فهرست مطالب

جستارهای نوین ادبی - سال پنجاه و یکم شماره 2 (پیاپی 201، تابستان 1397)
  • سال پنجاه و یکم شماره 2 (پیاپی 201، تابستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/06/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • محسن رودمعجنی، بهزاد قنسولی*، احسان قبول، محمد جعفر یاحقی صفحات 1-26

    مهارت خواندن و درک مطلب و محیط دانشگاه پیوندی ناگسستنی با یکدیگر دارند و ضعف و ناتوانی در این مهارت می تواند به زندگی دانشگاهی دانشجویان لطمه‌ای جدی بزند. از همین رو سنجش این توانمندی بخش بسیار مهمی از آزمون های بسندگی زبان فارسی برای غیر فارسی زبانان را به خود اختصاص می‌دهد؛ ازجمله آزمون زبان فارسی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد که بیش از چهار سال است به‌عنوان معیاری برای سنجش دانشجویان غیرفارسی ‌زبان برای ورود به دانشگاه ‌های ایران، در برخی شهرهای ایران و عراق برگزار می‌شود. در این پژوهش با کمک مدل آماری رش، به بررسی داده ‌های گردآوری ‌شده بخش خواندن یکی از آزمون های برگزارشده در مرکز بین ‌المللی آموزش زبان فارسی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد پرداختیم. بررسی ‌ها حاکی از این بود که پایایی بخش خواندن آزمون 76/0 است که برای یک آزمون سرنوشت‌ ساز رقم بالایی به‌شمار نمی آید. همچنین نقشه آزمودنی- پرسش، بیانگر این نکته بود که سوالات آزمون عمدتا در سطح داوطلبان متوسط هستند. اما نقطه قوت این آزمون را می توان تعداد نسبتا زیاد پرسش ها و نیز تنوع آنها از نظر نوع اطلاعات خواسته شده دانست. مقایسه آزمون با مبانی نظری ارائه ‌شده توسط طراحان تافل این امکان را فراهم کرد تا راهکارهایی برای بهبود پایایی آزمون ارائه بدهیم. سوالات آزمون بسندگی فارسی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد از نظر نوع مطابقت، عمدتا از نوع محل یابی و یا سلسله ای هستند و پرسش‌ هایی از نوع ترکیبی و تولیدی می تواند به سخت تر شدن سوالات بینجامد. اگر از منظر اهداف خواندن به آزمون نگاهی بیندازیم، مشاهده می کنیم که سوالات عمدتا متناسب با اهداف خواندن برای پیداکردن اطلاعات و نیز خواندن برای رسیدن به درک مقدماتی هستند. به نظر می رسد که این آزمون به سوالاتی متناسب با اهداف خواندن برای یادگیری و نیز هدف خواندن برای ادغام اطلاعات در بین چند متن مختلف نیاز دارد که از سطح دشواری بالاتری برخوردار هستند.

    کلیدواژگان: آزمون بسندگی زبان فارسی، سنجش تکلیف محور، سنجش مهارت محور، مهارت خواندن، پایایی آزمون
  • شمسی پارسا* صفحات 27-49

    هر انسانی در رابطه با موقعیت اجتماعی سبکی خاص از سیاست ورزی را در دو ساحت نظر و عمل درپیش می گیرد. حافظ نیز به عنوان متفکر، عارف و شاعر عهد خود، صاحب اندیشه و فعل سیاسی است و هدف این نوشتار بررسی موضع گیری حافظ نسبت به امر سیاسی، با این پیش فرض است که وی در زمانه ای می زید که هیچ گونه پیش فرض و الگوی پارادایمی تثبیت شده ای وجود ندارد که به کنش ورزی سیاسی وی جهت دهد. در این مقاله نخست مبانی نظری تحقیق بر اساس نظریه پارادایم کوهن تبیین و سپس با به کارگیری روشی تاریخی، داده های مربوط به زندگی حافظ و محیط سیاسی-اجتماعی عصر وی و همچنین شواهد شعری از دیوان که شامل نظریات وی است، جمع آوری و طبقه بندی شده، آنگاه با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته است. نتایج نشان می دهد برداشت حافظ از امر سیاسی و تعامل وی با نهاد حکومت در دوره های مختلف زندگی وی متفاوت بوده است. حافظ گاه خود را به نهاد حکومت نزدیک ساخته است؛ این نزدیکی گاه برای نصیحت و خیرخواهی حاکمان بوده و گاه ستایش و مدح آنان برای به دست آوردن صله و گاهی به سبب احتراز شغل دیوانی بوده است. گاهی نیز حافظ از نهاد قدرت فاصله گرفته و لب به اعتراض و انتقاد از عملکرد آنان پرداخته است. به هر حال این دوری و نزدیکی از سویی به تمایلات درونی او و از سوی دیگر به منش و طرز سلوک حاکمان زمانه وی بستگی دارد؛ بنابراین تعامل حافظ با صاحبان قدرت توجیهی بازاندیشانه دارد؛ زیرا مخالفت هایش باعث شادی همگان می شود و مدایح وی نیز به نحوی محبوبیت موقت و یا جنبه ای از جهات مثبت رجال حکومتی را نشان می دهد. به طور کلی موضع گیری های متفاوت حافظ در برابر سیاست، نشان گر ناهم خوانی های پیش فرض های ذهنی وی نسبت به امر سیاسی و همچنین الگوهای تثبیت شده در ذهنیت وی برای کنش سیاسی است که در چاچوب نظریه پاردایمی کوهن می تواند تبیین شود.

