فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:14 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • Roham Vali *, Moslem Razeghi Pages 91-96
    Objective

    The aim of this research was to compare transcorneal and transpalpebral ultrasonography study of the dimensions (ecobiometry) and the ultrasonographic aspect of Iranian mix breed dogs.

    Design 

    Experimental studyAnimals- . Ten adult male dogsProcedure- Ten adult male dogs with the mean age 4±1.39 years and the mean weight of 16.7±3.6 kg were selected and distributed in two equal groups. Transcorneal and transpalpebral ultrasonographic scanning of left and right eyes of dogs were performed using with a 12 MHZ transducer. The transducer was placed in a longitudinal position (sagittal plane) until optimal B-scan images, were obtained.Results- Means and standard deviations of the intraocular structures of both transcorneal and transpalpebral were as, Anterior chamber depth (2.99±0.242, 2.78±0.285 mm), Lens thickness (6.62±0.364,7.02±0.612 mm), Vitreous chamber depth (8.81±0.354, 8.79±0.552 mm) and Axial globe length (19.60±0.452,19.50±0.592 mm) respectively. No significant differences were observed when comparing left and right eyes of dogs in both methods within the same group and comparing between two groups (p>0.05).

    Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

      Results of this study can be used as a template in diagnosis of ocular disease and facilitates the use of transpalpebral ultrasonography in the evaluation of ocular structures in ocular disease specially painful conditions.

    Keywords: Dog, Eye, Transcorneal, Transpalpebral, Ultrasonography
  • Zaman Esmaeilsani, Farid Barati *, Rahim Mohammadi, Naser Shams, Iraj Karimi Pages 97-104
    Objective

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of curcumin nanoparticles (CNP) on stress oxidative following experimental ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat testes.

    Design

    Experimental Study Animals- Seventy-seven healthy male Wistar rats Procedures-The animals weighing approximately 250 g were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n = 18): Ischemia: torsion group (created by 720° rotation of testis on both sides for 2 h). Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R): torsion for 2 h followed distortion, CNP 10: received 10 mg/kg IP administration of CNP 30 min before surgery then remaining testes were twisted and untwisted, CNP 20: received 20 mg/kg IP administration of CNP 30 min before surgery then remaining testicles were twisted and untwisted. Unilateral orchiectomy of left or right testicles was performed on days 0 and 12 with immediately sampling. Some twisted then untwisted testicles were remained and sampled 60 days after surgery. An additional group was considered (n=5) to be sampled without any operation as control group. The samples of testicular tissue homogenates were taken on Days 0, 12 and 60, and their liquid extracts were collected and assayed for Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The effect of treatment and day of sampling on the variables was analyzed using Two-Way ANOVA.

    Results 

    The results of the study showed an ameliorated balance of GPX, SOD and MDA following testicular torsion in this study. The CNP treated animals (with both administered doses) showed significantly improved the balance of the enzymes compared to untreated animals (p<0.0001). Conclusion and clinical relevance- In conclusion, IP administration of CNP may be helpful in minimizing oxidative stress related enzymes following testicular ischemia-reperfusion in rat.

    Keywords: ischemia-reperfusion, curcumin nanoparticle, testicular torsion
  • Amirabbas Mousavi, Gholamreza Abedi *, Alireza Jahandideh, Saeed Hesaraki Pages 105-115
    Objective 

    Because of the several differences between avian and mammalian physiology and anatomy, avian anesthesia requires to be more attentive. The aim of this study was to determine a safe injectable anesthetic agent that had more compatibility with the avian features.

    Design

    Experimental study Animals- Twelve male pigeons Procedure- The pigeons weighing 302±35 g (mean±SD) were divided into two groups (n=6). In group 1, midazolam (6 mg/kg,-IM) and in group 2, metamizole (500 mg/kg,-IM) were administrated as the pre-anesthetic agents and thereafter, propofol (8 mg/kg,-IV) was injected as the main anesthetic drug in both groups. The serum enzymatic changes were analyzed before and 1 hour after the last injection. Histopathological examinations of the liver and kidneys were also evaluated in terms of possible damages to the tissue. Results- The results of blood biochemistry evaluation in group 1 showed significant changes in the levels of AST and LDH before and after the injections (p<0.05). Histopathology results revealed significant changes in liver parameters in both groups. However, these changes were seen more prominent in group 1 (p<0.05). Also, none of the drugs of both groups had a negative impact on the kidney tissue (p>0.05).

