فهرست مطالب

  • سال بیست و سوم شماره 2 (تابستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • الهام کیانی، عطاالله ابراهیمی* صفحات 1-30

    تفاوت بین دمای سطح زمین و دمای هوا در یک منطقه، از تغییرات در نوع پوشش و ظرفیت حرارتی نشئت می گیرد. مطالعات زیادی درباره ی ی رابط بین پوشش اراضی/ کاربری اراضی و رژیم حرارتی دما با بررسی تاثیر پوشش اراضی بر دمای سطح زمین انجام شده است. هدف از این مطالعه، بررسی پوشش اراضی و دمای سطح زمین در اراضی دشت مرغزار شهرکرد با استفاده از داده های سنجش ازدور است. در این مطالعه، با استفاده از تصاویر ماهواره ای لندست 7 و 8، شاخص گیاهی (NDVI) و دمای سطح زمین (LST) به ترتیب به کمک باندهای چندطیفی و حرارتی برآورد گردید. سپس نقشه ی کاربری اراضی با استفاده از الگوریتم حداکثر احتمال با نرم افزار TerrSet تهیه و دقت طبقه بندی در سال های 1366 تا 1395 برآورد شد. با مقایسه ی شاخص NDVI و دمای سطح زمین طی دوره ی 29ساله (1366 تا 1395)، مشخص شد که با توسعه ی شهری، مقدار دمای سطح زمین برابر 9/18 درجه ی سانتی گراد (از 33/24به 42/42 درجه سانتی گراد) افزایش یافته است. نتایج نشان داد که همبستگی شاخص NDVI با نقشه ی دمای سطح زمین منفی است. همچنین، شاخص NDVI در محدوده ی فضای سبز مرغزار با LST رابطه ی معنی دارتری درمقایسه با اراضی شهری و اراضی لخت دارند. با مقایسه ی دمای سطح زمین با دمای هوا در روزهای تصویربرداری نیز اهمیت مرغزارها در تعدیل دمای سطح زمین مشخص شد. توصیه می شود در حفظ و نگهداری این اکوسیستم ارزشمند که نقش مهمی در تعدیل درجه ی حرارت سطح زمین دارد، برنامه ریزی مناسبی انجام شود.

    کلیدواژگان: واژگان کلیدی: تغییرات دما، سنجش ازدور حرارتی، ماهواره ی لندست، پوشش اراضی
  • مهدی سالمی، سیدعلی جوزی*، سعید ملماسی، سحر رضاییان صفحات 31-50

    منطقه حفاظت شده کرخه به دلیل وجود پتانسیل های طبیعی مورد هدف ارزیابی گردشگری طبیعت قرارگرفت تا با استفاده از روش ارزیابی چند معیاره مکانی به پهنه بندی قابلیت گردشگری طبیعت در منطقه مورد مطالعه دست یابد. دراین راستا براساس اسناد مختلف کتابخانه ای وبررسی مقالات علمی ،23 شاخص گردآوری شد. دراین مطالعه سعی شد تمام عملیات آماده سازی، مدیریت و تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها واطلاعات در محیط Builder با استفاده از نرم افزارArc GIS 10.5 وتکنیک فرایند تحلیل شبکه ای (ANP) مناطق مستعد گردشگری طبیعت ارزیابی و مشخص شدند. برای این منظور ابتدا عوامل موثر برفرایند پتانسیل گردشگری طبیعت در منطقه مورد مطالعه تعیین و نقشه های مورد نیاز تهیه شدند. در نهایت با استفاده از تکنیک ترکیب خطی وزنی (WLC) نقشه های نهایی پتانسیل منطقه برای توسعه کاربری گردشگری طبیعت ارائه شد. نتایج این پژوهش نشان دادکه 24 درصد از سطح منطقه دارای پتانسیل طبقه مناسب (6287994 مترمربع)،60 درصد از سطح منطقه دارای توان متوسط (16162497 مترمربع) و16 درصد از سطح منطقه دارای توان نامناسب (4400870 مترمربع) برای توسعه کاربری گردشگری طبیعت است. به طور کلی در منطقه مورد مطالعه زون های شمال شرقی و مرکزی توان بیشتری جهت توسعه گردشگری طبیعت نسبت به سایر زون دارند.

    کلیدواژگان: مدل Builder، گرشگری طبیعت، WLC، منطقه حفاظت شده کرخه
  • سعدی محمدی*، امید کهنه پوشی صفحات 51-95
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی وضعیت اثرگذاری تبدیل روستا به شهر بر وضعیت تاب‎آوری روستاشهری جدید در دو سکونتگاه اورامان و برده رشه در استان کردستان انجام شده است. این پژوهش ازلحاظ هدف، کاربردی و ازلحاظ روش، توصیفی- تحلیلی است. برای گردآوری اطلاعات، از روش اسنادی در بخش نظری و نیز روش میدانی مبتنی بر مصاحبه، مشاهده و توزیع پرسش نامه استفاده شده است. 250 سرپرست خانوار از حجم جامعه‎ای به تعداد 951 خانوار با استفاده از فرمول کوکران انتخاب و پرسش نامه‏ها درمیان آن ها به روش تصادفی، پس از مشخص شدن سهم هریک از روستاشهرها از تعداد کل پرسش نامه‏ها توزیع شد. نتایج تجزیه و تحلیل نشان داد که تبدیل روستاها به شهر و ایجاد روستاهای جدید نقش موثری در ارتقای سطح تاب‏آوری سکونتگاه‏های موردبررسی دارد و میانگین وضعیت تاب‎آوری از 2.85 دوره ی قبل به 3.17 در دوره ی بعد در سطح معنی داری 0.001 ارتقا یافته است. از سوی دیگر، بعد اقتصادی با بار کلی 0.510 بیشترین تاثیر را در بهبود وضعیت تاب‏آوری این روستاشهرها داشته است. همچنین، بین میزان بهبود سطح تاب‏آوری دو روستاشهر، تفاوت معنی‏داری وجود دارد و روستاشهر برده‏رشه با میانگین 3.41 وضعیت بهتری از روستاشهر اورامان با میانگین سطح تاب‎آوری 2.96 یافته است. تفاوت در وضعیت موقعیت طبیعی، موقعیت استراتژیک، موقعیت ارتباطی، وضعیت عملکرد مسئولان و تنوع استراتژی‎های معیشتی مهم ترین عوامل ایجادکننده ی این تفاوت بهبود سطح تاب‎آوری هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: روستاشهر، تاب آوری، بحران، روستاشهرهای برده رشه و اورامان
  • اصغر مولایی*، مصطفی بهزادفر صفحات 97-121

