فهرست مطالب

جلوه هنر - شماره 24 (پاییز 1398)
  • شماره 24 (پاییز 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
|
  • ناهید جعفری دهکردی* صفحات 7-18
    از پگاه تاریخ انسان برای بیان بعد روحانی و شهودی خود دستاویزهای گوناگونی را اختیار می کرد که تحت عنوان کلی فرهنگ و در زیر مجموعه های هنر و ادب بیان می شدند. شعر، آواز، نقاشی و رویاپردازی های فولکلوریک و افسانه سازی را می توان از زمره این صراط های منتهی به رب النوع هنر دانست. از این رو تلاش است با مطالعات کتابخانه ای به تحلیل آثار رضا بدرالسماء پرداخته شود تا بن مایه های فکری ایشان را به عنوان نمونه ای از نگارگری معاصر آشکار نماید. بر این اساس دو سوال اساسی مطرح می شود: 1) رضا بدرالسماء در کدام یک از موضوعات آثار خود، وابسته به آثار نگارگری اسلامی پیشین بوده است؟ 2) کدام یک از مولفه های هویت ایرانی و ملی درآثار رضا بدرالسماء، نمود بیش تری پیدا کرده‎است؟ نتایج نشان می دهد که هنرمند، سعی دارد آثارش، آینه روزگار خویش باشند؛ اما با نگاهی سنت گرا. آثار بدرالسماء، نه تنها منبعی جهت مطالعه اخلاق عمومی جامعه کنونی ایران، بلکه از اخلاق حاکم نیز متاثر است. گرایش او به مسایل روز را از همین جنبه و نیز از رویه تعهد هنرمندانه وی در قبال استعدادش، می توان تحلیل نمود. اگر سجیه های برتر اخلاقی و هنری وی، قابل ملاحظه و ارزشمند باشند؛ می توان گرایش به مسایل روز را از دغدغه های اصلی هنرمند ارزیابی کرد. در واقع، مظاهر و نمادهای ملی در آثار بدرالسماء، از توجه بسیار پایینی برخوردار بوده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: نگارگری معاصر، هنر سنتی، رضا بدرالسماء، ملی گرایی
  • رضا رضالو*، یحیی آیرملو صفحات 19-32

    مقاله حاضر، یکی از یافته های تدفینی گورهای سلطنتی اقوام کوچ رو سکایی را مورد مطالعه قرار داده است. گورستان خرم آباد مشگین شهر -که به تازگی مورد کاوش علمی باستان شناسان قرار گرفته است- براساس یافته های باستان شناختی، متعلق به اقوام سکایی است. مهره های تزیینی در اشکال و رنگ های متنوع، یکی از جالب ترین هدایای تدفینی قبور این گورستان به شمار می آید. این مهره ها -که در اشکال متنوعی چون مستطیلی، مثلثی، استوانه ای، دیسکی شکل، دانه تسبیحی و... هستند- از جنس های مختلفی چون طلا، مفرغ، عقیق، شیشه، سنگ و گل ساخته شده اند. این مهره ها، نشانگر مهارت و تخصص هنرمندان سکایی در امر مهره سازی است و اشکال استاندارد و ماهرانه این مهره ها، حاکی از تولید انبوه آن ها در کارگاه های مخصوص مهره سازی است. اشکال منظم برخی از آن ها، نشان دهنده استفاده از روش قالب گیری برای ساخت آن هاست، با این حال، در بین آن ها نمونه هایی نیز با دست فرم داده شده اند. روی برخی از این مهره ها، تزییناتی دیده می شود که به نظر می رسد، قبل از خشک شدن آن ها، انجام پذیرفته است. به طور کلی شیوه ساخت و پرداخت این مهره ها، سبک خاصی از هنر مهره سازی را در غرب آسیا به نمایش می گذارد که فراتر از هنر یک جامعه کوچرو است. شیوه انجام پژوهش حاضر، مبتنی بر اطلاعات میدانی و کتابخانه ای است.