    Conclusion and clinical relevance

      Based on the results, metamizole and propofol combination showed that is safer than midazolam and propofol in terms of blood biochemical and histopathological evaluations and is more compatible with pigeons.

    Keywords: Metamizole, Propofol, Midazolam, Pigeon anesthesia, Pathology
  • Saber Shahraki, Davoud Kianifard *, Masoumeh Moradi, Sara Javanmardi Pages 116-124
    Objective

    Cryptorchidism, common birth defect of the male genital tract, is one of the causes of fertility problems. The elevation of tissue temperature following of cryptorchidism could induce oxidative stress which influences the cellular and tissue degeneration. Amlodipine is a third-generation of calcium channel blockers which has antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of amlodipine on testicular tissue alterations in an animal model of cryptorchidism.

    Design 

    Experimental study Animals- Thirty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-220g Procedure- Experimental cryptorchidism was induced in adult rats. Amlodipine (10 mg/kg b.w.) was administrated orally for two and four consecutive weeks. The experimental groups consisted of non-treated cryptorchidism (n=10) and treated cryptorchidism (n=10) groups. Testicular tissue samples were collected on days 14 and 28 following of cryptorchidism form non-treated and treated groups. Histopathological and morphometrical studies with the evaluation of microscopic indices of spermatogenesis were prepared on tissue samples.

    Results

    Tubular atrophy with germinal epithelium disarrangement was observed in cryptorchidism groups. These changes were reduced dose-dependently in treated animals. The mean of Sertoli cells was reduced significantly (p=0.025) in four weeks non-treated and the mean of germ cells lineage was reduced significantly (p<0.0001) in four weeks non-treated and two weeks treated cryptorchidism groups compared to the control group. Similarly, all microscopic indices of spermatogenesis were reduced following the induction of cryptorchidism. These alterations were reduced time-dependently in amlodipine treated groups.

    Conclusion and clinical relevance

    The results of this study revealed that the administration of amlodipine as an antioxidant agent, time-dependently could be effective on the reduction of cellular and tissue damages of testicular tissue induced by cryptorchidism. It seems some parts of these protective effects may be done through its activity as calcium blocker which declines apoptotic processes by reduction of cytoplasmic calcium levels.

    Keywords: Amlodipine, Cryptorchidism, Rat, Testicular Tissue
  • Reza Azargoun *, Reza Avizeh, Alireza Ghadiri, Mahdi Pourmahdi, Hadi Imani Pages 125-132
    Objective

    The aim of this study was to assess ultrasonography-derived caudal vena cava to aorta ratio (CVC/Ao) as a novel endpoint in the resuscitation of experimental hemorrhagic shock in dogs.

    Design

    Experimental study. Animals- Ten adult mongrel healthy dogs. Procedures- After induction of anesthesia (control assessments), hemorrhagic shock was induced by blood withdrawal to a mean arterial pressure of 40 to 50 mmHg within 30 minutes and then maintained in a hypovolemic situation for an additional 30 minutes (second and third stages of assessments). Afterward, the dogs were randomly assigned to two groups which received 20 ml/kg lactated Ringer's solution or 5 ml/kg Hydroxyethyl starch, in four consecutive 15 minutes intervals (fourth stage of assessments). One hour after the last resuscitation step, final ultrasonographic assessments were performed. Results- Hemorrhagic shock caused a significant decrease in the CVC and Ao diameters as well as the CVC/Ao (2.14 ± 0.28 cm, 0.85 ± 0.07 cm and 0.4 ± 0.06, respectively) (p<0.05). Following the fluid resuscitation, CVC/Ao increased and returned to pre-shock values in both groups.

    Conclusion and clinical relevance

    Findings indicated that serial ultrasonographic assessment of the CVC/Ao can be a useful endpoint in the resuscitation of dogs with hemorrhagic shock.