    پایداری حیات شهری و منطقه ای، به ویژه در بعد اقتصادی، یکی از وجوه مهم مدیریت شهر ها و جوامع است که با رقابت های شهری، منطقه ای، ملی و بین المللی ارتباط دارد. در این راستا، برنامه ریزی جامع معطوف به ارکان هویتی مناطق و شهر ها لازم است و باید از ظرفیت های بومی برای رسیدن به آینده ی اقتصادی پایدار و هویت مند استفاده شود. بی توجهی به زمینه های هویتی، به ویژه در ابعاد طبیعی، فرهنگی، اجتماعی و اقتصادی، نتایج منفی ازقبیل تضعیف محیط زیست و فرهنگ بومی، ناپایداری اقتصاد شهر ها و مناطق در تحولات جهانی و نیز کاهش منابع و بی عدالتی را به دنبال دارد؛ مسئله ای که بسیاری از شهر ها و مناطق ایران با آن مواجه هستند و هویت اقتصادی، اجتماعی، فرهنگی و زیست محیطی مناطق را تضعیف می کند. هدف این پژوهش، تبیین ابعاد، زمینه ها و ظرفیت های رقابت پذیری هویتی شهری، به عبارتی دیگر تدوین چارچوب رقابت پذیری هویتی در شهر های ایرانی باتوجه به زمینه و نهایتا چگونگی و سازکار به کارگیری زمینه های هویتی در ارتقای رقابت پذیری شهر ها و مناطق است که با روش تحلیلی و اسنادی با راهبردی زمینه مدار انجام شده است. برای ارتقای شهر به شهری رقابت پذیر و هویت مند، باید برنامه ی جامع توسعه ی شهر و مناطق معطوف به هویت شهر ها و مناطق را با تاکید بر مزیت های رقابتی تدوین کرد. این مزیت های رقابتی در ابعاد و زمینه های طبیعی و زیست محیطی، تاریخی، فضایی- کالبدی، مذهبی، فرهنگی، اجتماعی، اقتصادی، علمی و ورزشی تبیین و دسته بندی می شوند. درراستای ارتقای رقابت پذیری در شهر ها توجه کامل به زمینه های هویتی بسیار ضروری و کلیدی به نظر می رسد. زمینه ها و ویژگی های هویتی نیازمند مستندسازی دقیق و به روز است و این کار در برنامه ریزی رقابت پذیری مناطق، شهر ها و... ، بسیار موثر است. تحقق شهر های رقابت پذیر، نیازمند چشم اندازسازی، تدوین راهبرد ها و سیاست های عملیاتی است که در تمامی ابعاد شهری تبیین شده باشند. ایجاد شهر رقابتی، از مسیر شناخت مزیت های رقابتی بالقوه شروع و با تدوین چشم انداز ها و راهکار های عملی معطوف به زمینه های هویتی به نقطه ی آرمانی نزدیک می شود. مهم ترین راهبرد های رقابت پذیری هویتی با رویکرد زمینه گرای شهری عبارت اند از: شناخت مزیت های رقابتی در ابعاد هویتی و برندسازی آن ها، نوآوری، تسهیل زیرساخت های رقابتی، گردشگری شهری، برندسازی شهری، برندسازی مکان معماری، اصالت کالا و برند های معطوف به زمینه های هویتی.

    کلیدواژگان: رقابت پذیری شهری، هویت، زمینه های هویتی، پایداری اقتصادی، برندسازی شهری
  • مسلم سواری*، حامد اسکندری صفحات 123-171