    کلیدواژگان: اقوام سکایی، گورستان خرم آباد، هنر مهره سازی، تکنیک ساخت و تزیین مهره
  • علیرضا شیخی*، عاطفه سادات میرصانع صفحات 33-42
    همواره، تاج در ایران، مظهر قدرت و شکوه سلطنت بوده که هنرمندان در ساخت آن، سعی فراوان مبذول داشته اند. هدف مطالعه حاضر، شناخت فرمی تاج و کلاه پادشاهان صفوی و قاجار است. بنابراین، تحقیق در پی این است که: فرم و تزیینات تاج و کلاه پادشاهان صفوی و قاجار با توجه به منابع و اسناد به جای مانده چیست؟ رویکرد تحقیق، کیفی بوده و روش توصیفی، تاریخی و تطبیقی است. در این سیر تاریخی، شکل و  فرم تاج و کلاه شاهان با مطالعه منابع مکتوب، نقاشی دیواری، سکه و آینه کاری بناها، مورد تحلیل قرار گرفته است. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهند: تاج در دوره صفوی و قاجار، اگرچه متمایل به حفظ فرم باستانی است، اما از ویژگی زمانه خود، متاثر است. تاج باستانی کنگره دار، عمامه پیچ با علمک و پر در دوره صفوی بارز بوده و در عصر قاجار، تاج های کنگره دار، تخم مرغی، مخروطی و استوانه ای قابل مشاهده است. از اواسط قاجار به بعد، نقش بته جقه مرصع و سپس، نقش پر روی تاج و کلاه، پررنگ تر می شود و تزیینات آن، کم تر و کم تر می گردد. در این راستا، نوع تعاملات و ارتباطات با غرب و سفرهای فرنگ شاهان قاجار، موثر بوده که در اواخر قاجار، منحصر به کلاهی پردار می گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: صفویه، قاجار، تاج و کلاه، فرم
  • علیرضا عزیزی یوسفکند*، محمد عزیزی یوسفکند صفحات 43-52
    سکه سندی مکتوب و معتبر،کتابی کوچک و پرمحتواست که ضرورت شناخت و اهمیت آن از جهات مختلف حائز اهمیت است. علم سکه شناسی توانسته است، بزرگ ترین خدمت را در راستای روشن شدن تاریخ گذشته از خود نشان بدهد؛ سکه، در هر دوره، در درجه اول از اهمیت اقتصادی و سیاسی برخوردار بوده و در کنار آن، نماینده عادات، آداب، خط، زبان، هنر، مذهب، تمدن، پیشرفت و  انحطاط وضع اجتماعی است و در حقیقت، منبع اطلاعات صحیح و دقیقی است از دورانی که سکه ضرب شده است. موزه ملک، یکی از گنجینه های بزرگ و پرارزش به لحاظ سکه شناسی ایران باستان می باشد که سکه های اشکانی موجود آن جایگاه خاصی در این مجموعه دارند. هدف اصلی این تحقیق، شناسایی، گردآوری و تحلیل نقوش تزیینی روی سکه های دوره اشکانی موجود در موزه ملک می باشد. این تحقیق با این پرسش آغاز گردیده است: ارتباط ساختار تصویر و محتوای سکه های اشکانی موجود در موزه ملک با هنر و تاریخ زمان ضرب سکه ها چگونه است؟ روش تحقیق، تحلیلی- توصیفی است؛ به این منظور، بعد از بازدید از موزه ملک با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه ای به جمع آوری اطلاعات مربوطه پرداخته، سپس، به معرفی سکه های اشکانی موجود در این مجموعه پرداخته و آن ها را توصیف کرده و در انتها نیز با توجه به تجمیع داده های موردبحث به پرسش مطروحه -که در ابتدای امر پایه اصلی این تحقیق را شکل داده اند- پاسخ داده می شود. به عنوان نتیجه، می توان به این نکته اشاره کرد: اشکانیان به علت علاقه و احترام خاص به بنیان گذار سلسله، در مدت نزدیک به پنج قرن تصویر ارشک اول یا اشک یکم(حدود 248-2250 ق.م.) را بر پشت درهم ها حک می نمودند. روش گردآوری اطلاعات میدانی، استفاده از منابع مکتوب، کتاب خانه ای و هم چنین، شبکه جهانی اطلاع رسانی(اینترنت) بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: ایران باستان، سکه، موزه ملک، سکه های اشکانی
