فهرست مطالب

  • سال هفدهم شماره 4 (پیاپی 66، 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/08/28
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • عبدالعلی گیلانی*، عطاالله سیادت، سامی جلالی، کاوه لیموچی صفحات 517-526

    این پژوهش با هدف بررسی اثر تاریخ های کاشت روی صفات ریخت شناسی موثر بر باروری و پوکی دانه پنج رقم رایج برنج در استان خوزستان طراحی شد. آزمایش با دو عامل تاریخ کاشت (شرایط متفاوت حرارتی) و رقم به صورت کرت های یک بار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی و سه تکرار به مدت دو سال (1385 و 1386) در مزرعه ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی استان خوزستان اجرا گردید. سه تاریخ کاشت (15/2، 5/3 و 25/3) در کرت های اصلی و پنج رقم برنج شامل هویزه و حمر (متحمل به گرما)، عنبوری قرمز و چمپا (حساس) و پر محصول دانیال (نیمه متحمل) در کرت های فرعی قرار داده شدند. نتایج تجزیه مرکب مربوط به صفات نشان داد واکنش ارقام کاملا وابسته به زمان کاشت می باشد به طوری که اثر متقابل تاریخ کاشت و رقم در تمامی صفات در سطوح یک یا پنج درصد معنی دار بودند. بیشترین طول بساک با متوسط 13/2030 میکرومتر، طول کلاله با متوسط 98/1489 میکرومتر و طول خامه با متوسط 83/559 میکرومتر به ترتیب مربوط به تاریخ های کاشت 15/2، 15/2 و 25/3 و ارقام دانیال، حمر بود. در ضمن تاریخ های کاشت با اندازه بساک و کلاله طویل تر تعداد دانه گرده بیشتری داشتند اما در میان ارقام، روند کاملا متفاوت بود و رقم های دارای بساک طویل تر ،کلاله های کوتاه تری داشتند. همچنین ارقام با افزایش سطح بساک و دانه گرده به ترتیب با تعداد دانه گرده و مقدار مواد غذایی بیشتر برای هر دانه گرده توانستند مانع عقیمی و کاهش عملکرد دانه شوند. بیشترین عملکرد دانه مربوط به تاریخ کاشت مطلوب (5/3) بود که نسبت به تاریخ های 15/2 و 25/3 به ترتیب 5/62 و 1/18 درصد افزایش داشته است. تاریخ کاشت دوم به لحاظ دارا بودن حد مطلوبی از طول کلاله، خامه، بساک و عرض بساک توانست با دریافت و نگه داری دانه گرده بیشتر سبب افزایش باروری و عملکرد دانه شود. در میان ارقام، رقم هویزه بر سایر ارقام برتری داشت و نسبت به دو رقم حساس به گرمای عنبوری قرمز و چمپا به ترتیب 9/50 و 3/36 درصد از عملکرد بیشتری برخوردار بود. کوتاه نمودن دوره رشد جهت فرار از تنش حرارتی به خصوص در دوره رسیدگی از دامنه 13-10 روز نسبت به سایر ارقام از مکانیسم های سازگاری و تحمل آن به شرایط موجود می باشد. بنابراین می توان نتیجه گرفت که با متمرکز کردن اهداف اصلاحی بر روی کنترل طول اجزای گلچه به جهت افزایش تماس گرده با گلچه و نهایتا باروری به افزایش محصول در شرایط تنش امیدوار بود.

    کلیدواژگان: تنش گرما، دانه گرده، برنج، باروری
  • جعفر پوررضا*، افشین سلطانی صفحات 527-536

    به منظور بررسی طول عمر برگ در ارقام مختلف گندم، دو آزمایش مزرعه ای در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با 15 رقم گندم در رامهرمز طی دو سال زراعی 89-1387 اجرا شد. آزمایش در شرایط عدم محدودیت آب و مواد غذایی انجام شد. برای محاسبه طول عمر برگ از یک مدل لجستیک در دو مرحله استفاده شد. در مرحله اول به وسیله این مدل رابطه بین تعداد کل برگ های بوته در برابر درجه-روز رشد به دست آمد و در مرحله دوم تغییرات تعداد برگ های پیر بوته در برابر درجه-روز رشد مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد متوسط طول عمر برگ بر اساس واحدهای حرارتی 8/468 درجه روز رشد بود. این نتیجه نشان داد در شرایط مطلوب از نظر حرارت، یک برگ به طور متوسط به میزان 8/468 درجه روز رشد دوام دارد. متوسط فیلوکرون (فاصله زمانی بین ظهور دو برگ روی ساقه اصلی) در ارقام برابر با 84 درجه روز رشد بود، که بر این اساس می توان گفت متوسط دوام برگ های ارقام مورد مطالعه حدودا 5/5 فیلوکرون بود. آگاهی از تفاوت های موجود بین ارقام در خصوصیات برگ می تواند در اصلاح نباتات، مدیریت گیاه زراعی و مدل های شبیه سازی رشد و نمو گندم مفید باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: برگ های پیر شده، تعداد کل برگ بوته، درجه روز رشد، سطح برگ، مدل سازی
  • فرزاد مندنی*، کیانوش خانی، سعید جلالی هنرمند، محسن سعیدی صفحات 537-550

    استفاده از کم آبیاری و باکتری های تقویت کننده رشد گیاه با صرفه جویی در مصرف آب می توانند به عنوان راه کارهای مدیریت پایدار منابع آب در مزرعه در افزایش سطح زیر کشت و نیز در تعیین الگوی کشت بهینه کمک نمایند. بر این اساس، این تحقیق با هدف ارزیابی نقش باکتری‎های تقویت کننده رشد گیاه در برخی از ارقام سویا تحت رژیم های رطوبتی به صورت کرت های خرد شده فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه رازی در شرایط آب و هوایی منطقه کرمانشاه در سال زراعی 96-1395 اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل رژیم های مختلف رطوبتی (آبیاری کامل در تمام طول فصل رشد (بدون تنش)، قطع آبیاری از مرحله اواسط تشکیل غلاف تا انتهای دوره رشد و قطع آبیاری از مرحله پرشدن دانه تا انتهای دوره رشد) به عنوان عامل اصلی و سویه های باکتری تقویت کننده Bacillus licheniformis، B. subtilis و بدون باکتری و ارقام سویای کوثر، M9 وTMS  به عنوان دیگر فاکتورها در نظر گرفته شد. صفات مورد بررسی شامل تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد دانه در غلاف، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه، وزن خشک کل، درصد روغن و درصد پروتئین بودند. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد دانه (9/380 گرم در متر مربع) و وزن خشک کل (8/1082 گرم در متر مربع) در تیمار آبیاری کامل به همراه تلقیح با باکتری سوبتیلیس در رقم TMS و بیشترین وزن هزار دانه (2/136 گرم) و درصد پروتئین (2/33) نیز در تیمار آبیاری کامل به همراه تلقیح با باکتری لیکنی فورمیس در رقم TMS مشاهده شد. کمترین وزن هزار دانه (8/84 گرم)، عملکرد دانه (2/134 گرم در متر مربع)، وزن خشک کل (1/828 گرم در متر مربع) و درصد پروتئین (4/21 درصد) در تیمار قطع آبیاری از اواسط تشکیل غلاف و بدون تلقیح باکتری در رقم کوثر مشاهده شد. نتایج این بررسی همچنین نشان داد که اثرات برهمکنش بین سطوح مختلف آبیاری، کاربرد باکتری های تقویت کننده رشد و ارقام بر صفات مورد ارزیابی سویا معنی دار نبود. به نظر می رسد کاربرد باکتری های تقویت کننده رشد از طریق افزایش تحمل گیاه به تنش کمبود آب به ویژه در شرایط تنش ملایم، باعث بهبود عملکرد سویا شد.

    کلیدواژگان: باکتری لیکنی فورمیس، تنش خشکی، درصد پروتئین، درصد روغن، رقم TMS، عملکرد دانه
  • میلاد باقری شیروان، قربانعلی اسدی*، علیرضا کوچکی صفحات 551-565

    به منظور بررسی و مقایسه کشت نشایی و کشت مستقیم ارقام مختلف چغندرقند در تاریخ های مختلف کاشت، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دو منطقه شیروان و مشهد اجرا گردید. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل ارقام چغندرقند (دورتی و آناکوندا)، روش کاشت (مستقیم و نشایی) و تاریخ کاشت (15 اردیبهشت و 15 خرداد) بود. صفات کمی و کیفی مانند عملکرد ریشه، وزن برگ، عیار قند، ناخالصی های ریشه، میزان شکر ملاس، میزان شکر خالص، عملکرد شکر خالص و ضریب استحصال شکر اندازه گیری و محاسبه گردید. نتایج حاصل از این آزمایش بیانگر این بود که کشت چغندرقند در منطقه شیروان در مقایسه با منطقه مشهد از عملکرد بیشتری برخوردار بود. علاوه بر این، بیشترین عملکرد ریشه (34/77 تن در هکتار) و عملکرد شکر خالص (848/9 تن در هکتار) چغندرقند از کشت نشایی در تاریخ کاشت 15 اردیبهشت به دست آمد. از نظر میزان ناخالصی های ریشه بین دو روش کاشت تفاوت معنی داری مشاهده نشد. علاوه بر این، میزان قند قابل استحصال، عیار قند و ضریب استحصال شکر در کشت نشایی بر کشت مستقیم چغندرقند ارجحیت داشت. بررسی نتایج نشان داد که میزان سدیم، پتاسیم و نیتروژن مضره در ریشه چغندرقند با تاخیر در کاشت به میزان 29/26، 24/21 و 42/14 درصد افزایش یافت. در بین ارقام مورد بررسی، رقم آناکوندا از عملکرد ریشه و شکر بیشتری در مقایسه با رقم دورتی برخوردار بود. نتایج بیانگر این بود که بین میزان ناخالصی های ریشه و ضریب استحصال شکر، همبستگی منفی معنی داری وجود داشت. درمجموع به نظر می رسد، کشت نشایی چغندرقند در تاریخ کاشت اردیبهشت ماه باعث افزایش عملکرد ریشه و شکر چغندرقند می گردد.