    هدف کلی این پژوهش، نقش مدیریت مشارکتی در توانمندسازی جوامع محلی در مقابله با خشکسالی است. جامعه ی آماری تحقیق شامل همه ی روستاییان شهرستان‏ های جیرفت و عنبرآباد در جنوب استان کرمان است (N=75819). با استفاده از جدول کرجسی و مورگان، 382 نفر از آن‏ها با روش نمونه‏ گیری تصادفی طبقه‏ای با انتساب متناسب برای مطالعه انتخاب شدند. ابزار اصلی تحقیق پرسشنامه ‏ای بود که روایی آن توسط پانل متخصصان و پایایی آن به وسیله ی ضریب آلفای کرونباخ تایید شد (α>0.7). تجزیه و تحلیل داده ‏ها به ‏وسیله ی نرم‏افزار SPSSwin18 انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که خانوارهای روستایی موردمطالعه ازنظر مولفه‏ های مدیریت مشارکتی در وضعیت نامساعد و ازنظر مولفه‏ های توانمندسازی در وضعیت نسبتا مساعدی قرار دارند. همچنین، نتایج همبستگی پیرسون نشان داد که رابطه ی مثبت و معنی ‏داری بین مولفه‏ های مدیریت مشارکتی با توانمندسازی وجود دارد. نتایج رگرسیون نیز نشان داد که 3/85 درصد از تغییرات متغیر ملاک تحقیق (توانمندسازی) توسط متغیرهای پیش‏بین تحقیق، یعنی مولفه ‏های مدیریت مشارکتی (مشارکت در هدف گذاری، مشارکت در تصمیم‏گیری، مشارکت در کاهش اثرات و مشارکت در تغییر و تحول) قابل پیش‏ بینی است. علاوه براین، نتایج تحلیل عاملی محدودیت‏های مدیریت مشارکتی دربین جوامع محلی را در عامل‏ های موانع انگیزشی و نیازسنجی، موانع اقتصادی و اعتمادی، موانع برنامه‏ریزی، موانع ارتباطی و آموزشی و موانع اطلاع‏ یابی خلاصه کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت مشارکتی، توانمندسازی، خشکسالی، جوامع روستایی، توسعه پایدار
  • مهدی شرافت، امان الله فتح نیا* صفحات 173-194

    تغییرات فضایی- زمانی وسعت نواحی برفی نکته ای مهم در مطالعه ی تغییر اقلیم و عاملی تاثیرگذار در آلبدوی سطحی و بالانس انرژی سطح زمین و تغییرات فصلی به حساب می آید، کمی سازی این تغییرات از اهمیت ویژه ای برخودار است. در این پژوهش با استفاده از تصاویر  NOAA-AVHRR در بازه 2015-1996، سطوح برفی زاگرس بررسی شد و مدل مناسبی بر مبنای ترکیب باند های انعکاسی، حرارتی و مدل رقومی ارتفاع برای استخراج برف از تصاویر NOAA-AVHRR در کوه های زاگرس ارائه گردید. با توجه به نتایج می توان گفت که در دوره ی مورد مطالعه بیشترین مساحت برف در آوریل سال 1997 با مقدار 27637/6کیلومترمربع و کمترین مساحت برف در ژولای 2001 با مقدار 3/6 کیلومترمربع مشاهده شد. از نظر فضایی نیز بیشترین وسعت مناطق برفی در اکثر سال ها در ارتفاعات استان های چهارمحال و بختیاری، شرق لرستان و ارتفاعات مرزی استان های اصفهان و کهکیلویه و بویراحمد دیده شد. البته در ماه آوریل و به ویژه سال 1997 در اکثر استان های واقع در محدوده ی مورد مطالعه (بجز بوشهر، هرمزگان و یزد) برف مشاهده شده است. در مجموع میانگین تغییرات سطح برف در دوره مورد مطالعه 0/22- و کاهشی است، بیشترین کاهش مربوط به ماه ژولای (0/35-) و کمترین کاهش مربوط به ماه آوریل (0/17-) است.

    کلیدواژگان: تغییرات پوشش برف، کوه های زاگرس، تصاویر AVHRR
  • سمیه رفعتی*، احمد سام دلیری، مصطفی کریمی صفحات 195-216
    در این تحقیق، با محاسبه ی پتانسیل باد در محدوده ی ایستگاه های همدید استان کرمانشاه، کارایی و ارزیابی اقتصادی 10 مدل توربین بادی برای بهره گیری از انرژی بادی بررسی شد. برای این منظور، از داده های سرعت باد در دوره ی آماری مشترک 2009- 2013 در مقیاس زمانی 3ساعته و نرم افزارهای WAsP و Windographer بهره گرفته شد و پارامترهای احتمال تولید انرژی، ضریب ظرفیت و خروجی انرژی سالانه ی توربین های مختلف برآورد شد. سپس، ارزیابی اقتصادی هریک از توربین ها انجام و اقتصادی ترین توربین و محدوده در استان کرمانشاه معرفی شد . با بررسی ضریب ظرفیت توربین ها روشن شد که توربین 500 کیلوواتی در تمام ایستگاه ها بهترین کارایی را دارد. همچنین، بهترین کارایی این توربین در ایستگاه های گیلان غرب، تازه آباد و سومار برآورد شده است. میزان تولید انرژی سالانه ی توربین 2000 کیلوواتی، از 2 گیگاوات ساعت در سال در ایستگاه کنگاور تا 7/6 گیگاوات ساعت در سال در ایستگاه گیلان غرب متغیر است. با محاسبه ی شاخص نسبت منفعت به هزینه مشخص شد که احداث نیروگاه در محدوده ی ایستگاه گیلان غرب در تمامی انواع مختلف توربین صرفه ی اقتصادی بیشتری درمقایسه با مناطق دیگر دارد. تولید برق با هیچ یک از توربین های بادی موردبررسی در محدوده ی ایستگاه های اسلام آباد، کنگاور، سرپل ذهاب، روانسر، سنقر، هرسین، جوانرود و قصرشیرین اقتصادی نیست.