    Keywords: Ultrasonography, caudal vena cava to aorta ratio, Hemorrhagic shock, Dog
  • Hamid Akbari *, Porya Mohajeri, Siamak Kazemi, Javad Ashrafi, Abolfazl Alirezalu Pages 133-141
    Objective

    This study examined the effect of Crataegus hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in rats.

    Design

    Experimental study Animals- 25 adult male Wistar rats Procedures- Rats weighing 200±25 g were randomly divided into five individual groups as follows: sham group without intestinal I/R, control group with intestinal I/R, and treatment groups with intestinal I/R and 10 days oral administration of CHE at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg. Intestinal I/R was accomplished by occlusion of the cranial mesenteric artery for 30 min, followed by 60 min reperfusion. Then tissue sections of jejunum were prepared and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Histopathological lesions including hyperemia, hemorrhage, necrohemorrhagic inflammation, and villi destruction were scored as mild, moderate and severe. Results- In histopathologic evaluation, sham and control group showed the minimum and maximum injury, respectively. The mean scores of necrohemorrhagic inflammation and villi destruction significantly decreased in 25 mg/kg CHE group compared to control. However, hyperemia and hemorrhage did not change in comparison to control (p>0.007). In the group of 50 mg/kg CHE, no pathologic lesions were observed and the results were similar to those in the sham group. The mean scores of hyperemia and necrohemorrhagic inflammation in the 100 mg/kg CHE group had no significant difference with the control group. However, the mean rank of hemorrhage and villi destruction was significantly lower than control and higher than the sham group (p<0.007).

    Conclusion and clinical relevance

    The findings of this study indicate that CHE at the dose of 50 mg/kg has the most protective effect against intestinal I/R injury in a rat model. Therefore, Crataegus can be a promising compound against intestinal I/R injuries.

    Keywords: ischemia-reperfusion, Crataegus, hydroalcoholic extract, Intestine
  • Alireza Vajhi *, Majid Masoudifard, Abbas Veshkini, Omid Zehtabvar, Mehdi Moghim, Mohsen Akhtarzade Pages 142-153
    Objective

    This study was conducted to make a full understanding of the anatomic and ultrasonographic characteristics of digestive canal in Persian Sturgeon and provide standard approaches for performing digestive tract ultrasonography on this sturgeon species.

    Design

      Experimental studyAnimals - 30 mature Persian sturgeons (Asipencer persicus) (15 females and 15 males)Procedures- A potable ultrasonography machine was used and proper approaches were chosen according to the anatomical examination. First the ultrasonography of the organs (out of the body) was carried underwater, then the ultrasonography of the alive fish was done. Finally, dissection was used to compare the anatomy and ultrasonography results.

    Results

    There are folds on the internal surface of the esophagus. The esophageal wall was thin and hyperechoic with no clear layers. The proventriculus wall was visible as a completely hyperechoic layer in the region where it was attached to ventriculus. The muscular layer of the ventriculus was thicker than that of proventriculus. The pyloric caecum was seen to be located posterior to the ventriculus as a completely hypoechoic layer while the details were unclear. The wall layers of the small intestine were comprised of the 4 parts. The wall layers of spiral colon consisted of the 4 parts to.

    Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

    The study also presented a standard ultrasonography approach for the digestive canal of adult Persian sturgeon. According to this study the places of locating probe for digestive ultrasonography are between the pectoral fines for Esophagus, Liver, ventriculus, Proventriculus, Proximal part of the right pectoral fine for gallbladder and liver, Distal part of the left pectoral fine for ventriculus and pyloric caecum, Posterior to the pectoral fines for small intestine, Anterior to pelvic fines for small intestine and spiral colon and between pelvic fines for rectum, spiral colon, connection between the rectum and spiral colon.

    Keywords: Asipencer persicus, Digestive canal, Ultrasonography, Anatomy
  • Abdolvahed Moarabi *, Bahman Mosallanejad, Mohammad Ghasem Hanafi, Narges Khodadadi Pages 154-161
    Objective

    This survey was accomplished to describe the hepatic artery and portal vein indices in healthy domestic cats by color Doppler ultrasonography technique.

