفهومی است که استعاره را از کاربرد ادبی کهن خارج می کند و آن را به ابزاری برای تفکر و درک جهان پیرامون تبدیل می سازد. در ابتدا تعریفی از استعاره مفهومی ارائه شده است. سپس ابیاتی در آثار مولانا و جان دان- که در آن ها عشق با مفهوم دایره بیان شده، استخراج و از دیدگاه استعاره مفهومی، خاستگاه و علل ظهور این استعاره در شعر هر دو شاعر بررسی گشته است. سپس با دید تطبیقی، شباهت ها و تفاوت های کاربرد این استعاره در اشعار دو شاعر بیان شده است. در بخش نتیجه نیز، با توجه به نظریه استعاره مفهومی وآنچه از تطبیق به دست آمده، دریافته ایم که شباهت های فرهنگی که بر اساس دین مدار بودن دو شاعر در شعر ایشان وجود دارد، می تواند دلیل ظهور این استعاره به شکل مشترک باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: مولانا، جان دان، دایره، عشق، استعاره مفهومی، ادبیات تطبیقی
  • زهره قصاب پور*، ابوالقاسم رادفر، علی ربیع، علیرضا شعبان لو صفحات 165-193

    فارسی زبانان تا چند قرن اخیر توجه زیادی به نگارش دستور زبان فارسی به ویژه در زمینه حروف اضافه و معادل بودن معنای آن با حروف جر زبان عربی نداشتند. به علت نقش مهم این حروف در انتقال معانی مخصوصا در متون ادبیات کهن فارسی و تفسیری ترجمه شده، پژوهشگران با دشواری های فراوانی مواجه شده اند. در زمینه تطبیق معانی حرف اضافه «به» با حرف جر «باء»، تحقیق چشمگیری انجام نشده است. این مقاله به بررسی تطبیقی حرف اضافه «به» در تاریخ بلعمی با حرف «باء» جر در زبان عربی می پردازد. با شناخت معانی این دو حرف، و نیز، وجوه افتراق، اشتراک و اثرپذیری این دو، استفاده کاربردی با شناخت معانی آن ها فراهم می شود و تصحیح و ترجمه متون این دو زبان، در حوزه این دو حرف و در مواردی رفع مشکلات دستوری و معنایی یک زبان به کمک قواعد وسیاق زبان دیگر امکان پذیر می شود. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که وسعت معنی «به» در مقایسه با «باء» بیشتر و کاربرد معانی متعدد «به» در تاریخ بلعمی بسیار زیاد بوده که در این پژوهش به طور مبسوط به آن پرداخته شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: معانی، حرف جر«باء»، حرف اضافه «به»، تاریخ بلعمی
  • علی اکبر ملایی* صفحات 195-217

    سبو یا سبوی، ظرفی است که از دیرباز برای دوشیدن شیر یا نوشیدن مایعات استفاده می شد و در شعر فارسی، بازتاب گسترده ای یافته-است. در زبان عربی، از این واژه صراحتا اثری نیست، ولی در روند جستجوی از آن، دو احتمال، توجه پژوهشگر را به خود جلب می-کند. یکی بن واژه های: «سبی»، «سبا» و «ساب» و مشتقات آن ها که با سبو شباهت حرفی و معنوی دارند و دیگری کلمه «صبوح» که به نظر می رسد، شکل معرب «سبوی» باشد. به گواهی این نوشتار، سبو در شعر فارسی به مرور از آبخوری به ظرف شراب و شراب، تحول معنوی یافته است. در شعر عربی، احتمالا دو نوع برداشت از سبو وجود داشته: یکی مشک یا خیک که از جنس پوست جانوران بوده و بر دوش حمل می شده و یادآور اصطلاح «سبوکشی» در شعر فارسی است؛ دیگری سبوی سفالین است که نمونه بزرگ آن، برای حفظ و حمل مایعات به ویژه شراب و نوع کوچک آن، برای نوشیدن، استفاده می شده است. به گواهی این نوشتار و مبتنی بر دلایلی، کلمه «صبوح» به معنی شراب، در اصل، معرب «سبوی» است، نه هم خانواده صبح. از جمله این دلایل، یکی این که در قرآن کریم که تنها اثر تحریف نشده عربی است و نیز در احادیث معتبر، نامی از صبوحی به معنی شراب نیامده است. دیگر این که صبحگاه، در فرهنگ عرب، اوقات مناسبی برای غارت و کارزار بوده است، نه باده نوشی و خوشباشی. به علاوه، «سبوی» و «صبوح» در شعر فارسی، با گذشت زمان، روی به سوی اتحاد مفهومی داشته اند.

    کلیدواژگان: سبو(ی)، صبوحی، سبی، سبا، شعر کلاسیک عربی و فارسی، ادبیات تطبیقی
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  • Mohammad Behnamfar, Zahra Khoshamen * Pages 1-27
    1. Introduction

    Molavi Rumi is a thoughtful poet who has timelessly proposed new solutions to human beings challenges. Lobsang Rampa, a well-known Tibetan monk, looks for creating educative reforms in humans, too. Based on the idea of holographic universe in which the world of beings is considered a giant hologram; all the ever beings are only an imagined reflection of their original prototype from another reality beyond time and place. The objective of this current study is to answer this RQ that what could be the relationship among Rumi's observation-as a Muslim observer and Lobsang Rampa- a non Muslim observer, and the idea of holographic universe. Within our conduction it's been highlighted that Rumi & Lobsang Rampa have even utilized the same terms to explain their understandings of the world. Interestingly, the idea of holographic universe has enough evidence to support their metaphysical theories about the existence of cosmos.

    2. Methodology

    In order to respond the research question, Masnavi & Ghazaliat-e- Shams of Rumi beside ramp’s two books, you forever and the third eye have been studied. Thereafter, the concepts of their works which are in accordance to the Holographic Universe realm of theory have gone under comparison. The research design is Library search and analytical- descriptive.

    3. Discussion

    The idea of holographic world was first announce by two scientists, David Bohm a physicist in London University and Carl Pribram a neurophysiologist expert from Stanford University. Although the two were moving in different directions in their fields of interest, both came to the same conclusions including mankind unity with Universe and his mental ability by which many metaphysical concepts can be easily comprehended. They believed in leaving the study of particles and magnetic fields and slanting toward the study of quantum world and creating the existanciology realm for studies. To some scientists, whatever the mystical poems have come to were a shallow understanding of frequencies world. Based on Talbots works, most of the findings of mystical people are in accordance with holographic universe ideas like the creation of the world, the appearance of whole in part, the performance of part with the power of whole, the comprehension of matter and the originality of intelligence and considering awareness as light. Rumi and Rampa have also mentioned metaphysical concepts like the separation of soul and body, belief in invisible world. Rampa has created a definition in which the supersonic molecules bound together and create the body and even in dream there is a protective power which doesn’t allow us to disintegrate from being. Rumi argued that the obstacle of reaching to the other world is mind, senses and mental layers. However, because of the religious differences, Rumi and Rampa eventuate their understanding in different worlds. Rampa believes in reincarnation but Molavi as a Muslim scientist rejects such idea of being.