    کلیدواژگان: آشفتگی پارادایمی، امر سیاسی، تافظ، دیوان
  • محمد صادق خاتمی*، سلمان ساکت صفحات 51-76

    در کتابخانه مجلس شورای اسلامی، سفینه ‌ای متعلق به سده دهم هجری وجود دارد که آن را می‌توان سومین بیاضی دانست که به دو سفینه یحیی توفیق (مورخ 754 ق.) – گردآورده سعدالدین الهی/ آلهی - و جنگ 14456 کتابخانه گنج‌بخش (به‌احتمال بسیار متعلق به اواخر قرن هشتم هجری) شباهت بسیار دارد. گرچه میرافضلی در نوشتار اخیر خود، «پنجاه و نه» بیت نویافته از نجم دایه را از این سه سفینه فراهم آورده و به‌ویژه اشعار شناخته‌شده و نویافته نجم‌ رازی در جنگ 14456 کتابخانه گنج‌بخش را به‌تمامی شناسانده، اما در این نوشتار، «هجده» بیت نویافته دیگر از مجموع «صد و پانزده» بیت موجود در این سه سفینه، که با بررسی دو سفینه یحیی توفیق و جنگ 534 کتابخانه مجلس به دست آمده، ارائه گردیده است. از این مجموع، به‌احتمال «سی و هشت» بیت از نجم‌ رازی است، چراکه در منابع دیگر نیز به نام او آمده است؛ «پنجاه و نه» بیت نویافته نیز پیشتر توسط میرافضلی شناسانده شده و «هجده» بیت نیز در شمار ابیات نویافته است (در متن با حروف درشت/ پر برجسته شده) که در این نوشتار ارائه شده و تا امروز در دیگر منابع و به ‌ نام او نیامده است.

    کلیدواژگان: سفینه، شعر، سعدالدین الهی، آلهی، ابیات نویافته، نجم الدین رازی
  • پریسا سلطانی، محمدکاظم کهدویی*، محمد خدادادی صفحات 77-101

    رامایانا، کهن ترین حماسه هندی است که آن را والمیکی به زبان سنسکریت بین قرون 5 تا 3 قبل از میلاد سروده و بعدها به‌صورت منظوم و منثور به زبان فارسی برگردانده شده است. پدیده پیکرگردانی از مهم‌ترین ویژگی های اساطیر کهن است که جلوه های آن در نسخه های چهارگانه رامایانا به‌وفور یافت می شود و کاربرد مظاهر پیکرگردانی و توجه مترجمان، در بازآفرینی بن مایه های پیکرگردانی در ترجمه های رامایانا نیازمند بررسی و واکاوی است. در این پژوهش، جلوه های پیکرگردانی ازجمله پیکرگردانی های خدایان به انسان، کائنات به انسان و حیوان، ایزدان و روحانیون، تغییر ظاهر، مسخ شدن، حیوانات شگفت انگیز و اساطیری، تغییر اندازه، طلسم و جادو، جاودانگی، جوانی و روئین تنی بررسی شده است. در این میان، شباهت محتوای حکایات منظومه گردهرداس و سپس نرگسستان با حماسه منثور نیز نموده خواهد شد. در این پژوهش که به روش کتابخانه ای انجام می گیرد، ابتدا مقدماتی درباره پیکرگردانی مطرح می شود، سپس جلوه های این گونه اساطیری از درون آثار مذکور استخراج و بررسی می گردد.

    کلیدواژگان: حماسه های فارسی رامایانا، پیکرگردانی، اسطوره
  • حیدرعلی دهمرده *، سامره شاهگلی صفحات 103-132

    زبان فارسی جزو زبان‌های ترکیبی است. پیوستن واژه‌ های زبان به همدیگر با افزودن انواع وندها به واژه، یکی از شیوه‌ های متداول جهت ترکیب ‌سازی است. واژه‌ سازی، نشانه زایایی زبان و از مهم‌ ترین شیوه ‌های تداوم و پایداری آن به شمار می‌رود. زلالی خوانساری (1025 ه.ق)، از جمله شاعران برجسته سبک هندی است. وی به عنوان شاعری آگاه به اسرار کیمیاگری زبان، برای بیان مفاهیم هنری و ذهنی خویش از واژگان زبان سود جسته است تا ترکیباتی تازه را بیافریند. چنانکه ساخت ترکیب، به عنصر غالب در شعر او در آمده است. از همین رهگذر، بسامد بالای ترکیبات بدیع، نوا و آهنگ خاص ترکیبات، زبان استوار و نیز تخیل قوی و گنجاندن همه این موارد در سیاق ترکیبات، در باروری و غنای شعر وی تاثیر فراوانی داشته است. در این پژوهش انواع ترکیب‌سازی‌های خلاقانه اشعار زلالی خوانساری در ذیل سه بخش: مضامین فکری، ساختمان دستور زبان و بلاغت بررسی شده است. دستاوردهای پژوهش ناظر بر این است که زلالی با استفاده از خصوصیت زایایی زبان و ویژگی ترکیب‌پذیری آن، کلمات و ترکیبات بی‌نظیری ساخته است. از میان انواع نو ترکیبات شاعر، ترکیبات اسمی، هم از لحاظ بلاغت و فصاحت و هم از لحاظ بدعت و تازگی از اهمیت فراوانی برخوردار است.

    کلیدواژگان: حکیم زلالی خوانساری، دیوان اشعار، ترکیبسازی، ترکیبات اسمی
  • مجتبی مجرد* صفحات 133-143

    ادبیات پارسی سرشار از ستایش مقام و منزلت پیامبر اکرم (ص) است. یکی از معروف‌ترین نعت‌های نبوی، در دیباچه بوستان سعدی رقم خورده است. ابیات این بخش، شهرت فراوانی یافته و به‌مرور زبانزد خاص و عام گردیده است. یکی از بیت‌های مشهور این ستایش‌نامه، بیت: یتیمی که ناکرده قرآن درست / کتبخانه چند ملت بشست است. عموم شارحان و مفسران بوستان در توضیح این بیت، عبارت «قرآن درست ناکردن» را به «تمام نشدن وحی» تعبیر کرده ‌اند. این در حالی است که اصطلاح مذکور، در حوزه کتابت و تدوین قرآن کاربرد داشته است. ما در این نوشته می‌کوشیم با بررسی دقیق نظرات شارحان، به واکاوی اصطلاح «قرآن درست کردن» در دست‌نویس‌ها و متون فارسی بپردازیم و از این رهگذر معنای دقیق بیت را- که عموم شارحان بوستان بدان عنایتی نداشته ‌اند- تبیین کنیم.