    کلیدواژگان: پتانسیل باد، توربین بادی، ارزیابی اقتصادی، استان کرمانشاه
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  • Elham Kiani, Ataollah Ebrahimi* Pages 1-30
    Introduction

    Meadows as natural ecosystems play a major role in the sustainability of nature, but unfortunately in recent years have undergone severe changes. The meadows of Shahrekord, which have severely changed in recent years, in addition to providing forage for livestock, from the recreational and weather regulation point of view is valuable due to its proximity to the city. Considering the importance of meadows in natural resources and environment, there are few studies on the importance of this valuable ecosystems and preventing their destruction around the world. The plain of Shahrekord meadow is one of the meadows that is severely degraded and changed in term of land use and unfortunately neglected by people and authorities. The difference between ground temperature and air temperature in a region is due to changes in the type of land cover and its thermal capacity. In this study, considering the importance of this valuable ecosystem, its role in weather regulation and the mitigation of land surface temperature, has been studied and evaluated.

    Materials and Methods

    Due to the availability and quality of Landsat satellite images, the data of September of this satellite were used in this study. Geometric corrections were applied on all of the images of the study area which were located in the 39N zone of UTM coordinate system (WGS1984). After the atmospheric correction, Shahrekord plain was clipped from the studied images. Then the training samples were selected for each land use/cover and finally classification was done using maximum likelihood algorithm in TerrSet software. The accuracy of the resulted Land use/cover maps were also evaluated using test samples taken from the study area via error matrix. After preparing land use/covers (LULC) map, the land surface temperature (LST) map were also determined from thermal bands of 6, 6-1, and 10, of Landsat TM5, ETM+7, OIL/TIRS-8 respectively, using temperature emissivity separation (TES) algorithm. In this research, the normalized vegetation index (NDVI) was also calculated using infrared and red bands of the Landsat images. Finally, the variation of ground temperature in relation to vegetation changes of Shahrekord’s meadows and its effects on temperature changes was evaluated.

    Results and Discussion

    In the present study, 5 sets of Landsat images were used for estimating land use/cover changes during 1987 to 2016. Kappa coefficient was used to verify the accuracy of the land cover maps. The results indicate anthropogenic changes in the meadows of Shahrekord. By comparing NDVI indices and surface temperature over a period of 29 years (1987 to 2016), it was determined that with urban development, surface temperature increased by 9.18 degrees Celsius (from 33.24 to 42.42 degrees of Celsius). The results showed that the correlation of the NDVI index with the surface temperature map was negative. Also, NDVI index have a more meaningful relationship with LST in meadow lands than in urban and bare lands. The maximum temperature change of the land surface was observed in meadowlands during 1987 to 2016. The highest temperature in 1987, when the entire area is covered with meadowlands, is 39.68°C, but in 2016 it is raised up to 45.51°C, indicating impact of meadowland’s regulation of temperature capacity. Regarding the land use change in ShahreKord meadowlands, as well as the results of land surface temperature in different classes of land covers, it shows that the temperature changes over the years caused by meadowland changes. Considering that in 1987 the average surface temperature of the meadowland was 39.68°C but in 2016 it reached to 45.51°C which caused an increase of 5.83°C reveals the importance of these lands in adjusting land surface temperature. A large change in these lands and the conversion of meadowlands into bare lands can be considered as one of the reasons for the change in the LST, most of which could be due to anthropogenic effects.
     

    Conclusion

    The regression line between the temperature of at ground meteorological station and the retrieved land surface temperature of 5 images extracted from the satellite images showed a coefficient of determination of 0.63 between 1994-2016. The results show that the lesser the amount of meadowland, the greater the correlation between surface temperature and air temperature. As the coefficient of determination of regression line between retrieved LST of images of 2001 to 2016 with the recorded temperature of meteorological station reached to 0.86, which shows a greater correlation. The results showed that based on the regression line between the retrieved temperature of the images and air temperature of the years 1994-2016 (regardless of the year 1987), the temperature of the 1987 year (when the condition of the meadows of Shahrekord was in a good condition) should be 40.93°C (with R =0.69), while the temperature was 32.24°C. In other words, it is 8.69°C less than the expected temperature. The difference between these two values is due to adjustability of the meadows, which in the recent years this change has led to an increase in temperature. This indicates the importance of the meadows in adjusting the LST, which is probably due to the amount of moisture and the level of groundwater table of the meadows. Therefore, it is recommended that we should strive to maintain this valuable ecosystem, which plays an important role in regulating the LST.

    Keywords: Temperature Changes, Thermal Remote Sensing, Landsat Satellite, Land CoverCover
  • Mehdi Salemi, Seyed Ali Jozi*, Saeed Malmasi, Sahar Rezaian Pages 31-50

    Karkheh protected area due to natural potential target evaluating nature tourism to seriously address violations using multiple criteria evaluation method of spatial zoning capability of ecotourism in the study.In this regard, based on the different documentation libraries and scientific review articles, 23 were collected by index. In this study were tried all operations for the preparation, management and analysis of data and information on the Builder environment using the Arc GIS10.5 software and techniques for network analysis process  (ANP) the areas prone to specify the nature of the evaluation and tourism. For this purpose, first, the factors affecting the process of nature tourism potential in the region and determine the required maps were prepared.Finally, using the linear combination weighting techniques (WLC) final maps user area for potential tourism development nature. The results of this study showed that 24 percent of the level region has the potential of appropriate floor (6287994 m2), 60 percent of the surface area has be medium (16162497 m2) and 16 percent of the surface area has be inappropriate (4400870 m2) for the development of the tourist nature of the user. Generally in the region of North-Eastern and central zones be more the direction of development of tourism of nature than the other zones.