    4. Conclusion

    In this study the similarity of Rumi and Rampa’s works have been mentioned relying on their findings about the part- whole relationship, the unity of part with whole, awareness as the light and matter comprehension. Moreover, through scrutinizing their works, it has been recognized that within the realm of body and soul a concepts exists that causes our body stay connected to our soul even during sleeping. The religious- cultural differences have caused these two scientists to motion different reasons for the world to be formed like this.

    Keywords: Molavi, Lobsang Rampa, Holographic Universe, metaphysic
  • Zaynab Rostaminasab * Pages 29-55

    In the philosophy of education, the educational role of self is considerably important. Therefore, this issue is comparatively investigated from the viewpoints of two wise scholars in two separate lands. The purpose of this article is to study the concept of “the educational role of self” and the way it is dealt with in ideology and thought systems of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi (Mowlavi) and Iqbal Lahori. By self, it is meant a person who is apt to know him/herself as well as the resources relevant to his or her growth and excellence. Human knows him/herself more than others do and plays a central role in the process of his/her own education and guidance; therefore, self-guidance is a major component of self-education. Thinking deeply about one’s nature and essence has been the objective of thinkers in education-based systems. In fact, “self” is responsible for all challenging issues of human’s social and personal life; in other words, every human being is responsible for solving his/her own problems and is being asked questions, accordingly. Education itself is an undeniable and effective fact in human life, thus, analyzing and investigating it has always been a significant necessity throughout the history of human life. Mowlavi and Iqbal believed that “self-education” prevents one from being submitted to his/her desires and also societies from adhering to profit and loss, prejudices and narrow-minded materialist and temporary views; therefore, it leads humans to prosperity. Humans gain excellence and prosperity during the process of education and “self” begins to play a significant role in this process from a certain point until the end of life, hence, it is of paramount importance to know this role. A review of the comparative researches on self or soul in the educational beliefs of Mowlavi and Iqbal indicated that no independent research has been conducted so far in this field. Therefore, it is significantly necessary to carry out this research. The question that arises is what are the similarities and differences between the approaches taken by Mowlavi and Iqbal regarding self-knowledge and the way it is taught?  The method of this research is qualitative and data relevant to these two scholars are described and analyzed. The findings indicate that with accordance to the social context in which they were educated, Mowlavi and Iqbal regard the strengths and weaknesses of the social and cultural systems of their time in terms of the education of “self”. Therefore, “self-education” is given priority in their educational system. The common aspect of recognizing and educating “self” for Mowlavi and Iqbal is the direct encounter of a person with divine nature, educating reason and awareness of natural phenomena. However, the difference between their views lies in the extent to which they use rationality and experience during “self-education”.  Mowlavi emphasizes intuitional knowledge and believes it is with the education of the seeker-mystic that a person becomes united with God and self-knowledge is resulted. Iqbal, nevertheless, applies the method of rational knowledge and its empirical results to expand the individual self to the social self and holds a collective view on education of “self”. In classical mysticism, about which Mowlavi wrote prose and poetry, self-knowledge is the main objective of self-education. “Trainers or those experienced in spiritual and mystical education, in the first step of education, must teach the trainee self-discovery, self-esteem and self-knowledge so as to provide him/her with a springboard for knowing God”. In his educational ideas, Mowlavi considers the movement towards God as the ultimate goal of education, which is presented in three sections: the macro, the middle and the micro. Macro principles of education: human responsibility for self-education, adjustment of the education process and curriculum appropriate to one’s capability and capacity, priority of intrinsic revolution over change in appearance, paying attention to psychological rather than physical education and multiplicity of cognitive pathways; middle principles: continuous self-assessment, trusting the trainer and giving priority to  purification of soul over knowledge; individual’s educational principles or educational

    methods

    self-impose, presentation of insight about oneself and one’s situation and the method of love taught by parents to seekers. Allameh Iqbal Lahori considers the socio-cultural and political conditions of his time in addition to religious and mystical teachings when he defines the objective of the education of self or human soul. Based on his education in and deep thinking about modern teachings and sciences particularly philosophy, he consciously and critically investigated the foundations and fundamental layers of Islamic culture and civilization on the one hand and Western culture and civilization on the other and considered following a “Muslim self” as the secure way of passing dangerous paths leading to underdevelopment of the Islamic world. Like Mowlavi, Iqbal believes that determinism and separation of thoughts governing the Oriental people are the main causes of deviation in personal and social education leading to intellectual and scientific backwardness. For this reason, Iqbal believed that the East needed original thinkers to overcome the problems of their societies. Thus, he emphasized the excellence of the individual, which leads to the excellence of the society. In the educational systems of Mowlavi and Iqbal, expressing the principles of education of self or soul is the most important objective of the philosophy of education showing how human beings can have a self compatible and in harmony with the facts and events; the self that is also able to influence them. This is a principle. The second principle of self-knowledge and self-education in Mowlavi’s educational system is to learn science and knowledge. Mowlavi believes that science is derived from revelation given to prophets since the material nature of man cannot penetrate beyond the world of senses, so science belongs to whatever for which the revelation was made to prophets. For Mowlavi science is rational experience and discovery and even intuitive knowledge. Comparing the educational ideas of Mowlavi and Iqbal with an emphasis on self-education, it can be concluded that Mowlavi, having the conditions of his time into account, encourages the trainees to know themselves, discover their talents and utilize these talents to achieve the ultimate goal of education, which is to serve and worship God. Iqbal lives in an era when Western culture has partially penetrated Muslim countries and has brought about some changes. He does not consider education to be free of these influences and encourages trainees to know pure Islamic culture and get educated based on its teachings. In this regard, he pays considerable attention to the unity and solidarity of Islamic thinkers and considers their presence in a common theoretical and practical scene useful for education. Nonetheless, his ideas regarding the role of self in recognizing one’s duties and education are compatible with those of Mowlavi.