    کلیدواژگان: سعدی، بوستان، پیامبر، قرآن درست کردن
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  • Mohsen Roudmajani, Behazd Ghonsoli*, Ehsan Ghabol, Mohammad Jafar Yahaghi Pages 1-26
    Introduction

    People are not born with reading ability and it is a new phenomenon in human history. You can still find some people who cannot read. But these days weakness in reading ability can cause serious problems for us. Also Reading ability and academic life are indispensable and many of the students activities are interweaved with reading. Books, essays, instructions, research reports are just a few examples of the activities in academic environment which need reading ability.Because of the importance of reading ability most of Persian proficiency tests include a reading section. Ferdowsi University’s Persian proficiency test which is designed to test the language proficiency of non-Persian students, include reading assessment. This test is official test of Ferdowsi University and it is held twice a year in Iran and some cities of Iraq. In this research we try to study the reading part of this test. We actually try to answer two questions:
    1- What is the reliability of the reading section of this test?
    2- What is the relation between test items and test takers abilities?
    At the end we try to give some recommendation to improve this test’s reliability. We will do this by trying to define the reading skill’s construct and we also use language task framework which is a powerful tool to study reading activities in academic environment.

    Review of Literature

    The history of testing can be divided into three periods: the pre-academic period, the psychometric period; the structuralism and the psychology-sociology of language (Sposlky, 1977, cited in Davis, 2008). The first period goes back to more than two thousand years ago, when the empires used the test to select new members. The second period is related to the time when psychometrists devised new statistical tools for measuring test reliability which coincided with the constructivist flow in linguistics and led to the development of a discrete point measurement approach. However, in the late twentieth century, we see another approach, called integrated measurement, which emphasized language assessment in context, and, unlike the structuralists, did not consider language division into smaller and discrete points as efficient methods of testing.In the second half of the twentieth century, with the development of scientific tools, companies emerged that produced mass-scale testing, thereby transforming testing into an industry (Spolsky, 2008). One of these companies is ETS. In 1964, on the basis of a discrete point assessment approach, the company designed the first proficiency test and little by little made changes to its test structure. However, in a project called TOEFL 2000, ETS decided to make major changes to this proficiency test. Reading Skills Assessment was also a part of the TOEFL 2000 project, which resulted in Assessing Second Language Academic Reading from a Communicative Perspective: Relevance for TOEFL 2000 (Hudson, 1996) and the Reading Skills Framework (Enright et al., 2000).Attempts have been made in Farsi to design a sufficiency test (Mousavi, 1999; Ghonsooli, 2010; Mamghmani, 2010; Jalili, 2011; Golpour, 2015). These studies devote part of their test to reading skills. Although what distinguishes the present study from all the research done is the precise definition of reading skill constructs, providing a model for measuring this skill, as well as a task-based view of the test design.

    Method

    First in order to understand what reading ability is we tried to define its constructs. Based on the latest model we found that reading consists of lower level processes and higher level processes. Lower level processes include word recognition, syntax parsing and meaning proposition encoding which are mainly automatic. On the other hand, the higher level processes consist of text model, situational model and executive control mechanism. In order to understand a text, the reader use higher level processes and lower level processes interchangeably.Also a framework was introduced to analyze the language tasks in an academic environment. This framework helps us to understand and simulate language tasks. It has three different parts called situation, text content and test features. This framework is designed based on communicative perspectives in language learning and assessment. The situation explains the context of the task in which it is performed. Its participents, purpose, content, setting and register. The text content include grammatical, functional and discourse features of the text and test features section describes the factors such as type of questions, type of response and scoring procedures.The data in this research was gathered by a test which was held in Ferdowsi International center for teaching Persian to nonnative speakers. This test was performed to see to what extent test takers, have the ability to cope with academic activities. The cut score for this test is 60 out of 100. The test has five section including reading, listening, writing, speaking and structures.90 test takers took part in the test. 33 of them were female and 57 were male. Most of the participants were Iraqi (63) and the rest of them were from Indonesia, Lebanon, Syria, Australia, South Korea, Pakistan, and Yemen. 38 of the examinees were studying in different field of engineering, 17 of them were studying humanities, 13 sciences and 7 of them were students of medical sciences. The field of studying for the rest of the examinees was not known.The Persian proficiency test was held in Mordad 25th, 1996 at 8 o’clock and it took about 3 and half an hour. As the reading section was the second part of the test it started at half past eight. This part of the test took 60 minutes and the students answered 25 questions. Students were in 10 different rooms and there were 9 students in each class.After the test was performed the papers were marked the data was ready for Rasch analysis. The step was done with the help of WINSTEPS software.

    Results and Discussion

    The analysis showed that all the questions except item number 21 has appropriate infit and outfit amount. It shows that the test is unidimensional and it is possible to be analyzed by Rasch model. The outfit for item number 21 is 1.53 which is more than the standard amount. This question is multiple choice and it is also so simple. It seems that the item is ambiguous. The results also showed that the test reliability is 76%. We know that reading test reliability should be more than 90%. So the test needs to improve its reliability.Also the Write map showed that the test need some more difficult items because for the 14 top students in the exam there are only two items. And also there are just 4 items appropriate for the 36 top students of the test. The exam cannot differentiate between intermediate and advanced students.

    Conclusion

    The results showed that the test reliability is not high so the test designers should improve their reliability for example by adding more question and items. On the other hand the item- examinee map showed that the test assess elementary or advanced students reading ability it means that this test is not appropriate to assess advanced student’s reading skill.The test includes three texts and 25 items. Compared to TOEFL exam which has about 40 items, the test needs more questions. In order to improve its reliability, more items can be added to the test. But considering type of information requested the test covers different levels. Which is a good aspect of this test. Also each text has about 500 words which is somehow appropriate for assessing academic reading skill.The results showed that the test is easy. The reason for this is the matching type of the questions. For fourteen questions of the test the students should locate and cycle the answers. We know that usually these type of questions are not so difficult. So in order to improve the test difficulty other matching types such as integrative and productive questions should be added.From the reading purpose perspective, the test questions mainly follow two purposes, reading to find information and reading for general information. The test needs items with other types of purposes such as reading to learn and reading to integrate information.

    Keywords: Reading skill, Persian proficiency test, task base asessment, Proficiency base assessment, test realibility
  • Shamsi Parsa* Pages 27-49
    Introduction

    As one of the most prominent poets, thinkers and mystics of his era, Hafez also possessed political ideas and actions. This study seeks to provide answers to the following questions: Given the position of Hafez as a significant mystic and poet, what view did he follow regarding political affairs and the objective manifestation of monarchy in his era? What are the reasons behind Hafez’s different and turbulent interaction with politics? Has he exclusively placed the monarchy agents and officials including imperial Muhtasib, Mufti, and jurists under criticism or does it include the monarchs themselves? Why are there eulogies to certain rulers and monarchy agents in his Divan? Was Hafez involved in bureaucratic occupations?