    Keywords: Model Builder, Ecotourism, WLC, Karkheh protected area
  • Saadi Mohammadi*, Omid Kohnaposhi Pages 51-95
    Introduction
    The policy of transforming large and prestigious villages, especially district centers, into city is one of the rural development strategies that has been emerged in Iran, in which since the 1970s, a large number of rural areas have been transformed into the city. In this regard, in the studied area, which is located in Kurdistan province, two villages of Oraman village in the Oraman district of Sarvabad and Bardarashah village in Khawmyrabad district of Marivan County, have become city centers in 2011 and 2012, and since then have been operating as villages-cities within the scope of their sphere. The main goal is to transform these prone areas and big villages into the city, increase the quality of local residents life and in fact, eliminate such problems as: unemployment, poverty, withdrawal from economic and social isolation, more favorable services to local residents and surrounding villages, increased dynamism Economic and social development in the region and, in general, the development of these areas, which by reducing the harmful factors mentioned above, could increase the resilience level and thus achieve sustainable development in the studied villages that have become to city. In current study, this issue has been considered as the main issue of the study. in other word research aimed to invistagate the effect of rurarl-city transformation in terms of administrative and political impact on changing the level of economic, social, environmental-physical and institutional and administrative resilience of the villages. In fact it amed to show the statuse of these parts before and aftre of transformations.
     
    Methodology
    The present research is applied in terms of purpose. In terms of its method, it is descriptive-analytic and in terms of collecting information is a combination of documentary-survey method. In the documentary method, reports, articles, dissertations, satellite images, sites and statistics of relevant organizations and in the field method from questionnaires, interviews and observation were used. The statistical population of this research was the households' in the two newly established towns of Bardahrashah in Marivan with 1200 people, and Oraman City with 2,700 people respectively with 240 and 711 households,that using the Cochran formula for determining the sample size and 250 households as volume, the sample was determined and then the proportion of households in each city was determined by the number of questionnaires and was randomly selected among family supervisors and the data were analyzed using quantitative analysis method including inferential statistics and descriptive statistics.
     
    Results and discussion
    Analysis of the collected data shows that in the social resilience dimension, the index of social capital of the local people at the significant level of 0.001 from the average of  2.936 in the previous period reached  to 3.17 in the following  period, In the economic aspect, the change in the level of resilience in rural areas shows that in the important index of employment, the average of unfavorable 2.82 to a relatively  satisfactory amount 3.18, and the income and savings situation has also risen from a dismal 2.87 to a relatively satisfactory 3.17.. Accordingly, in total, the average economic resiliency status of the village-cities surveyed has increased at the significant level of 0.001 from an average of 2.84 in the rural period to 3.17 in the urban period, and on this basis  it can be concluded that by changing the situation from village to city, the settlements  under study have become more economically resilient. Investigating the status of the physical and environmental resilience of the studied settlements indicates that the status of access to the service and communication infrastructure, which is known as the main arteries of communication between settlements with outside, and the areas of movement and economic activity have been increased. And with this description, And with that description, their utility could be like a catalyst to improve the resiliency of the settlements. In the two settlements, the change from village to city has improved, so that the average of undesirable value 2.96 in the Rural Period to 3.28 in the Urban Period. And the institutional dimension of resilience of the studied cities shows that the status of the settlements has increased from the mean value of 2.66 in the previous period to 2.97 in the next period at a significant level of 0.001, so that Institutional development in these villages has improved. [m1] 
    Conclusion
    In general, based on findings, in the two periods before and after the transformation of villages into the cities in the rural-urban areas, physical-environmental dimensions, economic dimension and social dimension, respectively, have the most improvement status in this transformation. The results showed that the economic aspect having the highest direct and indirect effects, and is most effective on improving the level of resilience of the villages of the studied cities after their conversion into city. In other words, the Prosperity and economic diversity  created in the village-city studied , especially the village of Bardarashah city, and the lesser extent in village-city Oraman acted as a stimulus, that in addition to having a direct impact on  improving the resilience of rural-urban areas, indirectly and by improving the performance of other dimensions, improves the overall level of resilience of  the bardarashah and Oraman settlements . Also, the results showed that the average resilience capability in Oraman village is less than the average resiliency in Khavimirabad city, so that the difference in the level of resilience of the two villages-city after the conversion from village to city is confirmed. Therefore, the level of resilience in the village-city of Bardarashah has been improved to a relatively satisfactory level, but the amount and extent of improvement in the rural-urban resiliency of Oraman is not satisfactory and reliable condition.
    Keywords: rural- urban- resilience, crises, BardehRsheh, Owraman
  • Asghar Molaei*, Mostafa Behzadfar Pages 97-121
    Introduction