    Keywords: Self, education, Mowlavi, Iqbal Lahori
  • Mahya Rafiee * Pages 57-75
    1.Introduction

    Epistemology is a branch of philosophy that is defined as the theory of what knowledge is and the ways it is acquired. In epistemology, we seek to answer questions that discuss the reality and how to achieve it. Epistemology has not been independently discussed since ancient times and among the Greek philosophers, but one of the most central issues of epistemology that is worth knowing has been  considered. There are a number of intellectual backgrounds in this period which can be called as: empiricists, skeptics, and neo-Platonists. In the Middle Ages, groups of realists, conceptualists, nominists, and in the new era, rationalists and empiricists have had opinions in this field.

    2.Method

    This study is carried out by descriptive-analytical way using library resources. In this way, David Hume and Molavie's philosophical theories on how to know and knowledge of God are explained and compared.

    3.Discussion

    Literally, knowledge has the meaning of consciousness, cognition and perception and is anti-ignorance (Moein, 2003: V. 2: 1652). In Arabic, the word "knowledge" is used when the evident is distinct from otherwise (Ragheb Esfahani, 1412 AH: 560-580).
    In Molānā works there are references to all kinds of knowledge, including sensory, rational, and intuitive, and he has used various terms, especially in relation to rational knowledge, which, while not paying attention to their meanings, may sometimes make his statements contradictory. Sensory knowledge is necessary for understanding many things or for acquiring a set of issues; but the real science which man seeks pass through the stage of sense in view of Molavi. That is to say, because of its limitation, it cannot comprehend but a fraction of the reality of the appearance, and the sense of the appearance only understands the face among what is in the universe and does not perceive anything from abstractions and meanings. One cannot gain true knowledge unless gets out of this prison.
    Thus the unseen world is apparently absent from the view of sense, but the rational reason makes it conceivable to the mind, including the existence of the angels and the resurrection day. Man needs to be prepared to enter the universe beyond sense. This preparation is a kind of second birth. Molavi compares a man in the ward of the universe to a child who is confined in the womb of mother and does not understand the universe that is supernatural.
    Molavie has also emphasized in the Fih-e Mā Fih on the inherence of the foundation of morality and the distinction between good and evil (see Molavie: 77: 9-77).
    Western thinkers, first and foremost, pay attention to the outer senses; David Hume places his philosophy on the foundation of the senses and presents his theory based on it. The epistemic arguments in his view are also based on this.
    David Hume saw sensory experience as the primary source of reliable knowledge of the facts. With his philosophical skill and vigilance, he pushed the school of sensuality to the end of empiricism limits (Zibaklam, 1378: 126), thereby eliminating the inherent goodness and depravity of human actions, and the human view determines the good and the bad.
    Hume, like other empiricists emphasizes on the precedence of senses over other sources of knowledge and cognition, believing that man knows neither himself nor anything else, and that all human beings are perceptions that are replaced with unimaginable speed. (Hume, 1825: vol. 1: 321)

    4.Conclusion

    The world of creation and the creator of existence have long been discussed through philosophy, and there have been arguments for and against the nature of reason, sense, cause and effect, each of which is based on philosophical worldview and school. David Hume is a late philosopher whose worldview is based on experience. For this reason, he accepts the senses and what is perceived by the external senses, and doubts other than that. According to Hume, we cannot call the two events as the cause and effect because of their sequence, but what has come to our view may be incorrect and in the future these relationships may not exist and another cause may replaces the current cause. Thus he somehow doubts in the supernatural problems and cannot have an understanding of the universe based on what he sees; it is such that he denies them or declares that he cannot know them.
    Molavie, too, believes in all kinds of intellects and knows only the general intellect that is the origin of creatures as complete, and that the intellect with which man evaluates worldly matters does not deserve recognition. For Molavie, humans are like the blind in the dark house who want to know the elephant but cannot see the whole and partially understand it, but if they are conscious and possess the candle of reason, their differences in how and what it is will end. In fact, Molavie believes in knowledge through discovery and intuition, but he knows the sense as its passage. He begins with a menial sense and, after a little understanding, reaches for discovery and intuition.
    The similarity of the two thinkers can be attributed to the inability of the intellect in the knowledge of the universe, but the difference is that Molavie does not give much attention to the outward senses and accepts the intellect at its highest level. The other difference should be seen in the theological view of Molavie, which Hume does not believe in the supernatural, the discovery, or the intuition. In other words, Molavie and Hume have both begun from the sense in the beginning of knowledge, but Hume remains in that sense, and Molavie has passed on and attained intuition.

    Keywords: Epistemology, Mowlavie, David Hume
  • Mohammadakbar Sepahi * Pages 77-96
    1.Introduction

     The story of Rostam and Sohrab, among the tales of the Shahnameh Ferdowsi, has a great place. Although the origins and roots of the story of Rostam and Sohrab of Shahnameh are still unknown to us,  But there are many similar examples in the literature of the world comparable to that of comparative. In the literature of the Iranian tribes, there are similar stories to the story of Rostam and Sohrab. This story is deformed in the Balochi literary poetry system called "Muhammad Hanifa". In the epic "Mohammed Hanifa", the story of an unwanted battle between a father and a son who do not know each other has occurred. Other adventures are similar to those of Rostam and Sohrab in this story has occurred. At the end of the story, the son is failing.  The main difference between this story and Rostam and Sohrab is the happy ending , Because in this case, neither the son was killed nor the father. Based on some of the evidence in the story of Mohammad Hanifah, we can surely say that the origin of this narrative is the story of Rostam and Sohrab. This story, with its current form, Remains the prevalence of religious literature.

    2.Methodology

    Considering that Baluchi literature is largely influenced by the Persian literature, we have tried in this research, By using library resources and analytical description of these tow stories,find  The key points and signs in the story of Rostam and Sohrab of  Ferdowsi's Shahnam were shared by Mohammad Hanifa's story in Balochi literature and by revealing the signs that bind these two stories, we want to show the background of the emegence of the Mohammad Hanifa religious story in Balochi literature and with this way, we can show the effects of the influences of  masterpieces of Persian literature on Balochi literature.