    کلیدواژگان: انتقال نشا، ضریب استحصال شکر، عملکرد ریشه، ناخالصی های ریشه
  • پرشنگ خلیلی*، مهدی تاج بخش صفحات 567-577

    یکی از اهداف مهم کشت و کار گلرنگ، تولید حداکثری روغن با روند تولید پایدار می باشد. با توجه به اهمیت کاربرد محرک های رشد و زمان برداشت در پایش وضعیت تولید کمی و کیفی، این آزمایش با هدف بررسی اثر برخی محرک های رشدی و زمان برداشت بر کیفیت روغن و عملکرد دانه گلرنگ، به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با 10 تیمار و چهار تکرار در سال های 1395 و 1396در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه ارومیه به اجرا درآمد. فاکتور اول محلول پاشی مواد محرک رشد شامل: عصاره کود کبوتری (به نسبت یک در10)، اسید سالیسیلیک (1 میلی مولار)، متانول (2 گرم در لیتر)، آرمان (3 گرم در لیتر) و شاهد (محلول پاشی با آب مقطر) بودند. دو تاریخ برداشت شامل مرحله رسیدگی فیزیولوژیکی و تکنولوژیکی دانه به عنوان فاکتور دوم منظور شد. برهمکنش محلول پاشی و زمان برداشت بر پالمتیک اسید و استئاریک اسید در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی دار بود؛ به طوری که بیشترین درصد پالمتیک اسید (85/16%) از شاهد در سال اول و استئاریک اسید (72/13%) از سالیسیلیک اسید در سال اول به دست آمد. مقایسه میانگین ها نشان داد در زمان برداشت دوم بیشترین عملکرد روغن (41/726 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به دست آمد که با بیشتر بودن درصد روغن (3/31%) در این تیمار مورد تایید قرار گرفت. بیشترین مقدار لینولئیک اسید (52/69%) در محلول پاشی با عصاره کود کبوتری، بیشترین درصد اولئیک اسید (48/18%) از شاهد در سال اول به دست آمد که با سالیسیلیک اسید در سال اول در یک گروه آماری بود. در تحقیق حاضر اعمال عصاره کود کبوتری از نظر حصول عملکرد، صفات کمی و کیفیت روغن اثرگذاری بیشتری نسبت به سایر تیمارها داشت.

    کلیدواژگان: اسید چرب، تاریخ برداشت، عصاره کود کبوتری، عملکرد روغن
  • علی راحمی کاریزکی*، هادی رضایی، عبداللطیف قلی زاده، علی نخ زری مقدم، معصومه نعیمی صفحات 579-590

    یکی از جنبه های بسیار مهم در به نژادی گندم، ثبات و پایداری ارقام تحت شرایط مختلف محیطی است. به همین منظور جهت بررسی واکنش ارقام گندم دیم در دو منطقه نیمه خشک (مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه گنبد کاووس) و نیمه مرطوب (مزرعه ای در گرگان) در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با 4 تکرار و با 7 رقم گندم دیم (آفتاب، آذر 2، سرداری، قابوس، کریم، کوهدشت و لاین 17) در سال زراعی 96-1395 اجرا شد. در این آزمایش صفات فنولوژیکی (روز از کاشت تا گرده افشانی، روز از کاشت تا رسیدگی، طول دوره پر شدن، سرعت دوره پر شدن)، حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد (تعداد پنجه در متر مربع، دانه در سنبله، سنبلچه در سنبله، دانه در متر مربع، میانگین وزن دانه، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک و شاخص برداشت) ارقام در دو منطقه مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که در هر یک از مناطق گنبد و گرگان ارقام متفاوتی به عملکرد دانه بالا دست یافتند. به نحوی که در منطقه گنبد لاین 17 با 375 گرم در متر مربع و در منطقه گرگان رقم کوهدشت با 546 گرم در متر مربع از بالاترین عملکرد برخوردار بودند. در منطقه گرگان رقم کریم با 191 روز و در منطقه گنبد لاین 17 با 174 روز، زمان کمتری برای سپری نمودن از کاشت تا رسیدگی به ثبت رساندند. بنابراین با توجه به نتایج می توان بیان داشت که رقم کوهدشت در گرگان و لاین 17 در گنبد نسبت به سایر ارقام از برتری قابل ملاحظه ای برخوردار بودند.

    کلیدواژگان: عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد، فنولوژی، گندم، مورفولوژی
  • فاطمه محتشمی، محمود رضا تدین*، پرتو روشندل صفحات 591-603

    به منظور بررسی تیمارهای کم آبیاری و محلول پاشی با اسید جاسمونیک و اسید آسکوربیک بر میزان فنول کل، میزان فلاونوئید کل، فعالیت آنزیم فنیل آلانین آمونیالیاز، فعالیت آنتی اکسیدانی، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد روغن ژنوتیپ ‎های گلرنگ، آزمایشی به صورت طرح کرت های دو بار خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شهرکرد در بهار 1396 انجام شد. در این آزمایش سه سطح آبیاری (100، 75 و 50 درصد نیاز آبی گلرنگ) به عنوان فاکتور اصلی و سه ژنوتیپ گلرنگ (محلی اصفهان، فرامان و سینا) به عنوان فاکتور فرعی و محلول پاشی با سه سطح شامل (شاهد، محلول پاشی با اسید جاسمونیک با غلظت 5/0 میلی مولار و محلول پاشی با اسید آسکوربیک با غلظت 20 میلی مولار) به عنوان فاکتور فرعی فرعی انتخاب شدند. نتایج نشان داد که اثرهای اصلی تیمار کم آبیاری، ژنوتیپ و محلول پاشی بر تمامی صفات مورد بررسی در این پژوهش معنی دار شد. به طوری که بیشترین عملکرد دانه (1687 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و عملکرد روغن (462 کیلوگرم در هکتار) مربوط به ژنوتیپ سینا و کمترین عملکرد دانه (1341 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و عملکرد روغن (332 کیلوگرم در هکتار) مربوط به ژنوتیپ محلی اصفهان شد. نتایج نشان داد محلول پاشی با اسید آسکوربیک میزان عملکرد دانه و روغن به ترتیب 9/5 و 53/11درصد در مقایسه با تیمار بدون محلول پاشی افزایش یافت. مقدار فنیل آلانین آمونیالیاز در ژنوتیپ سینا و تیمار آبیاری 50 درصد نیاز آبیاری 18/26 درصد در مقایسه با تیمار 100 درصد نیاز آبیاری گلرنگ و ژنوتیپ محلی اصفهان افزایش یافت. همچنین میزان فنول و فلاونوئید کل در ژنوتیپ سینا و تیمار 50 درصد نیاز آبیاری به ترتیب 35/50 درصد و 23/40 درصد در مقایسه با ژنوتیپ محلی اصفهان و تیمار آبیاری 100 درصد نیاز آبیاری گلرنگ افزایش یافت. مقایسه میانگین داده ها نشان داد مقدار فعالیت آنتی اکسیدانی، فنول و فلاونوئید کل در اثر برهمکنش محلول پاشی با اسید آسکوربیک و تیمار 50 درصد نیاز آبیاری گلرنگ 91/10 درصد، 39/44 و 32/55 درصد در مقایسه با تیمار بدون محلول پاشی و تیمار 100 درصد نیاز آبیاری گلرنگ افزایش یافت. نتایج نشان داد که می توان با انتخاب ژنوتیپ و ترکیبات مناسب عملکرد دانه و روغن و اثرات دارویی گیاه گلرنگ را افزایش داد.