    Sustainability of urban and regional life, especially in economy dimension, is one of the most important aspects in the management of cities and societies associated with urban, regional, national and international competitions. In this regard, comprehensive planning focused on identical basis of cities and regions is needed to use vernacular capacities to a sustainable and identified economic future. Attention to identical contexts, especially in the natural, cultural, social and economic aspects, leads to negative consequences such as the degradation of the environment and culture, the instability of the economy of cities and regions in global change, and the reduction of resources and injustice. The problems that many of Iranian cities and regions are involved with them undermining the economic, social, cultural and environmental identity.
    One of the important issues of the research is that the Iranian cities and regions have grown regardless of the contexts and, in addition, we have witnessed heterogeneous urban growth. Uncertain loading with the identity and context of the region and cities is one of the main causes of undermining justice in the regions of Iran. Attention to the potential competitiveness on the basis of identity can lead to regional equilibrium and a fair distribution of capital and business acquisition.
    On the other hand, neglecting to identities in the last decades have led to an unbalanced growth of cities and regions. In addition to regional unbalances, the issue of planning is of paramount importance to indigenous areas in Iranian different regions, which, instead of identifying the contexts and capacities of the areas of cities and regions, destroying the identity, and the natural, historical, social and cultural backgrounds and economic has intensified. The growth of irregularities in the natural, historical, socio-economic areas of the regions has weakened many areas and eliminated some of the roots of the region's competitive ability. In some areas, excessive industrial, agricultural and demolition loads and heterogeneous populations cause climate destruction, drought, environmental degradation, social harm, and injustice, rural and small-town migration to metropolitan areas, poverty and marginalization.

    Methodology

    The aim of this research is to definition the contexts and strategies of identical dimensions in urban competitiveness and how to apply identical contexts in the Iranian cities and regions competitiveness. This research has been done with analytical and documentary research method with context based strategy. In order to promotion city to a competitive and identity-oriented city, the cities and regions comprehensive plan must be developed in the dimensions of identity and competitive advantages with emphasizing on competitive advantages in identical contexts.
    Therefore, while addressing the above and important issues, the research questions are: Principles and strategies of urban identical competitiveness are focused on the areas of urban and regional identities. In the present study, the study on the theoretical views on urban identity competitiveness explains the theories, principles and strategies of urban and regional competitiveness, history of urban and regional competitiveness in pre-Islam era and post-Islam era was done. Then definition of urban identity competitiveness with focus on contextual dimensions and then by conclusion and analyzing these results is be done.

    Results and discussion

    These competitive advantages are defined and categorized in the natural, environmental, historical, spatial, religious, cultural, social, economic, scientific and sport contexts. The creation of a competitive city contains identifying potential competitive advantages, visions and applied strategies related identical contexts. The most important urban identity competitiveness strategies include the recognition of competitive advantages in the dimensions of identity and branding, innovation, facilitating competitive infrastructure, urban tourism, urban branding, location branding and location, commodity originality, and brand-oriented identical contexts.

    Conclusion

    Competitive advantages in the Iranain cities can be analyzed in terms of homogeneous regions. In general, it can be said that most of Iran's cities are known for their natural, historical and cultural advantages. The natural benefits of rivers, springs, mitigating climates, plants, natural products, spa therapies, mountains, etc. are considered. Historical advantages include events such as the foundations of humanity, works and history, museums, and so on. Cultural advantages include a diverse range of foods, religious and spiritual events, sports and artistic and scientific celebrities, artistic industries, and unique goods. The table below shows ompetitive advantages (potential and real) in the regions of Iran. Urban, regional, national and international competitiveness in the present age faces new causes, dimensions and emergencies. It is dramatically increasing and often affecting all citizens. Competition for attracting more domestic and foreign capital, attracting more tourists, earning higher income, having cities and regions superior to the roots of the desire to compete in the city.
    In order to promote the competitiveness of the Iranian cities and regions identity, the practical strategis can be used: branding of genuine local and national products, designing urban brand identity logos, identifying the terminals and airport with Iranian culture and art, establishment of local specialty brands for local cuisine, use of new technologies and tools for promoting adaptation and branding, holding national and international exhibitions and international strategies for urban diplomacy, internet branding, holding of the conference Festivals and festivals of genuine products of world culture Arts and Food and Architecture, Worldwide Specialized Brand Publishing, Global Registration of Historic, Natural and Cultural Sets, Religious and Health Promotion, Textile and Historical Improvement, Architectural Branding and Worldwide Brand Features, Exports of Essential Goods, Solving bureaucratic issues and preventing the overthrow of products and places and cities.

    Keywords: Urban Competitiveness, Identity, Identical contexts, Economic Sustainability, urban Branding
  • Moslem Savari*, Hamed Eskandari Pages 123-171

    The overall aim of this study was to examine the role of participatory management in empowering local communities in coping with drought. The statistical population of the study consisted of all villagers in Jiroft and Anbarabad in south of Kerman province (N = 75819). Using Krejcy & Morgan table, 382 of them were selected by stratified random sampling method. The main instrument of the research was a questionnaire that its validity was confirmed by a panel of experts and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α> 0.7). Data analysis was performed by SPSSwin18 software. The results showed that the rural households surveyed from the components of participatory management in an unfavorable situation, but in terms of empowerment components, are in a relatively favorable situation. In addition, Pearson correlation results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between the components of participatory management and empowerment. Regression results also showed that 85.3% of the variables of the research criterion (empowerment) are predictable by predictive variables (participation in targeting, participation in decision making, participation in reducing effects and participation in change). Factor analysis results summarized the constraints of participatory management among local communities in motivational and needs-based barriers, economical and trust barriers, planning barriers, communication barriers, and informational barriers.
     