    Review of Literature

    There has been extensive research conducted on Hafez, his poetry and its artistic, rhetoric and content features and hermeneutic structure. Moreover, many have written about the life of Hafez in biographies and history books. For example, in his book, Hafez-e-Shirin Sokhan (Hafez the mellifluous poet), Mohammad Moin examines the sociopolitical conditions of the poet’s era in which he dedicates an extensive chapter to introduce Hafez’s contemporary poets, rulers, and ministers, their characteristics and their connections to Hafez. In a recently published book titled Tarhi az Hafez (A blueprint of Hafez) by Mirhossein Valovi, the entire biographies and accounts of the poet are investigated; in this book, the author has collected and compiled an all-embracing account of the poet’s life using 4 history books and 23 biographies. As a result, the book can be considered as an unprecedented biography and a clear, enlightening, valuable, and valid reference for those interested in Hafez and the Persian literature. There has also been numerous studies on Hafez’s social criticism and humour. For instance, in his book titled, In Kimia-e-Hasti, Shafiee Kadkani writes a broad chapter on the examination of humour in Hafez’s poetry. Following a definition of humour, the author states that all humorous references in Hafez’s poetry include a religious element which is the most significant feature of his poetry in which the contradictory structure of the society is illustrated through personal art and satire; a society established on hypocrisy (Shafiee Kadkani, 2006). Furthermore, the book titled, Hafez va Erfan-e-Irani (Hafez and Iranian mysticism) by Khosro Mallah can be pointed out in which the sociopolitical environment of Hafez and the artistic aspects of his poetry along with an account of Hafez’s poetic artistry and his political, critical themes are described. Calling Hafez the National Poet, the author reminds the reader of Hafez’s constant rejection of the common religion of the era, i.e. a religion of hypocrisy and pretension. In this regard, a paper titled, “The link between literature and politics: political view of Hafez: a peaceful coexistence” by Mahdi Parham was published in Political-Economic Information Journal. In this paper, the author observed the modern concept of politics, articulated the notion of “Dialogue among civilizations”, and deemed Hafez’s opinions in this area useful. In another study titled, “Tolerance in Divan-e-Hafez” by Mohammad Hosein Nikdaar Asl published in Boostan-e-Adab Journal of Shiraz University, subjects including tolerance towards enemies, rejection of selfishness and wrongdoing, and beneficence are addressed. In another recently published book titled, Siasat Andishi-e-Hafez (Political thinking of Hafez) by Fatemeh Zolfaqarian, Skinner’s Hermeneutics method was used for a reading of poems while a particular type of political narrative was explored in Hafez’s poetry. Albeit, politics in this book is regarded as power relations at presumed macro and micro scales. Nevertheless, there has been very few academic attempts on the interaction between Hafez and the politicians of his era, and particularly the poet’s dominant, presumed perceptions of political affairs as well as his behavioral pattern in this area. While most have pointed out Hafez’s criticism of the Mufti, Mystic, and Muhtasib, this has not been accompanied by more profound questions compared to the present paradigm foundations in Hafez’s political behavior. The present study seeks to examine how Hafez interacted with politics using Kuhn’s theory of paradigm shift; subsequently, the “Iran-Shahr” political pattern manifested in Hafez’s poetry was examined. According to the author, no contradiction was found between this theory and the political narrative of Hafez’s Divan.

    Method 

    In this inquiry, first Kuhn’s theory of paradigm shift was explained, the biography of Hafez and the sociopolitical status of the poet’s era were studied, poetic evidence were collected from his Divan, and finally, they were examined using the descriptive-analytical method. In order to provide a context to test the research hypothesis that is, absence of dominant uniform paradigm presumptions and a specific behavioral pattern in Hafez’s perception of politics, first Kuhn’s theory was explained as the theoretical framework employed to test the hypothesis followed by offering an illustration of the political situation in Hafez’s era.

    Discussion

    Given the behavior of Hafez in the field of politics, it can clearly be understood that his interaction with monarchy and his perception of political affairs in general is devoid of cohesion over time and particular gaps can be seen in his political behavior. His distance from or closeness to the government depended on both his intrinsic motivations and how the government interacted. In the period of King Shaikh Abu Is’haq Injou, it appears that Hafez was one of his practitioners; poetic evidence in Divan suggest that Hafez has endorsed the majority of agents, ministers and authorities of the period. However, Hafez praised these figures with respect to their good qualities whilst maintaining his own self-respect at all times. After Shaikh Abu Is’haq was murdered by Amir Mobarez-al-Din, the poet resigned from his position in the government. Through a critical discourse, Hafez attempted to reveal the hypocrisy and pretension of the sovereign state and attacked the religious elements used by the state to oppress the will of people using a humorous tone. Following the assassination of Amir Mobarez-al-Din by his own son, King Shoja’ sat on the throne and Hafez became closer to the royal court once again; apparently, he assumed bureaucratic roles in this period as well. However, after another insurrection by which King Shoja’ was removed from the throne, Hafez resigned from the court as well and followed the path of asceticism. Thus, as can be seen, Hafez rejected hypocritical asceticism and religion of the era along with religious pretension at all times. Ultimately, King Shoja’s imprudent son sat on the throne; Hafez, spending his old age at the time, can be seen as a benevolent advisor who consults the young prince. But as the prince was not content with his advices, the poet resigned from his position in the government once again.

    Conclusion

    It is clear that Hafez’s political actions over time is devoid of a fixed paradigm with uniform metaphysical presumptions and specific pattern with certain objectives and instruments. Therefore, using Kuhn’s interpretations, it can be expressed that Hafez’s attitude towards political affairs is subject to paradigm shift, resulting in the absence of a secure practice in the poet’s confrontation with the events of his era; his stances reflect the instability of the sociopolitical conditions of his time and he is unable to evaluate the distance between such events and political ideals derived from a single paradigm through a conceptual device related to political thoughts, depriving him of a particular policy when faced with political affairs.