    کلیدواژگان: آنتی اکسیدان، فلاونوئید، فنول، فنیل آلانین آمونیالیاز
  • فاطمه مجیدی*، الهام عزیزی، منصوره کرمانی، عباس ابهری صفحات 605-615

    تنش های شوری و برگ زدایی ازجمله تنش های محیطی مهم هستند که خواص گیاه و درنتیجه تولیدات آن را تحت تاثیر قرار می دهند. مرزه گیاهی معطر با خواص دارویی با نام علمی Satureja hortensis و بومی مدیترانه ی شرقی و جنوب آسیا می باشد. به منظور تعیین میزان مقاومت توده های مرزه ی مورد مطالعه در این پژوهش به دو تنش شوری و برگ زدایی و برنامه ریزی برای برنامه های اصلاحی در آینده، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی، با چهار سطح شوری (0، 3، 6 و 9 دسی زیمنس بر متر)، سه سطح تنش برگ زدایی (0، 25 و 50 درصد) و پنج توده مرزه (کلات، اصفهان، همدان، درگز، مشهد) با سه تکرار به صورت گلدانی در شرایط گلخانه در دانشگاه پیام نور واحد مشهد در سال 1396 انجام شد که صفات مورد بررسی میزان آب نسبی برگ، ضریب ثبات غشاء، پرولین، کربوهیدرات و صفات مورفولوژیکی گیاه مرزه بود. نتایج حاصل از این بررسی نشان داد که تنش برگ زدایی سبب آثار منفی بر تمام صفات مورد اندازه گیری توده های مرزه شد. با افزایش سطوح شوری نیز، صفات مورفولوژیکی مورد مطالعه و همچنین وزن تر و خشک اندام های مختلف مرزه کاهش یافت. همچنین با اعمال تنش شوری محتوای پرولین و قندهای محلول افزایش یافت و بیشترین میزان پرولین و کربوهیدرات در توده ی مشهد مشاهده شد که با توجه به این دو صفت می توان توده مشهد را به عنوان توده مقاوم به شوری معرفی کرد. همچنین بیشترین میزان ضریب ثابت غشاء در توده ی همدان و بیشترین میزان آب نسبی برگ در توده ی کلات بود.

    کلیدواژگان: آب نسبی، پرولین، ضریب ثابت غشا، کربوهیدرات، مشهد
  • حسین نوروزی، مجید نبی پور*، افراسیاب راهنما قهفرخی، حبیب الله روشنفکر صفحات 617-629

    جهت بررسی چگونگی اثر برخی ترکیبات شیمیایی ازجمله کلسیم و سلنیوم بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گیاه گندم در ایجاد مقاومت در مقابل افزایش دمای محیط، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 97-1396 اجرا شد. این آزمایش به صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه آزمایشی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز اجرا شد. در این آزمایش سه عامل مورد بررسی قرارگرفت. عامل اول (کرت های اصلی): سه تاریخ کاشت شامل (20 آبان به عنوان تاریخ کاشت معمول، 20 آذر و 20 دی)، عامل دوم (کرت های فرعی): محلول پاشی ترکیبات شیمیایی مختلف شامل 1) آب شهری (شاهد)، 2) کلرید کلسیم (10 میلی مولار) 3) سلنیوم (4 میلی گرم در لیتر) و عامل سوم (کرت های فرعی): ارقام مختلف گندم شامل (چمران و استار) بود. با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده، در زمان استفاده از کلرید کلسیم برای محلول پاشی، در تاریخ کشت سوم تعداد دانه در سنبله نسبت به تاریخ کاشت 20 آبان فقط 12 درصد کاهش پیدا کرد در حالی که در تیمارهای شاهد و سلنیوم تعداد دانه در سنبله 36 درصد کاهش یافت. در تاریخ کاشت سوم، عملکرد دانه در تیمار شاهد 3/49 درصد و در تیمار سلنیوم 9/49 درصد نسبت به تاریخ کاشت اول کاهش نشان داد در حالی که در تیمار کلرید کلسیم کاهش عملکرد 8/23 درصد بود. در هر سه تاریخ کاشت، در زمانی که از کلرید کلسیم به عنوان محلول پاشی استفاده شد دوره پر شدن دانه نسبت به تیمارهای شاهد و سلنیوم طولانی تر بود. طولانی شدن دوره پر شدن دانه در زمان استفاده از کلرید کلسیم می تواند یکی از مهم ترین عواملی باشد که منجر به کاهش کمتر وزن هزار دانه و عملکرد دانه نسبت به بقیه تیمارها شده است. چون در این شرایط زمان کافی برای انجام فتوسنتز جاری و انتقال مجدد مواد به دانه های در حال پر شدن وجود دارد. در نهایت می توان نتیجه گرفت که محلول پاشی کلرید کلسیم می تواند از طریق کاهش اثرات منفی تنش گرما در زمان گرده افشانی، افزایش دوره پر شدن دانه و وزن هزاردانه نقش مهمی در کاهش اثرات تنش گرمای آخر فصل در گندم داشته باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: تاریخ کاشت، تعداد دانه در سنبله، سلنیوم، عملکرد دانه، کلرید کلسیم
  • فرشید علیپور ابوخیلی، قربان نورمحمدی*، حمید مدنی، حسین حیدری شریف آباد، حمیدرضا مبصر صفحات 631-645

    این پژوهش با هدف بررسی اثر تقسیط نیتروژن و تراکم های مختلف بوته بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه دو ژنوتیپ برنج انجام شد و بدین منظور آزمایشی به‎صورت کرت های یک بار خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی واقع در شهرستان قائم شهر طی سال های 93-1392 و 94-1393 اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل سه سطح تراکم بوته (16، 25 و 3/33 بوته در متر مربع) به‎عنوان عامل اصلی و پنج سطح تقسیط نیتروژن (S1: مصرف کامل (100%) در مرحله ابتدای کاشت یا پایه، S2: 50% در مرحله ابتدای کاشت یا پایه + 50% در مرحله ابتدای پنجه دهی، S3: 50% در مرحله ابتدای کاشت یا پایه + 50% در مرحله ظهور خوشه آغازین، S4: 33/33% در مرحله ابتدای کاشت یا پایه + 33/33% در مرحله ابتدای پنجه دهی + 33/33% در مرحله ظهور خوشه آغازین و S5: 33/33% در مرحله ابتدای کاشت یا پایه + 33/33% ظهور خوشه آغازین + 33/33% در مرحله خوشه دهی کامل) به‎عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج نشان دادند که ارقام هاشمی و کوهسار در سال دوم به ترتیب کاهش 21/9 درصدی و افزایش 74/23 درصدی عملکرد دانه را نسبت به سال اول داشتند. همچنین سال دوم نسبت به سال اول کاهش 62/11 درصدی و 36/30 درصدی عملکرد کاه را به ترتیب در ارقام هاشمی و کوهسار نشان داد. عملکرد دانه و شاخص برداشت با افزایش تراکم در رقم هاشمی به ترتیب افزایش و کاهش یافتند. عملکرد کاه در هر دو رقم با افزایش تراکم افزایش نشان دادند. کمترین عملکرد کاه و بیشترین شاخص برداشت در هر دو رقم، با تقسیط نیتروژن به نسبت مساوی در مراحل ابتدای کاشت، ظهور خوشه آغازین و خوشه دهی کامل حاصل آمد. اثر متقابل بین عامل ها در ارقام مورد مطالعه نشان داد که در هر دو سال زراعی تعداد خوشه در متر مربع با افزایش تراکم افزایش یافت.

    کلیدواژگان: رقم، زمان مصرف نیتروژن، سال، عملکرد دانه، فواصل کاشت
  • حسین صبوری*، حجت قربانی واقعی، محمدرضا جعفرزاده رزمی، محسن رضایی، علی حشمت پور، عاطفه صبوری، مهناز کاتوزی، سمیه سنچولی صفحات 647-659

    به منظور بررسی دو ژنوتیپ 87.110 و AE121 از نظر صفات زراعی و فتوسنتزی در شرایط غرقاب و آبیاری زیرسطحی دو آزمایش در سال 1396 در دانشگاه گنبد کاووس انجام شد. هر دو آزمایش به صورت مرکب و در دو آزمایش جداگانه (غرقاب و زیرسطحی) به ترتیب در 18 و 3 تکرار انجام شد. با توجه به یکنواختی خاک مورد استفاده، طرح پایه به صورت کاملا تصادفی در نظر گرفته شد. در روش آبیاری غرقابی، زمین به صورت متداول آماده سازی شد. برای آبیاری زیرسطحی خاک هر کرت تا عمق 40 سانتی متر برداشته شده و کپسول های رسی متخلخل کار گذاشته شد. برخی از صفات اندازه گیری شده شامل: ارتفاع و وزن کل بوته، وزن کل خوشه ها، طول خوشه اصلی، تعداد دانه پر و پوک، میزان باروری، وزن دانه پر، عملکرد، Y(II)، qP، qN، qL، NPQ، Fv/Fm، F'v/F'm، ETR، FO، F'O، Fv، Fm، F'm و F' بود. اختلاف بین روش های آبیاری و ارقام مورد بررسی در اکثر صفات زراعی به جز طول، عرض و مساحت برگ پرچم، عملکرد، وزن کل، تعداد خوشه نابارور و طول خوشه اصلی معنی دار بود. نتایج مقایسه میانگین نشان داد اکثر صفات مربوط به عملکرد در شرایط آبیاری غرقاب بهتر از زیرسطحی بودند. میزان عملکرد نیز در شرایط غرقاب 84/5069 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود، در حالی که در شرایط زیرسطحی میزان عملکرد 13/4223 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. همچنین نتایج مطلوب از پارامترهای فلورسانس در شرایط غرقاب مشاهده شد که در این بین سرعت انتقال الکترون از فتوسیستم 2 (ETR) در حالت غرقاب 13/37 بود که این میزان در شرایط زیرسطحی به 65/27 کاهش یافت. نتایج نشان داد ژنوتیپ AE121 دارای عملکرد بالاتری است و پتانسیل بالاتری تحت هر دو شرایط دارد و می توان کشت آن را برای دستیابی به عمکرد بالا توصیه نمود.