    Introduction

    Farmers frequently cope with risks due to the uncertainty of climatic conditions. Population growth, changes in agricultural policies, environmental regulations and the degradation of natural resources such as soil and water also faced farmers with numerous challenges. Although farmers have experience in coping with a certain degree of uncertainty, increased climate variability and changes may cause severe problems. Drought in particular is a climatic disaster that creates substantial costs for farmers and affects their agricultural systems extensively. Drought is the most complex of all natural hazards, making the arid and semi-arid regions of the world vulnerable. Although drought has not been well documented, the resource-dependent sectors such as agriculture are the most vulnerable to the impact of this phenomenon. A review of the long-term annual precipitation trends indicated that drought had a worldwide return frequency of every 20e30 years. However, in the last 50 years, some countries such as Iran and Bangladesh have experienced approximately 27 and 19 drought events, respectively. Therefore, for arid and semiarid regions, drought is a recurrent feature that could lead to the loss of crop production, food shortages and starvation) if not managed appropriately. Accordingly drought impacts could be managed at macro (national), meso (local) and micro (village and household) levels. However, the micro-level management (i.e., what the farmers do in response to drought) is too important. Considering the inefficiency of drought management in the country, finding an approach that can address the damage caused by social insecurity (migration, poverty, isolation, etc.), environmental insecurity (water scarcity, soil erosion, etc.), economic insecurity (unemployment, lack of capital And so on) and it is important to improve the ability to deal with undesirable drought phenomena. Farmers frequently cope with risks due to the uncertainty of climatic conditions .Population growth, changes in agricultural policies, environmental regulations and the degradation of natural resources such as soil and water also present farmers with numerous challenges. Although farmers have experience in coping with a certain degree of uncertainty, increased climate variability and changes may cause severe problems. Drought in particular is a climatic disaster that creates substantial costs for farmers and affects their agricultural systems extensively. Drought is the most complex of all natural hazards. Making the arid and semi-arid regions of the world vulnerable. Although drought has not been well documented, the resource-dependent sectors such as agriculture are the most vulnerable to the impact of this phenomenon , respectively. Therefore, for arid and semiarid regions, drought is a recurrent feature that could lead to the loss of crop production, food shortages and starvation if not managed appropriately. According to drought impacts could be managed at macro (national), mesa (local) and micro (village and household) levels. So the role of participatory management in empowering local communities in coping with droughts in southern Kerman province.

    Materials and Methods

    Statistical population of this study consisted of all farmers in the city of Jiroft and Anbarabad was in the south of Kerman province (N=75819). Using Cerjci and Morgan, sample size was estimated as 382. Respondents were selected using Stratified random sampling method. For increasing reliability of the findings, 165 questionnaires distributed among farmers, ultimately 150 questionnaires completed and analyzed in SPSS software. The instrument of the study was a questionnaire which its validity was confirmed by a panel of experts and its reliability was established by calculating Chronbach's Alpha Coefficient (α>0.7).

    Results and Discussion

    The results showed that the rural households studied of the components of participatory management in an unfavorable situation, but in terms of empowerment components, are in a relatively favorable situation. In addition, Pearson correlation results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between the components of participatory management and empowerment. Also, the results of regression showed that 85.3% of the variables of the research criterion (empowerment) were determined by the predictive variables of the research, ie, the components of participatory management (participation in targeting, participation in decision making, participation in the reduction of the effects and participation in the change And transformation) is foreseeable. In addition, the results of factor analysis summarize the constraints participatory management among local communities in motivational and needs-based barriers, economic barriers and trust, planning barriers, communication barriers, and barriers to information.
     

    Conclusion

    Regarding the failure of most of the past drought management program in the country as well as the basic ability of indigenous knowledge of villagers, it is necessary to see the ability and need in different stages of decision making in drought response programs. As it was found in this study, the extent to which participation they increase their ability to cope with drought.

    Keywords: participatory management, empowerment, drought, rural communities, sustainable development
  • Mahdi Sherafat, Amanollah Fathnia* Pages 173-194
    Introduction

    Spatial-Temporal changes of snowy areas extent is not only an important element of environmental and socio-economic, but is an important key in study of climate change and include an effective element in surface albedo and energy balance of Earth's surface and seasonal changes of it. Thus quantification of these changes has a special importance, that this is possible by using satellite images and spending energy and little cost.

    Methodology

    In this research, Snow Area Changes in Zagros Mountains by using NOAA-AVHRR Images since 1996 from 2015 is studied, and appropriate models based on composition of reflection and thermal bands for extract of snow from NOAA-AVHRR imagery in Zagros Mountains is presented. These models use two different methods to detachment snow from non- snow according to the type of sensor. First, satellite images were geometric correction in ENVI software. Then, radiometric correction was performed. In the following calculated albedo of Reflective Bands (RB) and brightness temperature (BT) of thermal bands with the coefficients available in HDR files. For calculation land surface temperature (LST) we used formula Coll et al (1994). Then, calculate NDSI (normalize difference snow index) and NDVI (normalize difference vegetation index). Finally, for extraction snow pixel threshold was performed on RB, BT, LST, NDVI, NDSI and DEM models.

    Results and Discussion

    In this research, we concluded snow pixel that RB is more than 0.2, the difference BT (3.7µ) and BT (11µ) less than 11 and 265 > BT (11µ) <285. So, snow pixel are land surface temperature for April -4 < LST < 14, for May -2 < LST < 16, for June and July -2< LST < 18. For determination snow pixel, should be the amount of NDVI more than -0.1, NDSI more than 0.3 and DEM more than 2000 meter. The results of this research showed in April most snowy cover in 1997 was 9234.7 km2 and the lowest snowy cover in 2008 was 2509 km2. In May most snowy cover in 1997 was 27637.6 km2; the lowest snowy cover in 2008 was 231 km2 and the average snow cover is 1811 km2. In June most snowy cover in 1997 was 1471.4 km2; the lowest snowy cover in 2012 was 125.8 km2 and the average snow cover is 409 km2. During the studied period, the maximum amount of snow cover reduction occurred in May to June. In July most snowy cover in 1998 was 208 km2; the lowest snowy cover in 2001 was 3.6 km2 and the average snow cover is 55.6 km2.
    The highest monthly variation in snowy cover in Zagros Mountains was -0.35 in July and the lowest monthly variation in snowy cover were was about of -0.17 in April. Overall, the reduce average of snowy cover in the study period was about of -0.22.
    From the spatial point of view, the maximum of snowy covers has been observed in the highlands of Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari Province, east of Lorestan and border elevations of Isfahan and Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Provinces for most years. Of course, in April and especially in 1997, snow was observsd in most of the provinces within the study area (except Bushehr, Hormozgan and Yazd).