    3. Discussion

    Ferdowsi's Shahnameh is one of the most famous epic books in the world. The battle of Rostam and Sohrab in Shahnameh is one of the most famous stories of this epic book, which even some critics have considered it to be the most important story of this book. In the Middle East, Shahnameh has been the source of inspiration for many epic tales. The main core of the story of Rostam and Sohrab is the father and son’s battle, which has many similar examples in the world literature. Rostam, the famous epic hero of Iran, went to Turan to hunt. It happened that his horse was lost. Rostam went to Samangan to find his horse and became a guest of the king of Samangan. On the same night, the daughter of the king of Samangan asked Rostam to marry. And he said: I want you to have a son. On the same night, Rostam demanded that princess's father officially allow him to marry his daughter, and that same night he married the princess. Tomorrow that night, Rostam farewell to his wife, Tahmineh, and returned to Iran.  Before his farewell, Rostam gave a reminder to his wife and said: If a boy was born, close this sign to his arm and if a girl was born, close it to her hair. After nine months, a boy was born from that woman that named Sohrab. That boy, in the same childhood, was powerful as his father, and nobody could fight him. Sohrab does not know who his father is. One day, Sohrab asked his father's name from his mother in dismay. The mom said to his: do not be upset! Your father is the world's greatest brave man, he is Rostam. Sohrab was happy and decided to attack Iran with an army and make his father king. The news came to the king of Turan. This news came to Afrasiab the king of Turan. He was the enemy of Rostam and Iran, and was pleased with this event. Afrasiab sent troops and gifts to help Sohrab to fight Iranians. He said to his officers: Do not let Sohrab and his father know each other. Because if any of them are killed by another, it is in our favor and one of our enemies has been killed. Sohrab attacked Iran with his armor, and after the adventures, Rostam came to the battlefield to confront the enemy. Rostam and Sohrab met each other. They have fought each other without knowing each other. In these battles, the boy was defeated from his father and was killed by his hand. This is the culmination of the tragedy of this story. Accordingly, some critics of literature have analyzed this story and similar stories with Freud's ideas based on the Oedipus’s Complex. The Baluchi story of Mohammad Hanifah has a similar narrative with Rostam and Sohrab of Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh. In this story it says: One day, the Prophet (pbuh) sat with his friends. Someone knew that in the far land, there is a woman named Hanifa who is the king of the disbelievers. The Prophet urged his friends to volunteer one person to conquer the country. Ali (AS), the most famous brave man among the Muslims, volunteered for that country to fight. Ali (AS) went there and prepared for the fight. Hanifa had bet that if anyone could defeat him, he would marry him. Ali (AS) defeated him and married him. After a while Ali (AS) was asked to return to Medina. When he said goodbye to his wife, he told his wife: If a boy was born, put his name Mohammad. Ali (AS) presented gifts to his wife when he said goodbye to her and gave her a sign for her son. After a while, Hanifa gave birth to a son and named him Mohammed. That boy, in the same childhood, was powerful as his father, and nobody could fight him. Muhammad did not know who his father is. One day, Sohrab asked his father's name from his mother in dismay. The mom said to his: do not be upset! Your father is the world's greatest brave man, he is Ali.  You are the son of the bravest man of the world Ali. Mohammad was happy and decided to go to Medina. After some events, Muhammad and his father met with each other. They fought together without knowing each other. After a while, the boy lost his father and his father wanted to kill his opponent. The boy threatened his opponent by naming his father. After hearing these words, Ali (as) asked for the sign from Muhammad and recognized him by seeing the signs. In this war, one of these two people was not killed and the story ended well.

    4.Conclusion

    There may be a story other than Rostam and Sohrab among the Baluchis and other peoples living on the eastern plateau of Iran, which was also the basis of the work of the narrate of Shahnameh, But we did not find the source of such a narrate, As well as references to Rostam in the Balochi Mohammad Hanafah's story, As well as structural followings and elements of the story of Rostam and Sohrab Shahnameh in the Baluchi story, Certainly, we can see Rostam and Sohrab as the pattern of Wright Mohammad Hanafah's story. Considering that the exact source of Ferdowsi's narration in the story of Rostam and Sohrab is not clear, it is also possible to suggest that perhaps the story of Mohammad Hanifah in Baluchi literature is a revived narrative of the core of the ancient story that in Persian literature as the story of Rostam and Sohrab Has come to us. This story is based on the specific geographical and historical conditions of Baloch life. It can be considered as a kind of reconstruction of ancient Iranian narratives in a new style that is suitable for the Baluchi Muslim era and their particular Muslim type. In any case, the references contained in the story of Mohammad Hanafah suggest the impact of this story on Rostam and Sohrab Shahnameh or its re-creation. The story of Mohammad Hanafah did not include mythological patterns from Rostam and Sohrab of Shahnameh, but in parts we also can see the influence of the story of Solomon and Belgias.

    Keywords: Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, Rostam, Sohrab, Mohammad Hanifah, Balochi literature, comparison
  • Enayat Allah Sharifpour *, Zahra Solaimani Pages 97-118
    1. Introduction

    Today, the significance of studying literature comparatively has found a special place among literary fields of study, in such a way that in most important universities of the world, this major, i.e., comparative literature is thought, as researches in this field are important in truly knowing and recognizing the literature and litterateurs of every language. Considering this matter, the study and comparison of social themes in Nima Yushij's and Ahmad Shoghi's poems and the investigation of the influence of western contemporary literature on both poets would help recognize the poets' worldviews and patterns of thought and the position they hold in the literary system of both nations. Such studies could pave the way for research in world literature and would consequently provoke mutual understanding among people in the world. This study aims at recognizing all social themes present in Nima Yushij's and Ahmad Shoghi's poems by using a comparative method.

    2. Methodology

    This study has been conducted based on research project and its goals, using library resources in the field of humanities and studying best documented works. The research process involved a thorough study of Nima Yushij's and Ahmad Shoghi's poems to extract, take notes of, and collect data, then the Arabic poems were translated to start analyzing the data, and finally, the research was ready after typing and editing.

    3. Discussion

    By studying Nima Yushij's and Ahmad Shoghi's poems and comparing social themes in them, it was found that both poets referred to themes such as poverty, defending human rights, criticizing  oppression and injustice, freedom, truth-seeking,  backwardness in society, labor, women's position, children, and homeland, which will be briefly discussed in the following section.

    -     Nima states that poverty is a result of the rulers practicing injustice, war, class distinction, etc., and to solve this problem,  he persuades the poor to fight against poverty. But, Shoghi regards poverty as something destined, the causes of which are unknown, and he sees its cure in the rich helping the poor. -     Both poets have referred to human rights in the forms of justice, freedom, and truth-seeking. The both consider injustice as something ephemeral and advice the rulers to practice justice. They refer to the concept of freedom in the form of 'anti-colonialism' and 'anti-despotism', and invites the society to attain freedom. Nima in his poems refers to three examples of inequality of rights, namely, class distinction, feudal system, and the lack of meritocracy. He tries to raise the peoples' awareness and encourage them to fight for their rights. Also, Ahmad Shoghi criticizes the inequality of wealth and rights in his time. He considers rights to be eternal, and states that rights should be attained gently, without fighting, while Nima believed that rights would be better obtained by fighting for them.