    کلیدواژگان: آبیاری، عملکرد، فلورسنس کلروفیل، کارایی مصرف آب، کپسول رسی
  • حامد کشاورز، سید علی محمد مدرس ثانوی*، فاطمه سفیدکن، علی مختصی بیدگلی صفحات 661-672

    کمبود آب در ایران همواره به عنوان عامل محدودکننده تولید محصولات زراعی و باغی به شمار می رود. در این شرایط، نحوه جذب عناصر غذایی و انجام فرآیندهای متابولیسمی گیاهان متفاوت بوده و می تواند سبب کاهش رشد گردد که میزان این کاهش همواره با تغییرات مهمی در خصوصیات کیفی گیاهان ازجمله گیاهان دارویی همراه است. در همین راستا برای بررسی تنش کم آبی (در سه سطح بدون تنش، تنش متوسط و تنش شدید) و شش رژیم کودی (تامین نیاز کود نیتروژن گیاه به وسیله تلفیقی از کود ورمی کمپوست و کود اوره)، آزمایشی در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس در سال 1397 انجام شد. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل میزان کلروفیل، فلاوونوئید، آنتوسیانین، کارتنوئید، DPPH فنول های کل، ارتفاع، شاخص سطح برگ، وزن خشک بیوماس، درصد و عملکرد اسانس بودند. نتایج حاکی از آن بود که تیمار کم آبی باعث کاهش میزان کلروفیل برگ، DPPH، ارتفاع گیاه، شاخص سطح برگ، وزن خشک اندام هوایی و عملکرد اسانس شد. اگرچه میزان فلاونوئیدها، کارتنوئید، فنل های کل و درصد اسانس با کم آبیاری متوسط افزایش و در کم آبیاری شدید دوباره کاهش یافتند. افزایش میزان ورمی کمپوست در تیمار کودی منجر به افزایش مقدار صفات فیزیولوژیک و رویشی گیاه نعناع فلفلی شد. مطابق نتایج به دست آمده از اثر متقابل دو تیمار، بیشترین ارتفاع گیاه، وزن خشک اندام هوایی و عملکرد اسانس در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و تیمار 14 تن ورمی کمپوست به دست آمد. بیشترین میزان فنل های کل در کم آبیاری متوسط و کود تلفیقی 70 کیلوگرم اوره+7 تن ورمی کمپوست حاصل شد. همچنین بیشترین درصد اسانس و میزان فلاونوئیدها در کم آبیاری متوسط همراه با 14 تن کود ورمی کمپوست مشاهده شد. به طور کلی نتایج نشان داد در بین رژیم های آبیاری، کود ورمی کمپوست هم در عملکرد رویشی و هم در صفات فیزیولوژیک گیاه اثر مثبتی داشت.

    کلیدواژگان: درصد اسانس، رنگدانه، کمپوست، DPPH
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  • A. Gilani*, A. Siyadat, S. Jalali, K. Limouchi Pages 517-526
    Introduction

    Rice is one of the oldest cultivated crops. Anatomical changes in plants under environmental stress can reduce the vascular bundles area such as Xylem area; as a result, these changes can protect cells from death and dieback. There was a difference in terms of pollen germination at times after anthers’ opening. Variety Minyhui 63 had the highest germination rate (85%) at time 0 or immediately after anthers’ opening; but for variety Rufipogon with lower germination rate (60%), 50% of pollens were alive after 12 min (longer). The lowest germination rate (34%) was observed in hybrid varieties with an average longevity that even after 40 min more than 50% were alive. Simultaneously between opening of florets, anthers causes high self-pollination in rice, but flowering time under stress can postpone the turgidity and growth of pollens. Matsui and Hisashi (2003) reported that positive correlation between the number of pollen on stigma and morphological characteristics.

    Materials and Methods

    The current research was done for recognizing the impacts of different planting dates on morphological traits in five cultivars of rice in Khouzetan. An experiment was carried out by 2 factors as split-plot using randomized complete blocks design with three replications in agricultural research station. 3 planting dates (2.15, 3.5, and 3.25) in the main plots and 5 sorts of rice including Hoveize and hamer (heat tolerance), red Anbori and Champa (sensitive), and Daniel (semi-tolerance) were arranged in the sub-plot.

    Results and Discussion

    The result of combined analysis showed the reaction of cultivars were completely related to planting dates and significant difference were observed for interaction effects in %1 and %5 probability level. The highest anther length, stigma length and style length were related to planting dates 1, and 3. Meanwhile, the planting dates with longer anther and stigma had more pollen number. But among cultivars the reaction was completely different, and cultivars with longer anther had shorter stigma. Also cultivars with increasing of pollen and anther surface and pollen number and development of pollen nutrition respectively can prevent of pollen abortion and yield reduction. The highest grain yield was related to the suitable planting date (3.5) that had %62.5 and %18/1. Production increase with respect to. 2.15 and 3.25. Because the second planting date had the suitable stigma, style, anther length and so anther width and more pollen number on the stigma that can increase pollen germination and production. Among the sorts, Hoveize was superior than others and it had higher yield with 50.9% and 36.3% respectively than 2 sorts that are sensitive to heat: red Anbory and Champa. The shorter growth duration (10-13 days) with respect to other cultivars and escape of high temperature was adaptation mechanisms of Hoveize. On the other hand cultivars had different reaction in related to temperature condition.

    Conclusions

    Therefore, we hope to increase production under stress condition whereas breeding objectives concentrate on the lowering vascular bundles and control length of florets components to increase contacts between pollen and florets and finally, fertility.

    Keywords: Fertility, Heat stress, Pollen, Rice
  • J. Pourreza*, A. Soltani Pages 527-536
    Introduction

    A major component in a crop growth model is leaf area development, which has crucial influence on photosynthesis and transpiration. Leaf area development involves the appearance of new leaves, expansion of the newly emerged leaves and senescence of old leaves. Modeling leaf growth has been extensively studied in many crops including cereals. Methods of predicting leaf area development are diverse from those dealing with the individual component processes of leaf growth, viz., leaf appearance, leaf expansion and leaf death to the models predicting leaf growth at the whole plant or whole crop levels. The concept of leaf lifetime is used in some crop simulations models to quantify the aging of the leaves after reaching thermal time to a certain amount. There is very little information about wheat aging time in the field, and most estimates of leaf lifetime are related to this observation that says on the main stem of wheat, at least 3 to 5 green leaves remains until pollination; one leaf is in the early stages of development, another leaf is completely developed and one to three leaves are aging. Quantitative information regarding leaf area development in wheat especially in environmental conditions with high temperatures for the purpose of crop modeling is scarce. Furthermore, genotypic variations have not been evaluated. Therefore, the goal of this research was to determine parameters related to leaf lifetime in wheat cultivars in warm environmental conditions.

    Materials and Methods

    The aim of this study was to quantify leaf lifetime of 15 different wheat cultivars. Two field experiments with 15 wheat cultivars (Atrak, Bayat, Chamran, Chenab, Dez, Ineia, Kavir, Marvdasht, Shiraz, S78-18, Yavaroos and shova-Mald) were conducted at the research farm of the Islamic Azad University of Ramhormoz Branch, south-western of Iran during 2008-9 and 2009-10 using a randomized complete block design with four replications. To determine leaf lifetime, a logistic model (Amax/[(1+exp)-a(x-b)]) was used in two stages. At first phase, changes in total plant leaf number versus growing degree days was determined, then, changes in plant senesced leaf number versus growing degree days were investigated.

    Results and Discussion

    The results indicate that the average of leaf lifetime based on growing degree days was 468.8 C dᵒ. This conclusion shows at optimum condition in terms of temperature, on average, a leaf lasts 468.8 C dᵒ. The average of phyllochron (the interval time between the sequential emergence of leaves on the main stem of a plant) was 84 C dᵒ in studied cultivars, upon which, the average of leaf lifetime in cultivars was 5.5 phyllochron. Hence, knowing the differences among hybrids in leaf area attributes may be useful in plant breeding, crop management and in wheat growth modeling.