    Keywords: Hafez, Political affairs, Paradigm chaos, Divan
  • Mohammad Sadegh Khatami*, Salman Saket Pages 51-76
    Introduction

    In Islamic parliament library, there is a collection (anthology) belonging to the 10th century collected by Sa´ad-al-din-e Elāhi/ Ălehi and can be considered as the third anthology which is similar to two collections of Yahya tofiq (dated 745 AH) and Ganjbakhsh Library 14456 Jong (probably belonging to the late 8th century). However, Mirafzali (2016) in his recent writing, provided fifty two newly found verses from Najm-e Dayeh obtained from these three collections (anthology) and particularly introduced the recognized and newly found poems by Najm-e Dayeh in Ganjbakhsh 14456 Jong. In this article, eighteen newly found other verses out of one hundred and fifteen verses available in these three collections are provided which are obtained by investigating the collection of Yahya Tofiq and Parliament Library 534 Jong. From this collection, it seems that thirty eight verses are by Najm-e Razi, because in other resources, his name is also mentioned. In addition, fifty nine newly found verses are also identified as Mirafzali’s verses and eighteen ones are also newly found verses (i.e., they are mentioned in bold letters in the text) which are provided in this article and there is no other resource mentioning his name. The main aim of this research is to scientifically investigate the newly found poems by Najm-e Razi and secondly to specify the correct attribution of these verses to him based on other resources. The present article attempts to answer three following questions through a scientific investigation on this issue: Why is it necessary to find new Najm-al-din's verses? In which format are his newly found verses classified? In which format is his new literature more frequent?

    Review of Research

    In addition to occasional mentioning of the biography writers, to the best knowledge of authors, Modaberi (1984) is pioneer in studying the subject related to the goal of this research and his research book entitled "Poems of Sheykh Najm-al din-e Razi, Dayeh" was published. Using handwritten and printed sources, the author of this book briefly explained Najm-e Dayeh's biography and collected his poems from ancient and original resources. However the author referred to many references, there are three shortcomings in his book: first, this book does not encompass all Najm-e Dayeh's poems and by a research in other resources, there are other poems attributed to Najm Dayeh which can be found. Present research aims to study this issue. On the other hand, in this book a part of poems attributed to Razi and other speakers is not mentioned and sometimes, the poems and particularly Quatrains which are attributed to Najm-e Razi need to study more or certainly they are not his poems as a mystic and poet. Therefore, this is required to revise the number of real verses composed by Najm-e Razi, whether this is 391 verses based on Modaberi (1984, p. 4) or 250 verses based on Riahi in collection of poems by Najm-e Razi in Mersad- al Ebad and Marmouzat and Resaleye Aqhl va Esgh (The book of wisdom and love) (Najm-e Razi, 1973, p. 54). Third, some verses in this book are deviated and falsified in term of records. The records in this research are corrected and we recorded more original verses to better understand Najm-e Dayeh's poems. I addition, in late 2015, Mohammadi published the book "Najm-al din-e Razi's poems" with an introduction, correction and explanation which was studied by Seyed Ali Mirafzali in 2016 in a research entitled "Najm-al din-e Razi's and His friends' poems and analysis of the book "Najm-al din-e Razi's poems" and studied the strengths and weaknesses of this book. After criticizing this book, MirAfzali, at the end of writing, quotes the poems attributed to Najm-e Dayeh from five ancient sources three of which are the Safinehs mentioned in this work. But in this valuable research, there are three deficiencies: first, the poems provided from two Safineh in his paper are not complete. In the first Jong, i.e. the Yahya Tofigh's Safineh, there are seventeen verses of him while Mirafzali (2016) quoted ony eleven poems of him and in Jong number 534 in Parliament Islamic Library, there are 52 verses by Dayeh but Mirafzali (2015) quoted only fourteen verses of Razi. Second, in his article the newly found verses of these three Jongs were not found in other resources. This research, irrespective of originality of attributing known poems to Najm-e Dayeh, in fact, provides a new and original record of the poems which can be used for better understanding of the poems by audiences.. Third, in his study on three collections of poems, collection of verses in Safineh, newly found verses (without subtracting the verses repetition in two other Jongs), particular newly found verses (with subtraction of repetition for verses in two other Safinehs) shared newly found verses with two other Safinehs, recently known poems shared with these two Bayaz as well as recently particular found verses in each Jong are not certain and as a result, in his article, it is not possible to find Razi's known and newly found poems, accurately. Disregarding this, other biography books explaining the poems of Najm-e Dayeh only studied his biography and quoted his previous poems following the previous resources and sometimes, some of these resources criticized superficially his poems so that it can be stated that however, they are valuable attempts in re-correcting Razi's poems, new resources such as three collection mentioned should be particularly studied to add newly found verses by Najm-e Razi to the previous verses and provide the remained poems in a comprehensive research on other resources.

    Method 

    This research is a library study. The resources at first are hand-written texts of three Safineh from which eighteen newly found verses are provided and then using other relevant resources, the correctness of attributing this literature to Najm-al-din-e Razi is investigated.

    Discussion

    Najm-Al-din Abubakr Abdullah ibn Mohammad ibn Shahavar ibn Anushirva Abi al-Najib Al-Asadi Al-Razi (1177 – 1256) entitled as Razi and Najm-E-Razi called Dayeh who composed poems like other Sufiyah in addition to writing and mentioning his poems in his works and in most of the resources, there are brief statements about his situation are mentioned along with his poems and in general, it can be stated that only his Rubaiyat are mild and full of painful words. Generally, it can be stated that his quatrains are pathetic, pleasing and subtle. His literary position in poem is lower than his writing position. His certain poem collections are not a lot. His short quatrains, sonnets and odes are not collected in a collection (Shafiee Kadkani, 2002). The author of the book Poems of Sheykh Najm-al-din-e Razi (Dayeh) attempts to state that there is no poem collection and was not mentioned of him (Modaberi, 1984). He considered 390 poems of Najm-al-din-e Razi which are quatrains, some sonnets and odes proposed in a written book in different situations and attempted to prove that some of other poems are proposed in biography books and that hand-written Jongs and Sufian books attributed to his name (Ibid). One of reliable and important collections in which some poems of Najm-al-din-e Razi are provided, whether known or newly found ones, is the Jong number 534 in Parliament Islamic library which is the third Bayaz and is similar to the Jong 14456 in Ganjbakhsh library (belonging to late 15th century), and Yahya Tofigh's Safineh (15th century) which is collected by Sa´ad-al-din-e Elāhi/ Ălehi as one of the highlighted 13th and 14th centuries characters (Khatami & Saket, 2018). the present research attempts to provide newly found verses in these Safineh as a complementary material to Mirafzali's paper and using these resources, investigated the correctness of their attribution to Najm-e Razi.