    Conclusion

    The results of Zagros snow cover survey during the studied period showed, the highest snowy cover was observed in April, May and Jun in 1997, and in July in 1998. From the spatial point of view, the maximum of snowy covers has been observed in the highlands of Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari Province, east of Lorestan and border elevations of Isfahan and Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Provinces for most years, but with increasing temperature, the area of the snowy cover is reduced. As in July, in most of the years, only Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari heights and mountainous areas of the border of Isfahan and Kohkiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad provinces have been observed. As a whole, towards the warmer months of the year, changes in the snowy cover are increasing.

    Keywords: Snow Covering, Zagros Mountains, AVHRR Images
  • Somayeh Rafati*, Ahmad Sam Daliri, Mostafa Karimi Pages 195-216
    Introduction
    Global warming and climate change are nowadays significant challenges for humankind. It is widely and generally accepted that the increase of greenhouse gases emissions (GHGs) in the atmosphere are caused by anthropogenic effects especially in modernized and industrialized countries. Consequently, cleaner energy generation is needed in order to reduce global GHGs emissions (Waewsak et al., 2014). Wind energy becomes today a promising option to complement the conventional energy source, especially in region where the existing power plants are not sufficient to match the increasing electricity demand. This success is principally due the rapid growth of the wind technology which led the wind power to be more competitive by reducing the cost of electricity produced (Djamai and Merzouk, 2011). Since there has no comprehensive wind potential study in Kermanshah province, it is necessary to pay this important subject to reply for increased demand of electricity. Thus this paper aimed to assess economical usage of wind power in Kermanshah province.   
    Methodology
    In this study we assessed economic feasibility of wind energy usage at 13 sites in Kermanshah province. In order to carry out the research, 3-hour wind speed data in 2009 to 2013, topography, land cover and obstacle maps were used, and ten models of wind turbines with different rated power were investigated. It has been calculated Capacity Factor, Operating Probability of wind turbines, and Annual Energy Production for selected turbines in 0.03m surface roughness using WAsP and Windographer software. Economical evaluation was down by Net Present value method and benefit costs analysis (B/C) in 13 sits and 10 models of wind turbines. Also in this research it was used Extra Investment Analysis (EIA) method to choose the best project from the initial Selected Projects. After investigation of cost analysis, it was determined the most economical wind turbine and site for utilization wind energy in Kermanshah province.
    Results and discussion
    The maximum Capacity Factor of selected turbines has calculated in Gilanqarb (46.4%), Tazeabad (44.2%) and Somar (39.2%). This is because of different wind climatology of these sites in comparison with the other sites in the Kermanshah province. In the other words orography characteristics of these sites leads to more nocturnally mean wind speed.
    The costs of the construction and maintenance of a wind farm include initial Capital Costs (turbine price and costs civil work), and also operation, maintenance and Repair costs. On the other hand, the proceeds from the sale of electricity generated should be borne by the costs incurred. The cheapest turbine is 500- kW machine with 707 thousand dollars and the most expensive is 2000- kW machine with 2900 thousand dollars.
    Benefit costs analysis indicated wind power plant construction in Gilanqarb area is more economical than other areas with all turbines except for 1300- kW machines which is more  economical in Tazeabad. Also the most economical machine is 2000- kW turbine in Gilanqarb area. The cost of wind power plant construction whit one 2000- kW turbine is 15.4 Billion toman right now, while the proceeds from the sale of electricity generated is 21.49 Billion toman in life time of machine. So this project is the most economical with benefit-cost ratio equal to 1.4 in comparison with other project in the study area. Obviously, the results of economic analysis will also be different if the prices used in economic analysis, such as the price of a turbine, the price of electricity or the exchange rate change.
    Conclusion
     The results showed 750- kW and 800- kW machines have maximum Operating Probability of wind turbines and also it was the highest in Tazeabad site with 80 to 89%. While Capacity Factor has the highest value for 500- kW machine in all sites. Of course this turbine has the highest value in Gilanqarb (46.4%), Tazeabad (44.2%) and Somar (39.2%) sites. The most Annual Energy Production (AEP) acquired for 2000- kW turbine which is due to its high rated capacity. Calculated AEP for selected turbines vary between about 2 GWh in Kangavar to 6.7 GWh in Gilanqarb in the year.
    Benefit-Cost index showed that wind power plant construction in Gilanqarb area is more economical than other areas with more turbines, and also the most economical machine is 2000- kW turbine in this area. Finally Calculations showed that usage of wind energy is not economical with any turbine in Eslamabad-Qarb, Kangavar, Sarpol-zahab, Ravansar, Sonqor, Harsin, Javanrood and Qasre-Shirin.
    Keywords: Wind potential, Wind turbine, Economic assessment, Kermanshah Province