    Conclusions

     Based on the results, there were no significant differences between wheat cultivars in terms of parameters related to leaf lifetime on stem. The relationships presented in this study describe leaf lifetime under well-watered condition and reflect the effects of carbon and nitrogen availability and remobilization under these conditions. However, they do not account for the effects of shortage of carbon, nitrogen or water on leaf development. Other relationships are required to predict these effects.

    Keywords: Growing degree days, Leaf area, Modeling, Senesced leaves, Total plant leaf number
  • F. Mondani*, K. Khani, S. Jalali Honarmand, M. Saeedi Pages 537-550
    Introduction

    In recent decades, sustainable agricultural management, protection of soil living organism’s community and the efforts to use biological solutions for plant nutrition and society health has been considered. Among soil microorganisms, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are the most promising, including all bacteria inhabiting the rhizosphere and the rhizoplane, which able to stimulate plant growth and yield. The modes of action of PGPR are clearly diverse and not all bacteria possess the same mechanisms. These mechanisms vary from changes in hormonal content, production of volatile compounds, increasing of nutrient availability and enhance abiotic stress tolerance such as the water deficit stress. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the PGPR on the yield and yield components of soybean under different irrigation regimes.

    Materials and Methods

    The field experiment was conducted during 2016 at the research farm of Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran (34°, 19´ N, 47°, 50´ E and altitude 1320 m). A split plot factorial experiment was conducted based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Main plots had three irrigation regimes in which irrigation was cut based on the soybean stages (I1: water deficit stress from mid pod development stage to maturity stage; I2: water deficit stress from seed filling development stage to maturity stage; and I3: optimum irrigation in all development stages) and sub-plots were composed of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) (B1: no bacteria; B2: Bacillus subtilis; and B: Bacillus licheniformis) and soybean cultivar (TMS, M9 and Kosar). The experimental plots were irrigated based on furrow method. I3 treatment were irrigated every 7 days until the end of the growing period while in the I1 and I2 treatments, the plots were irrigated every 7 days until the start of the water deficit stress. In order to inoculate with the PGPR, the soybean seeds were plunged in a 1:10 (V:V) solution of liquid culture and distilled water respectively, for 10 minutes. All seeds were oven-dried at 30° C for 5 h. Finally, the seeds by PGPR were inoculated by Bradyrhizobium japonicum before sowing and cultivated immediately at 4 to 5 cm soil depth. About 1.5 m2 harvested at the physiological maturity stage. The evaluated traits were the total dry weight, seed yield, 1000 seed weight, pod per plant, seed per pod, oil percentage and protein percentage.

    Results and Discussion

    The results indicated that the water deficit stress reduced the total dry weight, seed yield, 1000-seed weight, pod per plant, seed per pod, oil percentage and protein percentage of soybean. The PGPR application improved all measured traits of soybean in all irrigation regime treatments. The highest seed yield (380.9 g m-2) and total dry weight (1082.8 g m-2) were observed in the optimum irrigation and B. subtilis treatment for TMS cultivar and the highest 1000-seed weight (136.2 g) and protein percentage (33.2) also were related to the optimum irrigation and B. licheniformis treatment for TMS cultivar. The lowest total dry weight (828.1 g m-2), seed yield (134.2 g m-2), 1000-seed weight (84.8 g) and protein percentage (21.4) were related to the water deficit stress from mid pod development stage to maturity stage and no bacteria treatment for Kosar cultivar. The results also indicated that the effects of interaction between irrigation regimes, application of PGPR and cultivars on evaluated traits were not significant. 

    Conclusions

    It seems that the PGPR via increasing of the root system and more uptake of water in the rhizosphere could promote the soybean yield and yield components. Nevertheless, as the results showed, the more effects of the PGPR were observed in the I2 treatment compared to other treatments. The PGPR actually could promote the yield and yield components of soybean in the mid water deficit stress.

    Keywords: B. licheniformis, Drought stress, Oil percentage, Protein percentage, Seed yield, TMS cultivar
  • M. Bagheri Shirvan, Gh. A. Asadi*, A. Koochecki Pages 551-565
    Introduction

    Sugar beet is one of the important industrial crops in sugar production industry. Recently, Iranian farmers have encountered some challenges such as restricting government support and lack of water for irrigation. Therefore, sugar beet production has declined in recent years. In addition, lack of precision planting equipment, dependency on labour force in weed control and synchronizing sugar beet planting with irrigation of other crops such as cereals has increased problems for farmers. The appropriate sowing technique, optimum sowing date and application of acceptable varieties will solve these problems.

    Materials and Methods

    This experiment was conducted during 2017 in Mashhad and Shirvan stations. The experimental layout was factorial experimental design based on randomized complete block design. The factors in this experiment were sugar beet varieties (Anakonda and Dorotea), planting method (Transplanting and seed sowing) and sowing or transplanting date (5 May and 5 June). For transplanting treatments, the seed was planted into paper pots in tunnel house around 30 days before transplanting. The plots area was 15 m-2, had 6 rows (50 cm apart) with 5 m length. In seed sowing treatments, seeds were sown 10 cm apart, then in 4-6 leaf stage, the plants were manually thinned to a density of 100,000 plants ha-1 (20 cm apart). In transplanting treatments, seedlings were sown 20 cm apart. The plants harvested on 27 October in Mashhad and 29 October in Shirvan. After harvesting, the root and leaf were weighted. Then a sample from the root in each plot was selected and used to measured criteria sugar content, root impurities, molasses content, extractable sugar, sugar yield and extraction coefficient of sugar.

    Results and Discussion

    The results showed that root yield and sugar yield of sugar beet in Shirvan were higher than Mashhad. While the root impurities and molasses content in Mashhad were higher than Shirvan. The difference in soil and weather conditions could be one of the reasons for these differences between two areas. Transplanting treatments showed the highest root yield and leaf weight rather than direct sowing. Furthermore, the root impurities were highest in transplanting treatments. According to the reports, branched roots in transplanting roots would be higher than direct sowing and it can increase the root impurities. Based on this hypothesis, direct sowing of sugar beet increased the impure sugar and extractable sugar. According to the positive correlation between root yield and sugar yield, the highest sugar yield obtained from transplanting treatments. The results represented that delaying in sowing date increased the root impurities and molasses content. Therefore, the sugar yield in the second date of sowing or transplanting was less than first sowing date. The second sowing date increased the percentage of sodium, potassium and amino nitrogen, 26.29, 21.24, and 14.42, respectively. In addition, the second sowing date increased the molasses content compared to the first sowing date by 13.61%. Other studies also reported similar results. Some of the studies mentioned that decreasing the growth period can increase the root impurities in sugar beet. Different genotypes also showed different responses. The highest root yield and sugar yield and the lowest root impurities were related to Anakonda. The molasses content in Dorotea was 5.11% higher than Anakonda. Some of the studies expressed that different genotypes have different cell capacity to store the sugar. According to the evaluation of the interaction between different factors, the highest root yield (77.34 ton.ha-1) and sugar yield (9.848 ton.ha-1) were observed in transplanted sugar beet that planted in the first sowing date. There is a significant correlation between the extraction coefficient of sugar and root impurities content, this led to root impurities interfere with crystallization of sucrose and decreased the sugar extraction.

    Conclusions

    According to the results, transplanted sugar beet had more yield quantity and quality compared to seed sowing. Also, the second sowing date decreased the quality and quantity of sugar beet. In addition, planting of sugar beet in Shirvan condition was better than Mashhad condition. In general, it seems that the transplanted Anakonda on 5 May in both areas will be appropriate. However, making a decision, in this case, requires further evaluating such as economic aspects.

    Keywords: Extraction coefficient of sugar, Root impurities, Root yield, Transplanting
  • P. Khalili*, M. Tajbakhsh Pages 567-577
    Introduction

    The global approach to produce oilseed is sustainable agricultural system, and their management practices such as the use of organic and biological fertilizers to enhance the quantitative and qualitative performance of oilseed crops. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) a multipurpose plant and cultivate mainly due to the high quality of its oil, and it belonged to the Asteraceae family. Foliar application of plant growth motivate is an effective way of stimulate plant growth and yields. Harvesting date is one of the most important variables of production. Sunflower oil content increased rapidly after 15 days and reached the highest level at 30 to 35 days after flowering. This study was performed to compare the effects of plant growth motivate foliar application and harvest time on yield component and oil content and fatty acid composition of safflower.

    Materials and Methods

    A trial was conducted as a randomized complete block design with 10 treatments and four replications in 2015-2016, and was repeated in 2016-2017. The treatments included: pigeon manure extract (1:10), salicylic acid (1 mmol), methanol (2 g.l-1), Arman (3 g.l-1) and control (distilled water). Arman (Brand) is a completely organic and nutritious compound for plants that is a mixture of several non-toxic elements. Plants were harvested in two stages, when seed reached to the physiological and technological maturity. Evaluated traits were including biological and seed yield, thousand seed weight, oil (percent and yield), protein (percent and yield), and oil analysis. The statistical analysis of the design was done using SAS software version 9.4 and the comparison of the means by LSD test at 5% probability.