    -     Using environmental elements, Nima criticizes peoples' ignorance, gullibility, superstition, and consumerism. Also, observing the development of European countries and the backwardness of Egypt in all fields, like peoples' illiteracy, ignorance, and inferiority, Shoghi's heart aches for people and he tries to find a solution. He find the solution to this backwardness in three things, namely, encouraging people to attain knowledge, to create new industries, and to complain about disease and lack of hygiene.

    -     Both poets invite people to work and endeavour, and they consider working a value.

    -     In Nima's poems, Wherever the women's names are mentioned, we see that they are suffering weakness, poverty, fatigue, illiteracy, and many other problems. Also, what the reflection of women's condition in his time suggests the lack of women's presence in society and their lack of education. Nima complains about women taking off their hijab, while Shoghi regards this as women's natural right. Shoghi has discussed about the two issues of women's education and marriage and other matters relevant to these issues, and he criticizes old men marrying young girls.

    -     Both poets, as two intellectuals in their times, are not ignorant of the future generation. They encourage children to have such attributes as beneficence, purity in words, loyalty, and honesty, and to avoid moral vices, such as laziness, nonchalance, cunning,  and animal cruelty.

    -      other common themes found in Nima Yushij's  and Ahmad Shoghi's poems include 'homeland' and 'patriotism'. Both poets have great affection for their homeland, despite the all deprivations and lacks existing there.

    4. Conclusion

    In Nima Yushij's and Ahmad Shoghi's time, Iran and Egypt were under internal despotism and external colonialism, during which different extensive cultural, economic, political, and social problems existed in these societies. Successive political and social events highly influenced the poets' soul. Both poets used 'poem' as an instrument to express social issues, and there are very similar social themes  in their poems. Reading their poems, we are faced with true emotions reflecting peoples' pains and problems. While Nima has discussed social themes with a deeper look and a bolder language, and he has given much more attention to the details of problems in society, Shoghi has taken a general look at social issues. Some themes, like poverty, have been discussed more extensively by Nima, while some other themes, like women and homeland, have been discussed more extensively by Shoghi. Both committed social poets have shown a tendency towards symbolism in their poetry due to their familiarity with European culture and literature, especially French, which has inevitably influenced their thought and poems.

    Keywords: contemporary poem, Nimaushij, Ahmad Shoghi-social contents, corresponding literature
  • Ali Sadeghimanesh, Mehyar Alavi Moghaddam *, Ebrahim Estaji Pages 119-144
    1.Introduction

    Proverbs as one of the best areas of research on the ideas of speakers of a language, part of the literature of any country is its people as the best way to express ideas common among the self-chosen, so the species that we as folk literature know, proverbs part of the literature suggests counts people as language empower their psychological states. Check contrast Proverbs, Persian and Arabic, focusing on women, based on the likes and Dehkhoda’s Amsal va hekam and Mayadani’s Majmol Alamsal, could represent a part of the mentality speakers of Persian and Arabic, especially when the survey compared with the use of the insights of psychology Eric Berne and Alfred Adler. To examine the psychological effects and consequences of the proverbs of a language, one must use psychological perspectives. The focus of this article is on the position of women in Persian and Arabic proverbs; therefore, the authors will attempt to examine the position of women in Persian and Arabic proverbs on the basis of the views of Eric Berne and Alfred Adler on a more comprehensive view of the differences and commonalities between cultures. These two languages ​​can be achieved. Our reliance on the proverbs in Persian language will be based on Dehkhoda’s Amsal va hekam and in Arabic on Mayadani’s Majmol Alamsal. The reason for choosing these two works is that despite numerous works in this field, Dehkhoda’s Amsal va hekam Mayadani’s Majmol Alamsal are still the most complete works in Persian and Arabic languages in this field.
     

    2. Methodolgy


    This research is based on the library method, using analysis, description and analysis of the proverbial statistics of the subject in each language. The research is thus explained first by Alfred Adler's focus on fundamental error theory and by Eric Berne’s focus on pollution theory; In the next step, these proverbs in each language show their percentages of contamination and inaccuracy, in percentage terms. Finally, a comparative study of the data is performed to reach the final conclusion.
     

    3.Discussion

    A careful examination of the position of women in proverbs of Amsal va hekam and Majmol Alamsal based on the psychological perspectives of Alfred Adler and Eric Berne, and with regard to the fundamental questions, suggest that some errors and omissions can be made. The speaker of a language is someone that whenever he finds a literary statement appealing to him and can express his mental states and desires, he chooses it and quotes it at such a high frequency that it becomes little more than a proverb; The public, on the one hand, is a manifestation of the culture and type of vernacular of a language, at least in the past, and on the other hand can be recognized as an influential factor on the general public in the future, and must be scrutinized carefully to assess its potential harm. Be. The importance of such studies becomes even more pronounced when the proverbs are sometimes so popular among the public that they invoke it as a solid and undeniable idea and, on the basis of their placement, argue on various issues.
       In the Persian proverbs of of Amsal va hekam and in the Arabic proverbs, the position of women is psychological in several respects. It should be borne in mind that all of what has been explained as fundamental errors and psychological contamination in the theoretical foundations can overlap in the study of proverbs, which overlaps in the different attitudes that the proverb may have. To better understand the position of women in proverbs, based on the psychological perspective of Alfred Adler and Eric Berne, we extracted the proverbs of both languages ​​from in Proverbs of Dehkhoda’s Amsal va hekam and Mayadani’s Majmol Alamsal and categorized them into five groups, considering the difference in the number of proverbs. In these books, to gain a deeper understanding, in addition to explaining the psychological issues associated with the chart, we outlined their percentages in each language to make the comparative study and final conclusions easier.

    4.Conclusion

    A detailed and comparative statistical examination of the position of women in Proverbs of Dehkhoda’s Amsal va hekam and Mayadani’s Majmol Alamsal based on the psychological perspectives of Alfred Adler and Eric Berne leads us to conclude that some proverbs have attitudes to fundamental misconception and contamination with women; Five groups led us to the following