    Conclusion

    In this research, eighteen newly found verses by Najm-e Dayeh from 115 verses in three Safineh of Yahya Tofigh, Jong 14456 in Ganj Bakhsh library and Safineh 534 in Parliament library obtained are provided. From this collection, probably thirty eight verses are Razi’s because they are attributed to him in other resources. Fifty nine newly found verses are also introduced by Mirafzali from these series of Safineh. Among eighteen newly found verses, nine verses are short odes, seven verses are Moghataat and two verses are single-verse format remained from his poems. Five verses are mentioned among the poems which are probably attributed to him because they are mentioned under his name in other resources. Moreover, 15 verses are newly found which are not mentioned under his name so far. Accordingly, based on the findings of this article it can be claimed that what is now available as Najm-e Razi's poems does not include all his poems. Using other Safineh and Jong in which other poems are attributed to Razi, one can provide his newly found verses which are necessary to investigate their originality of attrbituion.

    Keywords: Anthology, Poem, Sa´ad-al-din-e Elāhi, Ălehi, Newly found verses, Najm-al-din-e Rāzi
  • Parisa Soltani, Mohammad Kazem Kahguei*, Mohammad Khodadadi Pages 77-101
    Introduction

    Ramayana is the oldest Indian epic which goes back to 3-5 B.C. This epic is in the description of Ram’s heroism who is considered to as one of the manifestations of Vishnu, the God of Protection. During the Akbar Shah period, a group of translators brought back the important works of Indian religious and philosophical literature to Persian, such as Mahabharata, Ramayana, Bhagavat Gita (Azhar Dehlavi, 1972). During the kingdom of Akbar Shah's successors, poets followed this valuable tradition. People such as Mullah Sadol-Dawlah, Masih Pani Pati, Gerdherdas and Chandar man kayteh, Bidel translated the Ramayana's epics to the Persian poetry, and also Amarsing turned it into the prose (Kahdoui & Nargesestan’s introduction, 2014).

    Review of Literature

    There has been a number of scattered studies conducted on the story of Ramayana: In the book, “From Legend to History”, Bahar (2004) compares the stories of Raam and Siavash and concludes that similar to Siavash’s character, Raam is a vegetative entity. In a paper titled, “Ramayana: the Most Ancient Epic Tale of India”, Vaheddoost (1994) also compares Raam and Siavash and concludes that both these characters are Ahura humans who would destroy evil creatures such as Ravna and Afrasiab. In another paper titled, “Comparative examination of drought evils in Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh and Ramayana epic”, Adham (2013) conducts a comparative examination between Zahhak and Afrasiab, two villains in Shahnameh and Ravna, the villain in Ramayana epic; results suggested the presence of drought evils in both epics. In a book titled, Metamorphosis in Mythology, Rastgar Fasaei (2003) examined this mythological aspect along with its types and manifestations in Iranian mythology as well as other civilizations such as India, Egypt, and Greece. In her paper titled, “The metamorphosis of human tree and tree human in Hormozgan folk tales”, Zarei (2014) concludes that the mythological belief regarding the Tree Human as Tree Man and Tree Woman involve motivations such as love and pity, innocent death, anger and deception more than others. A reflection on the contents of these studies show that none of the authors had paid attention to the subject of metamorphosis in particular; subsequently, the concepts have remained hidden from their views. As a result, it is attempted in this study to present the concept of metamorphosis for the first time in Persian epic works of Ramayana. 

    Method

    The central structure of this research is based on the study of mythological origins in the Persian epic poems of Ramayana from the Chandarman kayteh, Mullah Sadol Dawlah, Masih Pani Pati and Gerdherdas Heroddas, and the examples of these works are compared with the prominent Ramayen by Amarsing. Proving this claim depends on answering the following questions: How have the poets or translators of the Persian epic poems of Ramayana been able to reflect the manifestations of metamorphism based on the prose epics in their reincarnation? Which of the metamorphism species has the most influence on the above mentioned epics? In this research, which is carried out based on the librarian method, the introduction of the metamorphism is proposed, and then the effects of this mythological species are extracted from these works.