    Design

    Retrospective experimental study. Animals- Twenty domestic short hair (DSH) cats (10 males and 10 females). Procedures- Doppler indices of liver vascular (portal vein and hepatic artery) such as PSV, EDV, RI, PI, MV, VF and the spectral wave forms were measured in the studied cat's population (two equal groups of ten each). Results- The mean and deviation of portal vein were as follow: PSV: 40.68 ± 9.82‚ EDV: 23.38 ± 5.78‚ RI: 0.48 ± 0.10‚ PI: 0.72 ± 0.26‚ MV: 2.49 ± 0.64, VF: 25.81 ± 5.04 and for hepatic artery were included PSV: 49.79 ± 9.45‚ EDV: 31.92 ± 5.05‚ RI: 0.59 ± 0.09‚ PI: 0.85 ± 0.20‚ VF: 34.73 ± 5.47 and MV: 3.03 ± 0.44 respectively.

    Conclusion and clinical relevance

    The obtained results showed that there was not a significant difference between males and females for indices of liver vascular (p>0.05). These data can be used for comparison with the various hepatic diseases in cats. It should be noted that the importance of hepatic blood flow is more in cats than dogs, due to defect in liver enzymes.

    Keywords: Cat, Doppler, Liver, Ultrasonography, Vessels
  • Hanieh Farahi, Siamak Mashhadi, *, Alireza Jahandideh, Ahmad Asghari, Seyed Hamed Shirazi Pages 162-172
    Objective

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible beneficial effect of tricalcium phosphate/collagen (TCP/collagene) nanocomposite scaffold on bone healing in rabbits using biochemical assessmentsDesign- Experimental studyAnimals- Twelve healthy male white New Zealand rabbits

    Procedures

    The rabbits were marked with non-toxic color and randomly divided into two groups of 6 animals each. In the first group (SHAM) the defect was made and with no treatment the wound was closed. In the second group (TCP/C) the tricalcium phosphate/collagen (TCP/collagene) nanocomposite scaffold was implanted into the defect. Before the procedures (day 0) and on 7, 15, 30, 45 and 60 postoperative days the blood samples were taken from jugular vein and undergone hematological and biochemical assessments.

    Results

    The hematological, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters including WBC, RBC, HCT, PLT, neutrophil, lymphocytes, BUN, Creatinine, AST, ALT, ALP, SOD, GPX and MDA showed statistically significant differences between Sham and TCP/C groups (p<0.05).   

    Conclusion and clinical relevance

    It was concluded that TCP/collagen nanocomposite improved the biochemical parameters in the nanocomposite treated animals and could be of clinical benefit in reconstruction of bone defects and could be considered as a scaffold in bone fractures.

    Keywords: Reconstruction, Bone healing, TCP, collagen nanocomposite, biochemistry, Rabbit
  • Majid Taati *, Hassan Norouzian, Abbas Raisi Pages 173-180
    Objective

    The pineal gland and its principal hormone melatonin play an important role in the circadian organization in birds. However, little is known about the role of melatonin in cardiac activity of broiler chicken. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of intracerebroventricular injection of melatonin in electrocardiographic parameters, heart rate and mean electrical axis in broiler chickens.

    Design

    Experimental study. Animals- Forty male Ross broiler chickens Procedures Ross broiler chickens received intracerebroventricularly (ICV) melatonin. All ECGs were standardized at 1 mV = 20 mm, with paper speed of 50 mm/sec. Leads І, ІІ, ІІІ, aVR, aVL and aVF were recorded. Results- Injection of melatonin (200 nmol) increased the duration of T wave and QRS complex and declined the heart rate as compared to the control group (p<0.05). Mean electrical axis, calculated from leads ІІ and ІІІ, did not differ between groups and it was between -93° and -99° in all chickens.