    Results and Discussion

    The results of the analysis of variance showed that effect of foliar application on biological and seed yield, 1000 seed weight, oil percentage and yield, protein percentage and yield were significant at (p≤ 1%). The effect of harvesting time on biological yield, oil percentage, oil yield, protein percentage and protein yield was significant at (p≤ 1%), and on 1000 seed weight at (p≤ 5%). Also the interaction between foliar application and harvesting time was significant on the palmitic acid and stearic acid at (p≤ 1%), and the effect of foliar application was significant on the linoleic acid at (p≤ 1%), and interaction of foliar application  and year was significant on the oleic acid at (p≤ 5%). The results of oil analysis showed that all materials applied had a positive effect on the quality of safflower seed oil, so that foliar application with pigeon manure extract caused 13% increase in the linoleic acid in second harvest amount compare to the control, which was in a statistical group with Arman, and methanol. According to the results of the mean comparison the highest biological yield, seed yield, thousand seed weight, oil percent and yield, belonged to applied to the foliar application with pigeon manure extract. According to the mean comparison, the highest value of palmitic acid and stearic acid was obtained from the control in the first harvest harvesting time (seeds physiological maturity). Extract of pigeon manure increases the level of green vegetation, photosynthetic activity and plant heights, which is an effective factor in increasing yield. Also, the highest biological yield, thousand seed weight belonged to the first harvest time, and the highest oil (percent and yield), protein (percent and yield) belonged to the second harvest time. The grain weight increases until the morphological maturity, but after that, the transfer of the material to the seed is cut off and the internal composition of the grain becomes the material with a higher recovery level, therefore, a slight decrease in the grain weight reasonable seems. The amount of oil usually reaches a stable level at physiological maturity, and has a slight change up to the time of seed maturity, and the observed differences are due to environmental factors, especially the temperature.

    Conclusions

    According to the results, spraying of pigeon manure extract, Arman, methanol, and salicylic acid showed an increase of yield compared to the control in climatic conditions of Urmia. Foliar application improved the yield components by increasing the yield of oil and protein. Finally, it can be stated that spraying with the extract of pigeon manure had a more effective and efficient effect on the quality and quantity of safflower than other treatments. The second harvest date preferable.

    Keywords: Fatty acid, Harvest date, Oil yield, Pigeon manure extract
  • A. Rahemi karizaki*, H. Rezaei, A. Gholizadeh, A. Nakhzari Moghadam, M. Naeeimi Pages 579-590
    Introduction

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the world's largest cultivated plants and one of the most important aspects in wheat breeding is the stability of cultivars under various environmental conditions. The stability of a product is, in fact, its ability to survive in a particular environment. In other words, a plant must be able to tolerate cold, heat, shortage or excess water, changes in the length of the day, the intensity of light, and a wide range of chemical and physical conditions of the soil.
     

    Materials and Methods

    In order to study the response of rainfed wheat cultivars in semi-arid and semi-humid regions of Golestan province, an experiment was conducted at the research farm of Gonbad Kavous University (semi-arid area) and a field in Gorgan (semi-humid area) based on the randomized complete block design with four replications and with seven wheat cultivars (Aftab, Azar 2, Sardari, Qaboos, Karim, Koohdasht and Line 17) in 2015-2016. In this experiment, the phenological traits (days from planting to anthesis, physiological maturity), morphological traits (grain filling period, grain filling rate, maximum leaf area index), yield and yield components (number of tillers per square meter, grain per spike, spikelet per spike, grain per square meter, mean grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index) of cultivars were evaluated in two regions. To compare the means, LSD test was used at the 5% probability level. All analytical steps were performed in SAS software version 9.4.
     

    Results and Discussion

    The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect of cultivar in Gonbad and Gorgan regions on all traits except grain filling rate in Gorgan and number of tillers per m2 in Gonbad-Kavous was significant at 1% and 5% levels. The average period of examination in Gonbad-Kavous was 178 days and in Gorgan 195 days after planting. In Gonbad-Kavous, Sardari cultivar (33 days) had the highest and Line 17 (27 days) had the least grain filling period. But in Gorgan, the Qaboos cultivar (41 days) was the highest and the Koohdasht cultivar (38 days) had the least grain filling period. The results also showed that there was a significant difference between the cultivars in both locations in terms of grain filling rate. In Gonbad-Kavous, Azar 2 had the lowest grain filling rate (5.8 g.day.m-2), and Line 17 had the highest grain filling rate (14.2 g.day.m-2). But in Gorgan, Sardari cultivar had the lowest (5.5 g.day.m-2) and Koohdasht cultivar had the highest (14.37 g.day.m-2) grain filling rate. Correlation coefficient between grain filling period and grain yield (r= 0.359**) and grain yield and grain filling rate (r= 0.847**) were positive and significant. Grain yield and harvest index were higher in Gorgan than Gonbad-Kavous. In Gonbad-Kavous, there was no significant difference between grain yield per unit area, biological yield per unit area and harvest index in most of the cultivars. In Gorgan, there was a significant difference between cultivars for grain yield, but there was no significant difference between biological yield and harvest index among more cultivars. In Gorgan, Koohdasht and Sardari cultivars had the highest and lowest grain yield per unit area (564.2 and 218.3 g.m-2) and harvest index (50.32 and 32.2%) respectively. There was a significant correlation between grain yield and harvest index (r= 0.907**) and biological yield (r= 0.665**) in the level of 1%.

    Conclusions

    In general, due to the fact that other than cultivars Sardari and Azar 2, which are special for cold regions, other cultivars are compatible with tropical and semi-arid conditions. According to the climatic conditions (rainfall and temperature), two regions of Gorgan and Gonbad-Kavous were observed during the experimental period which were more in line with the tropical conditions. In most traits, there was a slight difference between the cultivars. Different cultivars achieved high grain yield in Gonbad and Gorgan. In Gorgan region, Koohdasht cultivar had a shorter time from planting to maturity and this cultivar had higher grain yield. In Gonbad Kavoos region, although the Qaboos cultivar had no superiority in most traits than other cultivars, it had the highest yield and shorter time from planting to maturity and harvest.

    Keywords: Morphology, Phenology, Wheat, Yield, yield components
  • F. Mohtashamii, M. R. Tadayon*, P. Roshandel Pages 591-603
    Introduction

    Safflower is an annual plant native to the Mediterranean countries and cultivated in Europe and U.S. Safflower petals are very important as a source of medicinal preparations, natural food color and dyes for coloring fabrics. Water deficit stress severely limits crop growth especially in arid and semiarid regions of the world as it affects all stages of plant growth and development. Exposure to environmental stresses such as drought stress, heat stress, cold stress, salt stress and plant diseases often leads to the production of reactive oxygen species and other toxic compounds that diminish a plant’s performance. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly toxic to plant cells and in an absence of any protective mechanism they can react with proteins, lipids and DNA and this can inactivate an antioxidant defense system. Plants have an elaborate system of enzymatic and non-enzymatic scavenging pathways or detoxification systems that working together function as an extremely efficient system to counter the deleterious effects of ROS. Higher plants have active oxygen-scavenging systems consisting of several antioxidant enzymes, and some low molecules of non-enzyme antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins and ascorbic acid. Water deficit is considered to be a major abiotic factor affecting many aspects of plant physiology and biochemistry causing a significant reduction in agricultural production and changes its behavior regarding the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins in safflower. Ascorbic Acid is a major metabolite in plants. It is an antioxidant, in association with other components of the antioxidant system, protects plants against oxidative damage resulting from aerobic metabolism. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling molecule that shows a wide range of plant responses, with effects at the morphological to molecular levels. Many morphological, physiological, and biochemical processes occurring within the plants can be regulated by jasmonic acid. Previous studies have documented that foliar application of JA and ascorbic acid could modulate plant physiological responses towards abiotic stress tolerance. Considering the importance of safflower plant in terms of quantity and quality of oil, and its various applications in the oil, dyeing and pharmaceutical industries in the semi-arid regions of the world, it seems that increasing yield per unit area in low-irrigated conditions is a good way to increase the production of this plant and improve the economic conditions of farmers. Compared to breeding methods that are often long-term and costly, some agricultural management practices, such as the use of chemicals like ascorbic acid, jasmine acid and other compounds, are easier, cheaper and faster. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of jasmonic acid and ascorbic acid on grain yield and Changes in antioxidant compounds of safflower genotypes under drought stress conditions.

    Materials and Methods

    This experiment was carried out as a split-split plot in a completely randomized block design with three replications at Shahrekord University Agricultural Research Station during spring planting season 2017. The main plots consisted of three levels of irrigation of 100%, 75% and 50% of the plant's water requirement of safflower and sub-plots including safflower genotypes including Sinai, Isfahan local and Faramanand sub-sub sub-plots including foliar application with three levels including ( control, foliar application of jasmonic acid with 0.5mM concentration and foliar application of ascorbic acid with 20 mM concentration. In this study, the amount of total flavonoid, total phenol, antioxidant activity, ammonialase enzyme activity, grain yield and oil yield were measured.