    Discussion

    The metamorphism is the apparent deformation using the supernatural force that appears unusual. In this case, the person or object changes in a different form, and turns to a new body that may be apparent and tangible, or hidden which undergoes fundamental changes and gain new powers which did not have previously (Rastegar Fasai, 2005). 4.1. Metamorphism of Gods to Humans 4.1.1. Ram In the prose Ramayana, the manifestation of Vishnu in the form of Ram is more tangible and concrete. When Brahma and the other Devata[1] begin their chants to Vishnu because of Ravan’s rage, "Beshn (Vishnu) drives up the Gruda and says:" Do not be sad, I will take your face (human face) for your sake and I will save you from Ravan's heavy rage (Azhar Dehlavi, 1972). Ram, at birth, first appears in his original form on the mother: "The creator of the both worlds, was given birth from her mother from Kushlia’s womb in the form of Chaturbhuja[2]. Kushlia said: I surely believe that you are the Lord of the World. I want to put this face to your face and become human and consider me as a mother. He was suddenly changed to a baby and started crying "(Azhar Dehlavi,1972). 4.1.2. Metamorphism of the Universe into Human and Animal The most important example is the metamorphism of the universe into the monkey and the bear to destroy Ravan (Gerdherdas, 2010; Pani Pati, 2009; Kayteh, 2014; Azhar Dehlavi, 1972). When Ram was sitting pure for three days beside the sea, it reveals the path to him in order to pass the sea and go to Lanka and when the path is not revealed, he gets angry. The Bahr Sagar is revealed as Senyas and Zahed, and comes to him for seeking safety (Pani Papti, 2009; Azhar Dehlavi, 1972; Kayteh, 2014; Gerdherdas, 2010). 4.1.3. Metamorphism of Gods and Clergies Gods such as Berahma, Indra and clergies come to Earth on many occasions, or the pious like Narada[3] goes to the clergy festivity or is connected with Berahma. Sita is impatience for being away from Ram, Brahma goes to Indra[4], and she wants to take the spiritual food to Sita and comfort her. The prose epic says that the spiritual food was milk and rice soup but Gerdherdas said, it was an apple (Azhar Dehlavi, 1972; Gerdherdas, 2010). During the fire test, Berahma, Indra, Jam and others testify the purity of Sita (Pani Papti, 2009; Kayteh, 2014; Gerdherdas, 2010; Azhar Dehlavi, 1972). 4.2. Changing the Appearance Changing the appearance is the most important part of the metamorphism. 4.2.1. Ram Metamorphism Ram leaves his human face and appears in the original form (Azhar Dehlavi, 1972). 4.2.2. Metamorphosis to Animal’s Shape Ravan goes to Maricha “monster” and wants him to reshape to deer in order to deceive Sita (Pani Pati, 2009; kayteh, 2014; Gerdherdas, 2010; Azhar Dehlavi, 1972). Henon reshapes to mosquitoes in order to enter the castle (Kayteh, 2014; Azhar Dehlavi, 1972). 4.2.3. Metamorphosis to Barahman’s Shape Ravan reshapes to Brahman when he steals Sita (Pani Pati, 2009). 4.2.4. Metamorphosis In Ramayana, the pious curses and transforms the fairy or Gandharp and turns it into a more wretched person (Pani Pati, 2009; Kayteh, 2014; Gerdherdas, 2010; Azhar Dehlavi, 1972). 4.2.5. Mythological Animals Ram gets familiar with Jetayu Karkas at Panchvati and Jetayu introduces himself as a friend of Dashartha (Azhar Dehlavi, 1972). The most memorable role of Jetayu in Ramayana's epic is the fight with Ravan when stealing Sita and being killed by the monster (Pani Pati, 2009; Gerdherdas, 2010). 4.3. Changing the Size Hanoman change its size at different places and situations (Pani Pati, 2009; Azhar Dehlavi, 1972). 4.4. Imortality In Ramayana, there are some people who are looking for eternity. Ravan and his brothers worshiped Shiva. They stayed for a thousand years on one leg and did not eat anything but fed with wind. Mahadeva says ask whatever you want. Ravan said, " human and monkeys are my food and not anyone else, and Jam who is a spirit taker cannot kill me (Azhar Dehlavi, 1972; Gerdherdas, 2010). Immortality is embodied as the mythological symbol of living water. Kala, the angel of death from the high world, comes to Ram and gives him the message that he deserves to go back to the great world. The Ram’s brothers and Odeh residents baptize in Sarayu. Ramchandra stood in the water. The body of all three brothers became one and got very bright and went up to the world. And thus, they found eternal life, which is one of the myths of living water. 4.5. Youth Mandoodari, the wife of Ravan, is always young (Gerdherdas, 2010). Sarbehang is a pious who burns himself in the fire after worship and rejuvenates (Pani Pati, 2009). 4.6. Invulnerability (Heroism) Hanoman has an invulnerable and steel body that is not hurt at all (Gerdherdas, 2010). Ravan has life water in his navel and is alive with this. Ram throws the arrow to his navel and kills him (Gerdherdas, 2010; Azhar Dehlavi, 1972; Kayteh, 2014).

    Conclusion 

    The Persian epics of Ramayana were used as the basis of this research referring to Ramayana by Amarsing, the translation of Sadol-Dawlah, Masih Pani Pati, Gerdherdas, and Chandarman Kayteh and the metamorphism effects, which were all studied. Moreover, it was discovered that the themes of the metamorphism in their translations had a special effect and had a better effect on the translation of the prose Ramayana. The Chandarman Kayteh, and then Gerdherdas, followed the translation of prose in recreating the metamorphisms.

    Keywords: Ramayana Persian epics, Metamorphism, Myth
  • Heydar Ali Dahmarde*, Samere Shahgoli Pages 103-132
    Introduction 

    Zolali Khansari (1616 AH) is one of the greatest Persian poets with his own style. He is among the best poets possessing complete mastery of artistic language use. Unfortunately, from the many poets’ and writers’ works, Zolali Khansari, is the only name or title his called with.Drawing on his poems and Mir Damad’s comments, a scientist, who identifies Zolali as a Hakim, he can be realized as one of the poet in the world specialized in fields such as philosophy, mathematics, astronomy and music in particular. Mirdamad, with sufic disposition, is the only one who truly praises him with worldly and otherworldly honor. Zolali generated his works as ordered, encouraged by him or his name (Shafiyoun,2009).He was a creative and innovative poet in his unique way of presenting thoughts which resulted in creating new combinations that sometimes required additional explanation, for example, “like a bud lover in a plain” which means someone looking for a bud or picking it in the plain.Surprisingly, some believe that he has consciously created all these strange themes and the newly created combinations and interpretations (Safa,1994). Generating new combinations and novel interpretations are the essential qualities of his words (Zarinkoub,1977). Zolali is introduced in ‘Tazkareye Sham-e Anjoman’ as “Zolali Khansari, his taste of Masnavi creates storm, and his writings lights this marvelous sea of land, the width of his planet has given the land of speech sky width, and his world of imagination is astonishing” (Bakhshi,1958). His awareness of the secret of artistic language use significantly influenced his ability to generate combinations in his poetry. There are many metaphors and ancestors in his poetry which are commonly presented in form of combinations and derived from of his creative in-born talent. Zolali was especially skillful in creating strange themes and unfamiliar combinations and expressions. He even innovatively expresses common and known themes which like his innovative combinations attract attention. Beautiful and unique combinations shine like stars in the sky of his poetry especially Masnavi Mahmud and Ayaz. That he has created many of the forms and shapes of his imagination based on these combinations makes it possible to consider these combinations as the elements and techniques of his poetry. Few studies have been conducted on Khansari's poetry. Amiri Khorasani and the writer (2006), in the article Hakim Zolali Khansari, introduced the poet and his poetic characteristics concluding that he is an innovative, creative and well-versed poet with a unique style in expressing his thoughts. Beautiful images, similes, and metaphors have a special place in his words granting a beauty to his poems. Masnavi Mahmood and Ayas are his most important and most detailed Masnavi, in which spiritual and mystical points are described lyrically. Najafabadi and Norowzi (2016), in their study titled ‘Comparative study of the inner music of the clerical poetry of Khansari and Ibn Mutaweq Mousavi’, explored the religious poems of Khansari and Ibn Mutaweq Mousavi. They believethat he deserves praises of great religious figures and indicates his mystical disposition. Ibn Mutaweq Mousavi is also a Shiite poet in the Arabic literature contemporary with Khansari during the Ottoman Empire. Both his poems in the exudation of religious figures and in the worship of the rulers of his age are in religious genre. Finally, the authors conclude that between the poetry of both poets there are differences and similarities in terms of form which are due to similarities and differences in their individual styles and Arabic and Persian literature. Also, Rahmani (2016) studied his style of poetry.