    Conclusion and clinical relevance

    Exogenous melatonin intracerebroventricularly results in sinusoidal bradycardia in broiler chicken

    Keywords: Melatonin, ECG, Chicken
  • Amir Amniattalab *, Kambiz Valiei Pages 181-187
    Case description

    This report describes the simultaneous occurrence of fibrosarcoma and a urolith in the urinary bladder of a 12-year-old female terrier dog that was confirmed by pathology after excisional surgery. Clinical

    findings

    The dog had some clinical signs such as frequent urination, hematuria and dysuria with anorexia and urinary tenesmus. Radiography confirmed the presence of a cystolith that was removed by surgery. During surgery, a solitary, pedunculated and round mass that had grown from mucosal tissue to the bladder space was observed. The mass was removed by excisional surgery and its pathologic section was prepared and stained by Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and Masson’s trichrome methods. Microscopic findings in the tissue of the mass such as spindle fibroblastic cells with mild to moderate cellular pleomorphism and nuclear hyperchromasia, presence of mild mitosis figures, and chronic inflammation revealed the nature of the mass as a low-grade fibrosarcoma.

    Treatment and outcome

    The cystolith was removed during depletion of the bladder and fibrosarcoma was removed by surgery to prevent further enlargement of the tumor and occupy the bladder space. Moreover, antibiotic therapy to avoid secondary infection was performed. Post-operation monitoring of the patient showed that there was no evidence for recurrence of the tumor within 3 months after surgery. Clinical relevance: Given the findings of this report, an occurrence of bladder fibrosarcoma has non-specific clinical signs that may challenge its differential diagnosis from other urinary-tract lesions.

    Keywords: Dog, Urinary bladder fibrosarcoma, Cystolith, Pathology
  • Abbas Raisi *, Hassan Norouzian, Ehsan Amini, Armin Barouti, Karin Gohardehi, Mahan Alizadeh Pages 188-192
    Case description

     A 2 years old common mynah (Acridotheres tristis) of unknown sex, weighing 180 g, with history of lack of appetite and depression was referred to the veterinary hospital of Lorestan University.

    Clinical findings

    Clinical signs included: anorexia, depression and diarrhea. Lateral radiograph showed a soft tissue opacity foreign body within the body with its distal end, seemingly in the ventriculus and its proximal end extending to the thoracic esophagus. Treatment and outcome- Because the foreign body can cause obstruction, the decision was made to remove the foreign body by surgery technique. The feathers at the incision site were plucked and the skin was prepared in the usual surgical procedure. An incision (2cm) was made along the ventral midline and after tenting the abdominal musculature and O2 was distributed in the abdominal cavity. Then ventriculus was approached through an initial stab incision in the mid-portion of the ventricular and the foreign body, which was a sewing elastic band, was pulled out slowly with a small mosquito hemostat.

    Clinical relevance

    For removing of a foreign body in GI tract of birds several techniques were reported that depended on size, composition and position of FB in GI tract. In this mynah, due to the position of FB in ventricular cavity, celiotomy method was used. In abdominal surgery changes in the mechanical properties of the respiratory system, may reduce the volume of breathing. So, for preventing of hypoxia, using of O2 is useful.

    Keywords: Foreign body, celiotomy, Common Mynah
  • Niloofar Seydi *, Ali Ghashghaii Pages 193-196
    Case description

     A four-year-old Kurdish ewe was referred to the Animal Clinic of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Razi University (Kermanshah, Iran) with cheek swallowing, infection wound and impaction of the food in right cheek for several weeks.

    Clinical findings

      Clinical examination revealed stretching and laxity of the cheek muscles with buccal food impaction and skin infection of this area because of previous unprofessional incision by her owner. No dental or other oral cavity abnormalities were observed on examination or palpation after manual expelling of the impacted feed and irrigation of the mouth cavity. Treatment and outcome- After treatment of the animal by Intramuscular penicillin-streptomycin solution (20000 IU + 10 mg/kg bw) and flunixin meglumine (2 mg/kg bw) for three days; the defect was surgically repaired under sedation and local infiltration anesthesia. No post-surgical complications were encountered during three months post-surgery.

    Clinical relevance

    This report describes a complicated buccal food impaction in a ewe and some causes of this disorder and its surgical correction, which may be the first written report in the sheep in Iran. It could be hypothesized that dietary causes, may be a contributing factor to the development of buccal food impaction in this case.

    Keywords: Buccal food impaction, chipmunk cheeks, Ewe