  • فائزه قائمی منش* صفحات 53-64
    «مارپیچ» از جمله شکل های موجود در طبیعت است که در درون خود رازهای نهفته بسیار دارد. در حیوان، نبات و جماد، از کهکشان گرفته تا اتم، طبیعت، سرشار از شکل های مارپیچی است. انسان ها، همواره به این نقش مایه نمادین و اسرارآمیز توجه داشته اند و برای آن مفهومی مقدس قائل بوده اند. هنر، همچون زندگی به مارپیچ روی می آورد و هنرمند با الهام از طبیعت، از این نقش مایه نمادین برای خلق اثرش بهره می گیرد. در این مقاله، قرابت معنایی و صوری نقش مایه مارپیچ، به صورت تطبیقی بین هنر اسلامی و هنر محیطی بیان می شود؛ هم چنین رابطه زیبایی نقش مایه مارپیچ و نقطه مشترکی که بین هنر شرق و غرب بنیان نهاده، و مفهوم نمادین آن در این هنرها، مورد بررسی قرار می گیرد. با بررسی نمونه های تجلی این نقش مایه در آثار هنرمندان هنر محیطی، همچون اسکله حلزونی رابرت اسمیتسون، در تطابق با نمونه ظهور این نقش مایه در هنر اسلامی که همان «اسلیمی» به مثابه یک نوع هنر محیطی است، این نتیجه حاصل شد که: مارپیچ، به عنوان نقش مایه ای ملهم از طبیعت و نمادین، زبان مشترک بین هنر اسلامی و هنر محیطی است که نهایتا، به وحدت معنا و صورت می رسد. توازن، آرامش، پویایی و هماهنگی این نقش مایه، باعث شده تا هنرمندان، همواره از آن برای رسیدن به مفاهیم تقدس، وحدت و زیبایی در آثارشان بهره گیرند. نوع این تحقیق، کیفی و روش پژوهش توصیفی-تطبیقی است. جمع آوری اسناد نوشتاری و تصویری، به صورت کتابخانه ای بوده و چارچوب نظری تحقیق بر آراء فلاسفه سنت گرا تکیه دارد؛ که در پی پرسش های چیستی تقدس، وحدت و زیبایی بوده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: نقش مایه، مارپیچ، هنر اسلامی، هنر محیطی
  • اشرف السادات موسوی لر، فروغ خبیری* صفحات 65-74

    رسانه به عنوان واسطی برای انتقال افکار و اطلاعات، مفهومی گسترده است که همراه با تحولات هر دوره، تغییر کرده و به همین دلیل، تعریف واحد و جامعی برای آن وجود ندارد. در هنر معاصر، رسانه های هنری در مواردی ادغام شده، مرزهای آنها محو گردیده و از دل آن ها اشکال جدیدی ظهور کرده اند. پرسش آن است که مخاطب انواع هنری جدید، به چه نحوی با آن ها ارتباط برقرار می کند و امر ادراک اثر هنری چگونه میسر می گردد؟ این مقاله با هدف تبیین تحولات ادراک هنر در رسانه های هنری جدید با رویکرد پدیدارشناسی مرلوپونتی، در پی آن است که معنا و جایگاه مفهوم رسانه در هنر را مورد بررسی قرار داده و نشان دهد، جریان های مسلط هنری، چگونه مرزبندی های رسانه ها در هنر را تحت شعاع قرار داده اند. پدیدارشناسی توصیفی، به عنوان رویکرد مقاله، شامل بررسی، تحلیل و توصیف مستقیم رسانه، به نحوی آزاد از پیش فرض های پیشین است. رویکردی که با مشخصه ی عدم تعین هنر معاصر، در تناسب است. این پژوهش یک بررسی توصیفی-تحلیلی از متون و داده هایی است که توضیح دهنده روند تحول ادراک مخاطب آثار هنری در رسانه های جدید هنری است. نتیجه ی یافته ها، نشان می دهد که با تغییر کارکرد رسانه در هنر، تجربه ی ادراک اثر هنری، امری است که تنها، به واسطه رسانه، میسر نمی شود. رسانه های هنری که عامل برقراری ارتباط و ادراک هنری بودند- در هنر رسانه های جدید، مادیت زدایی شده اند و مخاطب، با تجربه ی ادراکی خود، اثر را تکمیل می کند.