    Method

    Considering that no independent study has been carried out on lexical combinations in Zolali Khansari’s poems, the author in this article tried to explore different types of combinations in his poetry to show the supremacy of these language features in his poems. To achieve this, and to ensure that the composite element is overwhelming in his poetry, all the versus, one by one, was examined, and all the new combinations, more than two thousand combinations, have been extracted and categorized. This descriptive research employs content analysis within a library-based method for data analysis. Discussion Word formation is the main indicator of the creativity of a language and is considered as the most important ways of preserving a language. The generative capacity and the creation of new words for presenting new concepts depends on the lexical richness and the active, powerful and generative word formation system of a language. Word formation device must have a solid foundation that can play a role in the production of new words geared to the needs of writers and speakers. Word formation for the purpose of communicating and inducing new concepts happens in different ways, among which derivation and combination are the most prevalent ones (Tabatabai, 2004). Persian language is incredibly capable in this sense. It is one of the Indo-European languages and belongs to a hybrid language group. Combined feature combining words or adding prefixes and suffixes to create new words to express new meanings and concepts (Moqarebi,1994). Therefore, a huge number of the new words are made through word combination. With no doubt every language uses its own rules to develop word combinations. In Persian, word combination is used to create categories including compound nouns, adjectives, adverbs and verbs, prepositions, and conjunctions, and the likes. Every poet, in light of his specific world and language views, uses particular patterns in his works consciously or unconsciously. Zolali Khansari belong to this group of poets. Accordingly, the new combinations created in the poetry of Khansari's poetry can be studied in the sense of their thought lines, the structural patterns, and rhetoric.

    Conclusion 

    By exploring and carefully examining Zolali Khansari’s Divan of poems and the stylistic patterns used, one can determine the dominant feature of his poetry. Accordingly, the dominant feature in the Divan of Poetry is the word combination, which is used geared to his speaking needs and thanks to his artistic genius. The high frequency of combinations in the poems has given it a privileged place in Persian literature. Accordingly, it should be acknowledged that some of the rare compounds used in his Divan of Poetry, has never been used in other Persian literary works. That is, they are great and unique in their own rights. The important point about the work of the poet is that most of the verses in Masnavi Mahmud and Ayaz include one or two beautiful and unique combinations. The thought line and content ground of most of his novel combinations are lyric and related to his personal feelings and emotions. Among the various structures of compounds, the Persian grammar structure and the structure of the name + name (nominal compounds) are more frequent. Since these combinations are more in the form of compound adjectives, they create special rhythm and music which enhanced the music of his poetry. The relationship between the two words in this type of compounds is rathera matter of commonality and similarity. The topmost eloquence power of these combinations is shown when they are used to create images and themes through similes, metaphors, and allusions. This reflects the breadth of his thoughts, and the creativity of his mind and language. Zolali Khansari has effectively used these new combinations to create personification, and images in his poetry and to enhance the artistic richness of his work.

    Keywords: Hakim Zolali Khansari, Poetry Poem, Composition, Nominal Compounds
  • Mojtaba Mojarrad* Pages 133-143
    Introduction 

    Sa'di Shirazi is one of the most prominent poets of classical Persian language and literature. For many centuries, his Boustan and Golestan were taught to children at schools and now they are considered as important sources of Persian literature. One of the most frequent Persian literary themes is the praise of the Prophet Muhammad. At the beginning of Sa'di Boustan, Prophet of Islam praised beautifully. This section is very famous in Persian literature. One of the famous couplets of this section is: یتیمی که ناکرده قرآن درست کتبخانه چند ملت بشست Orphan, whose uncreated Koran soundly Effaced so many confessions’ libraries (Wickn’s translation) This article tries to provide a new meaning for this couplet based on the use of the "creating the Quran" in Persian texts.

    Review of Literature

    Various books and articles have been written on the interpretation of Sa'di's poetry so far. Some of these interpretations explain only part of Sa'di's poetry and others have explained his Golestan or Boustan as a whole. In this article we focus on just one couplet of Sa'di. Earlier commentators have described this couplet, but they generally committed an error. As far as we have searched, so far no one has specifically explained this couplet. Sadi's classical commentators as well as our contemporary commentators, such as Sodi, Sorori, Hansavi, Tikchand and Chalendari, Khazayli, Yousofi and Anzabi Nejad, they did not interpret the cuoplet correctly.

    Method 

    In the first step, various forms of this couplet are examined based on Boustan manuscripts. Then the old and new descriptions of Sa'di's Boustan are reviewed, and the different views on this couplet are being criticized. In the end, according to some texts published in Farsi, a new meaning of the couplet is presented which will solve its semantic problems.

    Results and Discussion

    To understand the exact and precise meaning of Persian classical poetry, we must examine linguistic, syntactic, semantic, and cultural aspects. At first, the Sadi's poetry was reviewed linguistically. The results of the reviews showed that the phrase "creating the Quran" has been used in ancient Persian texts. Exploring syntactics part also showed that the subject of this statement is the Prophet. Therefore, syntactically, it should read the couplet: Orphan, whose uncreated Koran soundly effaced so many confessions’ libraries. Most of the old and new commentators have made a mistake here because they supposed that making the Quran means revelation. Here a syntax error has caused a semantic error. Boustan commentators have supposed that the meaning of "creating the Qur'an" is the end of revelation; but we know that the revelation continued until the death of the Prophet. So, in the final stage, we go to the cultural aspects of couplet. Historical reports show that the Qur'an has not been compiled until the Prophet was alive. Based on cultural, syntactic, semantic, and linguistic support, we can now understand the meaning of the couplet. Sa'di says that the Prophet, while had not yet compiled the Qur'an, removes the books of other religions.

    Conclusion

    The old and new commentators of Sa'di's Boustan have been slipped into the description of this couplet. They assume the phrase "not creating Qur'an" in Sa'di's poetry means "the revelation is not over", but textual evidences show that it means that the Prophet still did not write the Qur'an as a book. This new meaning is based on evidence from the oldest Persian manuscripts and corresponds to the historical issues related to the early Islamic era; moreover, based on the new interpretation, the semantic problems of the couplet are also completely solved.

    Keywords: Sa'di, Boustan, Prophet of Islam, Creating the Qur'an