    results

    A. There is a 2.09% increase in Majmol Alamsal than Amsal va hekam and verdicts of the pollster's attitude, along with a fundamental misconception that women are hurting men, so there is a widespread attitude among Arab speakers, of course; With more than 23 percent of Arabic proverbs and more than 20 percent of Persian proverbs.
    B. Concerning the perception that women are fundamentally less powerful than men, there is a 6.41 per cent higher prevalence in Majmol Alamsal than Amsal va hekam, which may be a more profound indication that this view is present in the Arabic cultural background.
    C. Looking at women as a commodity to fulfill men's desires, 14.19 percent of Amsal va hekam and 11.53 percent of Majmol Alamsal; it is estimated that in Persian proverbs, this means a higher frequency of 2. The Arabic proverbs in this regard are, to a lesser degreerior.
    D. The attitude associated with contamination and fundamental misconception that restricting women is necessary to protect them from error is visible in the proverbial Persian Amsal va hekam 6.17% and in the Arabic Majmol Alamsal 3.84%. Although this attitude is relatively low in the proverbs, it is evident that in Persian, with a tolerance of about twice as much as the Arabic language, this attitude is emphasized as a worthy figure.
    E. In the case of proverbs that are judged to be healthy, the status of Amsal va hekam are better than Majmol Alamsal. Although there is not much difference in this case, in any case the frequency of healthy Persian proverbs is 3.51% higher than Majmol Alamsal, so the position of the Persian proverbs can be slightly improved on this view.
       Knowing that 58.03% of Amsal va hekam and 61.54% of Majmol Alamsal are psychologically contaminated and mistaken, alerts us to the fact that in the context of Arabic, Persian, and Arabic literary pretexts, More than healthy, non-traumatic statements. Lack of attention to this issue can have unpleasant consequences for human society in the long run; proverbs as an integral part of popular culture affect the culture and thought of speakers of any language.

    Keywords: Proverbs, Woman, comparative study, wisdom, Amsal va hekam, Majmol Alamsal, Berne, Adler
  • Yahya Talebian, S.Narges Seyyed Kashani * Pages 145-163
    Introduction

    The classic view of metaphor, defines it as a figure of speech used by poets and intellectuals only for aesthetic purposes; Up until the late 18th century and early 19th century when the Romantic view changed that and took metaphor out of literary language boundaries and made it a means of thought and reflection of world. By the end of 20th century, George Lakoff and Mark Johnson suggested the "conceptual metaphor" theory in a book titled Metaphors We Live By. Metaphor, the authors explain, is a fundamental mechanism of mind, one that allows us to use what we know about our physical and social experience to provide understanding of countless other subjects. Their most important claim is that metaphor is not just a matter of language, that is, of mere words; But they argue that on the contrary, human thought processes are largely metaphorical (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980, p. 6). As such, by examining the metaphors, we can reach authors' world-view and ways of thought.

    Objectives

    Love in the most important and most frequent subject in poetry, especially in the poetry of Rumi (Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī , also known as Mowlana, 13th cent. Persian Poet). He uses a varieties of metaphors to describe love which can be inspected in various aspects and methods. In this paper, we narrowed those metaphors down to those which only talk about love as a circle or compass and compared them to the same ones in John Donne's (16th cent. English poet) poetry. Therefore, the 3 main objectives of this paper are: extraction and examining of the metaphors in Rumi's and John Donne's poetry, analyzing them based on conceptual metaphor theory and finally, comparing the results.

    Methodology

    This study is based on the descriptive analysis method by using library research and extracting poems by two poets and investigating backgrounds and elements. Then we will be able to answer that are there any similarities between metaphors' use in the poetry of these two poets (considering their 300-year time gap)? If so, what cultural and intellectual fields does it show?

    Discussion

    Lakoff and Johnson categorized conceptual metaphors into 3 main groups: "orientational", "ontological" and "structural" metaphors. The circle and compass metaphor are both orientational and ontological metaphors. Love is spoken of as a thing or an abstract that is used in math but its qualities help the speaker to talk about love. Circle is the most complete shape in the universe. It is the symbol of perfection. The circular movement and circle itself are constantly used to show senses and concepts that have associated semantics; for instance, movement of the skies, the degrees of existence, the verse and the divine, etc. In his great Diwan-e Shams, Rumi uses the circle metaphor in 3 ways. First,  Love is a circle that Beloved is its center: 7 lines in his book uses the metaphor in that way. The indicators of these lines are "circling around a point", "the beloved being the center of reliance" and " repeating the circular movement by lover". The picture in these lines is the same as pilgrims circling around Ka'ba, the beloved being in center and lovers circling around. To describe love, Rumi used a state which is familiar for the reader. It was familiar for Rumi, too, who saw his Beloved as the center of his world. In A Valediction: forbidding mourning John Donne compares the two lovers' souls to feet of a compass. At the beginning the lovers are a whole; united like two feet of a stiff compass. The beloved is the fixed foot and the lover moves around; Finishes where he started, united, no beginning and no end. But what is the circle resulted from lovers' union? Is it anything other than love itself? Perfect, beautiful and tying lovers. So the end of love is perfection and harmony. From a comparative view, Rumi and Donne both see the beloved the center of circle and the lover as the moving foot of compass. Both used this metaphor to show the lovers' dependency to one another. Other point is the contradictory nature of compass; moving while being firmly placed in one point. Both poets define love as a circle which comes to existence only around the beloved; being the whole world of lover. Other than this circle, there is none. In Donne's poetry we see that beloved hearkens after the lover who roams in far; which shows beloved's fondness of the lover; a point that we do not see in Rumi's metaphor. "The lover coming back to the starting point" is also seen in both poet's work. Second group of poem lines, Lover is a compass and moving around in a circle. In these lines, lover is both stiff and moving at the same time, always wandering around and is shocked by it. The lover himself is the whole compass. The object is a plaything in the beloved's hands. And made him dizzy and wandering. Lover is both consistent and moving at the same time. The same contrast is observed in Donne's poetry as well; in lines 26 to 28 and 36. The third group of lines love is circular. In sonnet 169 of his great Diwan, Rumi describes love as a circle which is spinning the lovers all over the world round and round. And he says that "this spinning is mandatory for such a circle" the center of this circle could be Saaqi (the cupbearer) or either lover or beloved. The circular movement comes from drunkenness, being out of sound mind or the spree resulted from being in love. Love moves you, from one place to another, not showing the right way; like a compass, it takes you back to where you started. We see something similar to this use of circle in Donne's poem as well. The circle resulted by the cooperation of the lovers, is love itself. The circle of love is perfect, showing solidarity of a world in which the lovers and compass have such a relationship. (Hawx, 95: 39). So what does these differences show? Rumi talks about a compass as it's moving very fast. Sometimes the beloved is at the center, sometimes the lover is the compass itself. As if Rumi thinks the best way to describe the lovers' behavior is spinning and circling. But Donne's compass moves slowly. It only draws one circle and returns to the starting point safely. His most emphasis is on the lovers' dependency to one another; like a compass's feet. Love is a circle, as an ontological and orientational metaphor, shows some aspects of a circle and a compass and hide some other qualities at the same time. This metaphor has a visual basis – the shape of a circle – and a physical basis – the compass- at the same time. The cultural background of this metaphor is probably based on the two poets' religion. Rumi is a Muslim. His love is for the one and only Beloved. He has the picture of haj in his mind. He saw the Hajis spinning around the Kaaba with such a love and devotion. Donne was a Christian scholar, too. He describes love in a way that it could be diverted to God. As a member of Metaphysical poets, Donne wanted to take the lyrical poetry of that time out of its rot and materialism and insert new and farfetched conceits into it.