    کلیدواژگان: هنر رسانه جدید، ادراک هنر، پدیدارشناسی، مرلوپونتی
  • مریم مونسی سرخه*، سیما دادگر صفحات 75-84

    ویژگی های لباس فرم پرستاران و بیماران بستری در بخش کودکان، به لحاظ طرح، جنس و رنگ با توجه به استانداردهای ملی و جهانی در بیمارستان مادر و کودک غدیر در شیراز بررسی شد. پرسش های پژوهش: سازگاری پوشاک پرستاران و بیماران بستری با استانداردهای پوشش وزارت بهداشت به چه میزان است و میزان رضایت مندی از آن چگونه است؟ هدف، تبیین ویژگی های پوشاک پرستاران و کودکان بیمار در جهت بهبود کیفیت طراحی لباس و بهینه سازی آن در راستای استانداردهای پوششی است. به طور کلی، لباس بیماران، باید با قابلیت دسترسی آسان به اعضای بدن بوده و از جنس خالص یا ترکیبی از الیاف طبیعی پنبه و رنگ‏های شاد و نقش پارچه متناسب با کودکان باشد. لباس پرستاران بر مبنای استانداردها، باید جیب‏دار با نواردوزی در مچ آستین و از الیاف طبیعی باشد. نوع تحقیق به لحاظ هدف، کاربردی و روش تحقیق، تحلیلی- توصیفی است. جمع آوری اطلاعات، به روش نمونه ای تصادفی ساده بوده و جهت تحلیل داده ها از نرم‏افزار SPSS ، و از روش های آمار توصیفی و استنباطی استفاده شده است. به واحدهای مورد مطالعه درباره هدف و نحوه کار، اطلاعات لازم داده شد و رضایت شفاهی از آنان اخذ شد. نتایج نشان داد که طرح، جنس و رنگ لباس فرم پرستاران رضایت‏بخش بوده و رضایت مندی از لباس کودکان بستری از دیدگاه والدین، در حد متوسط و با استانداردهای پوشش وزارت بهداشت، در حد معمول، سازگاری دارد. یافته‏ ها نشان داد، علی رغم تغییرات لباس پرستاران و بیماران در طی تاریخ، اکنون لباس‏ها از منظر جنس پارچه، رنگ و نوع دوخت از استاندارد ویژه‏ای تبعیت می‏کنند. بیمارستان غدیر شیراز هم دارای سطح نسبی رضایتمندی افراد از البسه کاربردی است.

    کلیدواژگان: استانداردهای پوششی، فرم پرستاری، لباس کودکان بستری، بخش کودکان، بیمارستان غدیر شیراز
|
  • Nahid Jafari Dehkirdi * Pages 7-18
    From the beginning of human life, for the sake of the spiritual and intuitive aspect of his existence, he considered various things. All of which are expressed under the general name of culture and under art and literature collections. Painting, poetry, vocal, folklore and mythology are examples of ways to reach to the god of art. Iranian painting lost its independence in the interval of the 20th century. On the one hand, it represented ancient styles (including the Safavid School), often associated with skill and love and self-sacrifice. On the other hand, Iranian painters engaged in various “futurist” Western Paintings. Inevitably, this process resulted in some sort of inertia and sterility, and it was ruined in deliberate counterfeiting, and the first one lost its identity with the legacies of Behzad and Sultan Muhammad. After the victory of the Islamic Revolution, since the approach to national identity, culture, traditional and ethnic art was a prominent slogan, young painters were drawn to the use of traditional arts and sometimes even this approach appeared as “fashion”. In the meantime, some painters, directly and hastily, rebuilt Iranian folk and traditional painting spaces, such as the Qajar Period Painting, Ghahveh Khaneh Painting, the oil painting and sometimes 3D painting. Some artists attempted to create a new identity for the paintings by incorporating elements from the ancestors and traditional art; others attempted to link themselves to the history of this land, referring to the foundations of traditional art. Others, while adhering to the principles of ancient Iranian painting and heritage, incorporate the color, environment and elements of the present world into their work, including Reza Badrossama, who deals with subjects such as mystical, religious, moral and cultural dimensions. The ancient Iranians have shown admirable works to the emergence. Therefore, in this research, it is attempting to analyze the works of contemporary painter Reza Badrossama in order to reveal his thoughts in creating exquisite works. Accordingly, two basic questions arise: 1) In which of his subjects did Reza Badrossmaa relate to earlier Islamic Paintings? 2) Which of the components of Iranian and national identity has been more prominent in the artworks of Reza Badrossma? The revival of traditional arts and the creation of a growing field of painting require that the works of contemporary artists be evaluated and criticized. Obviously, in the light of attention to them, one can expect their prosperity. Lack of scholarly attention to existing works will leave them in the dust of oblivion and their artists would be marginalized. Badrossama works are exemplary of contemporary art whose influence of contemporary world events on them can be well understood and can thus be a good case study. The present study based on objective is applied and descriptive-analytical in nature. Thus, by collecting the works of Reza Badrossama, the works are first presented in a descriptive