    Results and Discussion

    The results showed that simple effects of low irrigation treatment, genotype and foliar application were significantly in all traits studied in this study. The highest grain yield (1609 kg.ha-1) and oil yield (430 kg.ha-1) obtained in 100% of the plant's water requirement and the least of grain yield (1382 kg.ha-1) and oil yield (335 kg.ha-1) obtained in 50% of the plant's water requirement. The interaction of genotype × deficit irrigation treatments on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, phenylalanine ammonialase enzyme activity and oil yield as well as interaction of low irrigation treatment × foliar application on the amount of antioxidant activity, total phenol, total flavonoid content were significant. The results show that the highest total phenol content (35.4 mg GA. g-1 DW), total flavonoid content (12.1 mg quercetin .g-1 DW), phenylalanine ammonialase enzyme activity (28.6 µmol.g -1FW. min) obtained in interaction 50% of the plant's water requirement and sina genotype and the least amount oftotal phenol content (17.6 mg GA. g-1 DW), total flavonoid content (5.2mg quercetin . g-1DW), phenylalanine ammonialase enzyme activity (8.4 µmol.g -1FW. min ) obtained in interaction 100% of the plant's water requirement and Isfahan genotype. Foliar application with jasmonic acid and ascorbic acid increased antioxidant activity, total phenol, total flavonoid, phenylalanine ammonialase enzyme activity, oil yield and grain yield. So that, the highest amount of antioxidant activity (85.9 % inhibition of linoleic acid), total phenol (31.7 mg GA. g-1 DW) and total flavonoid (11.7 mg quercetin . g-1 DW) related to 50% of the plant's water requirement and foliar application with ascorbic acid and the least amount of antioxidant activity (54.7 antioxidant activity), total phenol (17.6 mg GA. g-1DW) and total flavonoid (5.2 mg quercetin . g-1 DW) related to 100% of the plant's water requirement and without foliar application.

    Conclusions

    Results indicated that deficit irrigation stress could increase antioxidant activity, Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, Total phenol, total flavonoid and anthocyanin content in safflower genotype but, grain yield decreased. The increase in tolerance to drought in sina genotype is associated with antioxidant enzyme and non-enzyme activity. Also foliar application of jasmonic acid and ascorbic acid increase antioxidant activity, Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, Total phenol, Total flavonoid, anthocyanin content and grain yield. According to these results, it may be suggested that increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymes can reduce the harmful effects of reactive oxygen species and improve plant drought tolerance, therefore antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymes can be taken as indices of drought tolerance in plants.

    Keywords: Anthocyanin, Flavonoid, Phenol, Phenylalanine ammonialase
  • F. Majidi*, E. Azizi, M. Kermani, A. Abhari Pages 605-615
    Introduction

    Environmental stresses are the most important factor in reducing the yield of agricultural products worldwide. Salinity and defoliation stresses are the most important environmental stresses that affect the properties and production of plants. Salinity stress is also considered as a hyperionic stress and is a major abiotic stress limiting growth and productivity of plants in many areas of the world due to increasing use of poor quality of water for irrigation and soil salinization and defoliation stress is removing leaves from plant or area of land for agricultural purposes that reduces plant fitness. Savory is a medicine herb which its scientific name is Satureja hortensis and is native to the eastern mediterranean and southwestern Asia (Iran). savory is from the Labatiae family, which runs through the months of July to september in Iran. It has soft and rectangular leaves and almost petiolate and narrow and have a lot of essential glandular fibers. Winter savory is Satureja montana and summer savory is Satureja hortensis that are two important species of savory and it has pink to blue-white flowers that attract honey bees. Savory has properties treats nerve pain, increases blood coagulation factors, decreases fat and weight.

    Materials and Methods

    To determine the resistance of the savory landraces in this study to salinity and defoliation stresses and planning for breeding programs in the future, a factorial experiment randomized complete design was carried out with three replications in greenhouse conditions in Payame Noor University of Mashhad, in 2017 and 2018. Treatments consisted of four levels of salinity (0, 3, 6 and 9 dS.m-1), three levels of defoliation stress (0, 25 and 50%) and five savory landrace (Kalat, Isfahan, Hamedan, Dargaz, and Mashhad). The traits of this project contained height, number of leaves, number of branches, fresh, dry weight of root, stem and leaf, leaf relative water content, membrane constant coefficient, proline and carbohydrate. Salinity and defoliation stress was applied to the plant after 8-leaf level. Statistical analysis of these data was done using Minitab and MSTAT-C software and then comparison of the meanings by LSD method was done at a significant level of 5%.

    Results and Discussion

    The results of this study indicated that defoliation stress has significant effect on all traits of savory measured landraces and the maximum and minimum values of these traits were observed zero and 50 % at defoliation level. So the values of the morphological traits and fresh and dry weight of savory organs were decreased by increasing the salinity levels. Also the content of proline and soluble sugars were increased by salinity stress. According to research of Santa Maria et al. (2001), proline is a low molecular weight protective metabolite that increases resistance and prevents damage from salt stress. Prado et al. (2000) also considered carbohydrate increase as a way to reduce the effects of osmotic and ionic stress and, ultimately, adapt plants to these conditions. According to Greenwich and Mon (1980), due to the salinity stress, the growth of the Sorghum plant is stopped due to low water potential, ionic toxicity and excretion imbalance by salinity, which in our study also reduced the morphological traits by increasing salinity and defoliation stress levels.

    Conclusions

    According to the results, Kalat and Hamedan landraces were superior to various levels of salinity and defoliation stress for morphological traits and fresh and dry weight of different Satureja organs. The maximum amounts of proline and carbohydrate were observed in Mashhad landrace, Due to these two traits, Mashhad landrace is known as a salt-resistant landrace. The maximum value of membrane constant coefficient was observed in Hamedan landrace. The highest value of leaf relative water content was observed in Kalat landrace.

    Keywords: Carbohydrate, Leaf relative water, Mashhad, Membrane constant coefficient, Proline
  • H. Noroozi, M. Nabipour*, A. Rahnama Ghahfarokhi, H. Roshanfekr Pages 617-629
    Introduction

    The negative effects of heat stress on plants are seriously problems, which often cause damage to crops throughout the world. High temperature driven degradation of chlorophyll reduces photosynthetic capacity. Moreover, impaired transport of photosynthate (carbohydrate mobilization) from green organs (source) to anther tissues (sink) leads to high pollen mortality and thereby decreases grain yield. In environmental stress, plant tolerance should be increased. Therefore some chemical compounds are used to improve the metabolic activity of the plant, which calcium chloride is one of them. For this purpose, the present experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of calcium chloride and selenium foliar application on reducing the effects of heat stress on yield and yield components of two wheat cultivars.

    Materials and Methods

    This experiment was carried out as a split factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the experimental farm of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz during growing season 2017-2018. Three factors were investigated in this experiment. First factor including three planting dates (Nov 11, Dec 11, and Jan 10) was allocated in main plot. The second factor was three solution types  ( foliar application of tap water (control), foliar application of selenium (4 mg L-1), and foliar application of calcium chloride (10 mM) and third factor was two wheat cultivars (Chamran and Star) which were assigned in sub plots.

    Results and Discussion

    According to the results of third planting date, the highest number of grains per spike (36) was obtained in the foliar application of calcium chloride and the least number of seeds per spike (25) was observed in control and selenium foliar application treatments. In calcium chloride foliar application in third planting date, the number of grains per spike decreased by 12% compared to the first planting date but in the control and selenium foliar application treatments, the number of grains per spike decreased by 36%. In the third planting date, the difference between treatments was more evident in grain yield. So, in this planting date, the decrease in grain yield compared to the first planting date was 49.3% and 49.9% in the control and selenium foliar application treatments, while in calcium chloride foliar application, yield reduction was 23.8%. In all three planting dates, when calcium chloride was used as foliar application, the grain filling duration was longer than treatments of control and selenium foliar application. Grain filling duration was prolonged when calcium chloride applied. This could be one of the most important factors that resulted in lower 1000 grain weight and grain yield than the other treatments. While in this condition, there is sufficient time to carry out photosynthesis and transfer the material to the filling grains. Finally, it can be concluded that the calcium chloride application can have a significant effect on reduction the effects of last season's heat stress on wheat by reducing the negative effects of heat stress during pollination, increasing the grain filling period and 1000 grain weight. The number of smaller seeds per spike indicates the effect of heat stress on the plant and reduced fertility of the seeds due to lack of proper inoculation and lack of sufficient photosynthetic material and the competition between the seeds for absorption of food. Increasing yield in calcium chloride treated plants can be due to better photosynthetic activity in these conditions. Because the use of calcium chloride increases the efficiency of the photosystem II and ultimately improves the function of photosynthesis.

    Conclusions

    Calcium chloride may increase the 1000 grain weight by improving the transfer of photosynthetic products from leaves to seeds as physiological reservoirs, as well as increased grain filling duration. Therefore, it can be concluded that the calcium chloride application can have a significant effect on reducing the effects of last-season heat stress on wheat by reducing the negative effects of heat stress during pollination, increasing the grain filling duration and 1000 grain weight.