    Conclusion

    Although there are no common cultural similarities between the two poets, but we can consider religion, love for God, using mortal love to reach God and centering Beloved in life, the reason for use of "love is a circle" metaphor by them. Also visualization of the circumstances of lovers' in the way of unification with each other and their love towards one another is done by the two poets based on the physical body of compass. But this metaphor is used differently by them. In Rumi's poetry it is more frequent and more mystical and with more immediate impact. John Donne uses this metaphor only in one poem and the impact takes longer to take shape.

    Keywords: Conceptual metaphor, Rumi, John Donne, Love, Circle, comparative study
  • Zohreh Ghassabpoor *, Abolghasem Radfar, Ali Rabi, Alireza Shabanloo Pages 165-193
    1. Introduction

     Farsi speakers have not paid much attention to Persian grammar publishing for the last few centuries, particularly in the case of prepositions and their equivalent meaning in Jar letters. Researchers have encountered many difficulties, due to the significant role which these prepositions play in conveying meanings, especially in the translated texts of ancient Persian literature.  Considering that Arabic is the language of the Qur'an and the religious language of Muslim Iranians, Many valuable books such as those pertaining to the literature and history are written in Arabic, so Persian speakers must be familiar with this language and its rules for translating literary and religious texts into Persian. One of these critical literary books is the Tarikh-i Bel'ami, translated from Arabic into Persian. An important feature of the book is its style of writing, which is very close to the Arabic prose, and too many Arabic vocabulary has been used throughout it. Notwithstanding the translator has tried to translate Arabic into Persian, following the Persian style, he was not successful on that. Because due to numbers of reasons, he created some meanings, which had never been applied in the second (destination) language before. Those reasons are introduced as follows. The role of the grammatical topic, the similarity of the meanings of the Persian prepositions with the Jar letters in Arabic, the influence of the book’s original language (Arabic) on the translated text, and considering the fact that the meanings of each language can affect on the second language through translation. In this book, many Persian prepositions are adapted from Arabic or vice versa. In this paper, the meanings of the Persian prepositions "BE" compared with the Jar letter "BĀ" in the Arabic, as well as comparing their similarities and differences. By doing this research, the equivalence of the "BE" and "BĀ" becomes more accurate through the translation of the bilingual texts, and the substitution of the words associated with those is going to accomplish more accurately. Eventually the possible translation errors are going to be reduced, and the exact meaning of each word extracted from source texts are going to transfer to the destination texts correctly. 

    2. Methodology

    This research is fundamental and is done based on the criticism and analysis of data and documentation. The method of data collection is library-based and then analyzed by the comparative method. For this purpose, firstly, the Persian and Arabic grammatical books about the prepositions "BE" and the Jar letter "BĀ" were studied. Then, the meanings of these two words were extracted using authentic books and references. It is important to note that in the course of this study, the book of Tarikh-i Bel'ami was thoroughly examined. The statistical population is the preposition, "BE," in the Tarikh-i Bel'ami and the Jar letter, "BĀ." The analysis of the data in this study is based on a comparison of written evidence and documents, and any specific tools for this research have not been used.

      3. Discussion

    The Jar letters are BA, TA, CAF, LAM, WAV, MONZO, MOZ, kHALA, ROBBA, HASHA, MEN, ADA, FI, AN, ALA, HATA, ELA. (Ibn Malik, 1996: 34) These letters are one of the most essential categories of the Arabic language that link the meaning of the verb to the noun. Some have stated that since the ability of some verbs to reach out the object is too low, these letters help the verb to reach out the object. (Ibn Aqil, 2011:3/8)  The primary meaning of the letter "BĀ" in Arabic is "Elsagh." This letter is one of the seventeen letters of Jar that comes up before the noun and makes it "Majror," and has all the properties of the Jar letters as well. (Ibn Hisham, 1999: 2/11) The common meanings of the letter "BĀ" in the Arabic language with the preposition "BE" in the Tarikh-i Bel'ami book include: "Elsagh", "Sababiat or Talil", "Mosabehat", "Ghasam", "Zarfiat-e Makani," Zarfiat-e Zamani, " Mojavezat (An / Az) "," ["BĀ" synonymous with "Men" and "BE" synonymous with "Az"], "Estela", "Esteanat", "Entaha-e ghaiat", "Avaz va Badal", "Movafeghat va Motabeghat".  Uncommon meanings of the preposition "BE" with the letter "BĀ" in the Arabic language in the the Tarikh-i Bel'ami include: "Tozih", "Seirourat", "Esteghragh-e Jens va Bayan-e Vahdat", "Tavali va Ta’aghob", "Moshabehat", "Ra-e Mafouli", "Taghsim", "Haal", "Souy va Janeb", "synonym of Dar-bareye", "Ekhtesas", "Mozadat", "Moghayese va Nesbat", synonyms "Kasre-e Ezafe"," "synonym of Be-Rasme, Be-Onvane, and Be-Masabe", "synonym of Bar-Ohde-e, Bar-Zemme-e", "Meghdar va Andaze". The non-common meanings of the letter of "BĀ" in Arabic with the preposition, "BE," include: "Moghabeleh," "Tadieh", "Tafdieh," "Tabeiz", "Ba-e Takid".

      4- Conclusion

      There are many different meanings for the Arabic Jar letter, "BĀ", and the Persian preposition, "BĀ". The total number of the meanings of "BE" and "BĀ" is thirty-five, which thirty of them goes to "BE, and the rest eighteen goes to the "BĀ". These two letters share thirteen meanings; the preposition "BE" alone has seventeen meanings, while the letter of Jar "BĀ" has five of these meanings (Table 1). Therefore, in addition to considering the many commonalities in this field, we can say that the meaning of "BE" is more extensive than "BĀ," and the application of the most meanings of "BE" in the Tarikh-i Bel'ami is enormous (Fig. 1). We also state that the Persian language, especially the language of ancient texts, is highly influenced by Arabic rules and has plenty of grammatical commonalities, including; the common meanings in the Jar letter and preposition. In order to obtain these meanings, mastery of the Arabic language and the rules of that are necessary.   Table 1: Number of Differences, common, and Total meaning of the preposition "BE" with Arabic Jar letter "BĀ"

    Keywords: Meanings, The Jar letter BĀ, the preposition BE, the Tarikh-i Bel'ami
  • Ali Akbar Mollaie * Pages 195-217
    1- Introduction

    The word "Saboo" has an impressive presence in Persian language and is believed to have entered Arabic poetry and language. The translation of Persian words into Arabic has a familiar process. This comparative study tries to determine the hypothetical instances of the word "Saboo" or "Sabooy" in the Arabic language and especially in Arabic poetry. The importance of this discussion depends on the importance of the word and the recognition of its structure and meaning over time. The controversy is that the difference in the way the spelling of some letters in two languages, ​​results in the difference in the structure of the glossary of its original. Therefore the word "Saboo" may have appeared in other forms in Arabic. This research represents the meaning changes of this word in Persian poetry also.