    Keywords: Calcium chloride, Grain yield, Number of grains per spike, Planting date, Selenium
  • F. Alipour Abookheili, Gh. Noormohammadi*, H. Madani, H. Heidari Sharifabad, H. Mobasser Pages 631-645
    Introduction

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the main staple food for more than half of the world’s population. In 2011, worldwide rice production exceeded 672 million mt. Iran ranked 20th in terms of rice production in the world. Plant spacing has an important role on growth and yield of rice. Optimum plant density ensures the plant to grow properly with their aerial and underground parts by utilizing more solar radiation and soil nutrients. Timing of nitrogen application had a significant role on reducing nitrogen losses, increasing nitrogen use efficiency and avoiding unnecessary vegetative growth.

    Materials and Methods

    In order to do this research, an experiment was conducted as split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in a research farm located in Qaemshahr during the years 2013-14 and 2014-15. The experimental factors included three levels of plant density (16, 25 and 33.3 plants per m2) as the main factor and sub-factor was nitrogen splitting in 5 levels (S1: 100% at the beginning of planting, S2: 50% at the beginning of planting + 50% at the beginning of tillering, S3: 50% at the beginning of planting + 50% at the panicle formation, S4: 33.33% at the beginning of planting + 33.33% at the beginning of tillering + 33.33% at the panicle formation and S5: 33.33% at the beginning of planting + 33.33% at the panicle formation + 33.33% at the end of panicle emergence).

    Results and Discussion

    The results showed that grain yield of Hashemi and Koohsar cultivars in the second year decreased 9.21% and increased 23.74% respectively, than the first year. Also, the second year compared to the first year, showed a decrease of 11.62% and 30.36% of straw yield, respectively, in Hashemi and Koohsar cultivars. Grain yield and harvest index were increased and decreased with increasing density in Hashemi cultivar, respectively. Straw yield in both cultivars increased with increasing density. The lowest straw yield and the highest harvest index were obtained in both cultivars, with nitrogen application in equal proportions at the basic stages, initial cluster and complete clustering. The interaction between the factors in the cultivars showed that in each two years, the number of cluster per square meter increased with increasing plant density.

    Conclusions

    The results of this study showed that in the studied cultivars, the highest effect of plant density and nitrogen splitting on yield components was related to the number of panicles per square meter, because ultimately increasing the number of plants per unit area and nitrogen splitting equally in the basic stages, beginning tillering and primary cluster emergence resulted in the highest grain yield per hectare by increasing the number of panicles per square meter.

    Keywords: Cultivar, Grain yield, Nitrogen applying time, Planting distance, Year
  • H. Sabouri*, H. Ghorbani Vaghei, M. R. Jafarzade Razmi, M. Rezaei, A. Heshmatpour, A. Sabouri, M. Katozi, S. Sanchouli Pages 647-659
    Introduction

    Rice is the second most important cereal in the world, and it has the highest water requirement among grain crops. Applying different irrigation methods is necessary in order to determine the best method to achieve maximum yield. Therefore, in this research, the effects of flooding and underneath conditions on chlorophyll fluorescence and agronomic traits of rice have been investigated.

    Materials and Methods

    This experiment was conducted in 2017 at the research farm of Gonbad-e-Kavos University. Two experiments were designed for agronomic and photosynthetic traits in flooding and underneath irrigation conditions in order to investigate two genotypes 87.110 (line selected from mass populations) and AE121 (an aerobic line). The first experiment was combined in two separate experiments (flooding and underneath) and 18 replicates. Given the uniformity of the ground, the base design was considered as CRD. The second experiment was conducted to compare the performance of irrigation methods and cultivars with the first experiment in a land with a greater area (100 m2) in three replications. The germinated seeds were transplanted to nursery on 12 May. During the stage, care was taken in the nursery, such as irrigation, fertilizer, aeration and weeding. In this design, the distance between the plots was one meter and the distance between the blocks was two meters, so that the adjacent plots had no effect on the moisture content. Transplantation was carried out after 3-4 leaves with the selection of healthy and uniform seedlings on June 20th by 20 × 20 cm spacing and three seedlings. In the method of flood irrigation, the land was prepared as usual. To prepare underneath irrigation treatments, each plot was removed to a depth of 40 cm and porous clay capsules were used. The irrigation system consisted of three main pipelines (the number of irrigation treatments), one valve head and one volume meter installed on each main pipe. The main tubes were spread along the floor and the water needed for each treatment was taken using 16 mm tubes at the beginning of each plot. By placing the pressure gauge at the beginning of the pipelines, the system pressure was modulated in the underwater irrigation system. At the end, the agronomic traits and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were measured.

    Results and Discussion

    The results showed that in the first experiment, the maximum water use efficiency was related to underneath conditions. This result was also repeated in the second experiment. In terms of flooding, the amount of water consumed was 6540 units higher than underneath conditions. The amount of water consumed in flooding irrigation was 864.71 and 1267.34 units more than underneath irrigation in the first and second experiment, respectively. Differences between irrigation treatments and cultivars were significant in most agronomic traits except length, width and area of flag leaf, yield, total weight, number of infertile panicle and main panicle length. Also, the effect of cultivar and irrigation methods were significant on chlorophyll fluorescence traits except F' and Y (II).

    Conclusions

    The results indicated that most of the studied traits in the floodwater irrigation conditions were better than the underneath irrigation. The yield was also higher in underneath conditions than in the case of flooding conditions. The results of analysis of variance of both experiment in the studied traits showed that there is a significant difference between flooding conditions and underneath irrigation and also between genotypes under irrigation conditions. The mean comparison in underneath conditions also showed that the AE121 genotype has a higher potential under both conditions and can be recommended for high yielding.

    Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence, Clay capsule, Irrigation, Water efficiency, Yield
  • H. Keshavarz, S. A. M. Modarres, Sanavy*, F. Sefidkon, A. Mokhtassi, Bidgoli Pages 661-672
    Introduction

    The shortage of water in Iran is always considered as a limiting factor in the production of crops. Among them, its effect on growth, absorption of nutrients and the metabolic processes of plants is different and can reduce the growth. The amount of this decrease is always associated with significant changes in the qualitative properties of plants, including medicinal plants. Hence, this investigation was carried out with the aim of improving the essential oil yield of peppermint through integrated nutrient management under the drought stress conditions.
    Matherials and

    Methods

    This experiment was carried out at the field research station of the Agricultural Research Center of Tarbiat Modares University in Karaj during 2018. The experiment was conducted as factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments included six fertilizer rates (F1: control, F2: 140 kg ha-1 urea, F3: 110 kg ha-1 urea + 3.5 ton ha-1 vermicompost, F4: 70 kg ha-1 urea + 7 ton ha-1 vermicompost, F5: 35 kg ha-1 urea + 110 ton ha-1 vermicompost and F6: 14 ton ha-1 vermicompost) and three irrigation regimes (irrigation was suppressed until 75 (control), 60 (mild stress) and 45% (sever stress) soil moisture was reached). According to the recommended N requirements (140 kg ha-1), the vermicompost was broadcast by hand and incorporated immediately into the soil using a rototiller three days before planting. The urea was applied at two stages. Because of sandy soil, plots were irrigated frequently (interval of 1-2 days) with drip irrigation system to avoid wilting during the plant growth. The plants were harvested at floral initiation by cutting plants about 10 cm above the soil surface. Data of growth parameters were measured as plant height (cm), LAI, dry weights of herbage, essential oil percentage and oil yield. (which were collected at floral initiation). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the data from each attribute was computed using the SAS package (SAS Institute, 2009). Significant of differences among irrigation regimes, various fertilizers and their interaction for variables were compared by LSD test (P≤0.05).

    Results and Discussion

    The results showed that drought stress reduced leaf chlorophyll content, DPPH, plant height, leaf area index, shoot dry weight and oil yield. Although the amount of flavonoids, carotenoids, total phenols and oil percentage first increased and then decreased by increasing drought stress. Increasing the rate of vermicompost in fertilizer treatment increased the physiological and vegetative traits of peppermint plant. According to the results of interaction between two treatments, the highest plant height, shoot dry weight and essential oils yield were resulted under normal irrigation and 14 tons ha-1 vermicompost. The highest total phenol content was obtained in moderated drought stress and combined fertilization of 70 kg of urea with 7 tons ha-1 of vermicompost. Also, the highest percentage of essential oil and flavonoids content were observed in moderated drought stress treatment with 14 tons ha-1 of vermicompost fertilizer. In general, the results showed that among different treatments of drought, vermicompost fertilizer had a positive effect on vegetative and physiological functions of plants. Application of vermicompost combined with chemical fertilizer increased plant height, essential oil percentage and essential oil yield.

    Conclosions

    The results revealed that organic fertilizer treatment improves essential oil yield and physiological traits of peppermint by improving various chemical, physical and biological characteristic of the soil. As a result, organic and chemical fertilizer combination reduces the requirement for synthetic fertilizer and improves performance and environmental sustainability.

    Keywords: Compost, DPPH, Oil content, Pigment