      2- Methods

    The Research method in the present study is descriptive, analytical, by using library research and studying dictionaries and poem Divans in Arabic and Persian languages. Through this research the roots of "Saboo" and "Sabooh" are explained. This research attempts to answer the following questions: What was the word "Saboo" modified to and divided into, in the Arabic language? Based on which reasons we can claim that the Arabic word "Sabooh" is the translated form of "Saboo"?  

      3- Discussion

    Saboo has been a container used for milking and drinking liquids for a long time and it has presented vastly in ancient Persian poetry. The metaphoric concept of Saboo in Persian poetry overcomed other meanings by its appearance in the mystical poetry and it specially means virtual wine. In the study of Arabic poems attributed to the era of Jahili, Umayyad and Abbasid, and the Arabic dictionary two roots attract the researcher attention to Saboo word. One of them is the same roots: " Saba", "Sabaa", and "Saaba" and the names were derived from this verbs, such as al-SSaba, al-Sabiah, al-Sebaa, al-Sab baa, al-Sab and al-Mesabah, and the verbs such as "Sabaa", "Saba", "Stabaa" and "Saaba", that all have a central semantic, which believed those are derived from the root of Saboo. another root is the words "Sabooh", "Saboohi" and other their derivatives can be called "Sabooy" and "Sabooyi" according to Arabic phonetic. The word "Saab" in Arabic, means wineskins that was carried on the shoulder, and wine was carried with it (Ibn Manzour, 1419: the roor: Saaba & Al-Aasha, 1431: 78). This type of dish has been adapted to the nomadic life style of the Arabs, and also reminds us  the tradition of carrying the Saboo in Persian poetry. The verb "Saba" has been used to carry wine from place to place (Ibn Manzour, Ibid: root: saba" & Al-Hozzali, 1385: 148). In the archaeological discoveries, in the southern and southwestern regions of Iran and the Arabian coasts of the Persian Gulf, the bowls known as Ajdari bowl were obtained, and the bottom part of them is rubbed and unstoppable. These bowls possibly has been used for The transfer of wine and liquids. The construction of these containers began from the Parthian period and continued until the Abbasid period (Labbaf Khanyaki and others, 1392: 77). On the other hand, the word "Saboohi", that it means morning wine in the Arabic language, can be considered as Arabic pronunciation of "Sabooy" based on reasons: 1- The process of transformation "Sabooy" to "Sabooh", or "Sabooyi" to "Saboohi" is fitted in the Arabic language pattern in phonetic and structural trait. 2. There is no mention of Sabooh in the Holy Qur'an, which is almost the only Arabic book that has come to us without distortion from ancient times. 3. There are the some meanings of Saboohi, such as drinking water in the morning, giving camel milk in the morning, morning war and robbery, and the morning wine, while the last meaning of Saboo was not more important than others for Arabian people in Saudi Arabia's desert; therefore it is not natural to emphasize the concept of  wine from other meaning of Saboohi in such an environment. 4- There are verses in Aasha's and Hafez's Divans demonstrate that the morning was not a good time for wine drinking (Aasha, 2009: 36 & Hafez, 1999: 190). 

    4- Conclusion

    In this research, the lexical group from the root of "Saba" and the word "Sabooh" was identified as the common equivalents of the Saboo in the Arabic language. The derivatives of "saba","sabaa" and "saaba" means wines and synonymous with Saboo, But 'Saboohi' is due to the pun with the word of the morning, implicated and overlapped with other related meanings of this root. Words implication changes in language, but any change in language is influenced by environmental, cultural and social factors. Saudi Arabia’s dry environment, stable insecurity and the continuous wars between the tribes, which caused the "Yum al-Sabah" to be the equivalent of the "Yum-al-Gharah" has been effective in choosing the type of vocabulary. Now the question is if in, such an environment, a word like Saboohi is related to Sobh and covers a variety of meanings like "camel, milking bowl, drinking glass and war and morning plunder", overcoming which content over the other content is logical and assigned predominant implication of the word to itself? Logically, in such an environment, overcoming wine on other items seems unlikely, except overtime and changing or modifying conditions. If we accept the assumption that Saboohi is derived from the Saboo, then the possibility of wine’s emergence concept becomes greater on other meanings because "Saboo" is an industrial pot that both its poetic semantic and its visual and imaginative competence is less than Sobh among Arab people. Besides, the literary tradition watch vocabulary gradation from the real meaning to figurative meaning and poetry always seeks its diversity into anti-habits and defamiliarization. Therefore, Saboohi, derived from "Saboo" as a container of water, milk or wine, gradually and inevitably, found its changing to figurative meaning depended on the meaning of the "wine". While "Sobh" in Arabic was a completely visual word and it does not need to company with "wine" in its figurative process. According to the writer’s assumption couplets from Jahiliyyah’s period that Saboohi or its derivatives were used with wine or morning draughtmeaning have not been immune from distortion and plagiarism. In the Holy Qur'an, which reflects the culture, habits and interests of Jahiliy’s Arabs, both at the level of vocabulary and the level of the paradise promises and hell promises, did not mention Saboohi or its derivatives as wine or morning draught. In Persian poetry, the more we go back in time the language gets more metaphorical, Saboo gets spiritual evolution from signifying the milking and drinking glass into wine drinking, and in poetry and especially in the mystical literature, terms and metaphors such as Sabukeshi, Sabooshekani and Sabooyi del are created. Sabooh in Persian poetry is an imitation of common Sabuh in the Arabic language, and it is common belief is that it was taken from the root of the Sobh, so that it is used more in the sense of the morning time concept that means morning draught, while some poets have been aware that the morning has not been a good time for drinking wine. The conceptual process of this term in the history of Persian poetry is like that its spiritual connection increases gradually with the Saboo, it seems like these two words have a desire for conceptual uniqueness and this, itself, can be a reason for the unity of the two word’s origin in the unconscious of the poets.

    Keywords: Sabuy, Sabuhy, Saba, Sabaa, The classical poetry of Arabic, Persian, Comparison literature