manner and then they are analyzed. Statistical population includes all paintings by Reza Badrossama on his personal website. After review, the 120 existing paintings were categorized into several different themes and then, using MAXQDA 10, qualitative data mining software, keywords were identified. The 475 keywords extracted from their tenor were categorized and charts were adjusted using Microsoft WORD 2010 software. Finally, the charts were analyzed in terms of their frequency. The results of the research indicate that the tendency to the issues of the day was evaluated by the artist's main concerns as well as his artistic commitment to his talent. Among the topics of interest of Reza Badrossama are the “human” and the various aspects of his life. Nature and its related concepts occupy a second category of painting subjects. Religious and ethical concepts are found in the third category of his artistic tendencies. The scenes of peoples' lives in the countryside, the tribal and urban community in his works all have a nostalgic feel. This category of topics has received less attention than the first three categories. Iranian and national symbols can hardly be categorized within the artists’ works. Tools and objects are in the latest category of motifs. The categorization of these cases can be attributed to their singular and independent presence in the work. In fact, it can be said that national manifestations and symbols in the works of the master have received very little attention. In the neighboring country of Turkey, attention is paid to maintaining the cultural identity of the community by the artist. Artists, with cultural policies, show the inner ethnicity that is the unity of the country. There is a lot of commitment among artists in our country, but we must pay special attention to it. If one can consider his address to social and ethical values as an intrinsic concern and the artist's reaction to the diminution of social values under the influence of factors such as cultural aggression, one must seek the same sense of destructive waves that may destroy and damage Iranian Identity.
    Keywords: Contemporary Miniature, Traditional Art, Badrossama Reza, Nationalism
  • R. Rezalou *, Y. Ayremlou Pages 19-32

    The Scythian Tribes were among the last Aryan Tribes to emigrate from their homeland (the plains of southern Russia) after the migration of other Indo-European tribes at the end of the eighth century B.C and were scattered in north of central Asia, southern Siberia, north of Caspian Sea and its western boundary, in the vast plains of this area to the back of the Caucasus Mountains. The present article studies one of the royal graves’ burial findings of the small Scythian Tribes. Khoram Abad cemetery in Meshgin Shahr city that has recently been excavated by archeologists belongs to the Scythian Tribes according to the archaeological data. Excavation at this site was done in 2012 and during the first season three large Kurgans were uncovered with the human and animal burials such as horses, cattles and dogs together. The decorative beads in various shapes and colors are one of the most interesting funerary gifts of the graves in this cemetery. These beads that were in various shapes such as rectangular, triangular, cylindrical, disc-shaped, beading, etc., are made in different materials such as gold, bronze, agate, glass, stone and clay. The purpose of this research is to study the beads of this site in terms of construction technique and decoration method. Among the numerous beads obtained from scientific excavations of Khoram Abad Cemetery, interesting numbers were studied as examples in this study. These beads have been taken into consideration in terms of material, construction method and decoration. The data obtained for this study were collected in both field and library methods. The following questions can be asked in this regard: - What are the techniques and decorative methods used in the construction of the Scythian beads? - How can the function of these beads in the area in terms of quantity and quality of construction be explained? Conducting the present study released various issues related to the Scythian Beads. These beads are demonstrator of skill and expertise of the Scythian Artists in the beading work and standard and the standard and subtle shapes of them represent mass production of them in the bead special workshops. The ordered shapes of some of them demonstrate the molding process used to making them; however, there are samples among them formed by hand. On some of these beads decorations can be seen which seems to be carried out before drying them. In general, production and decoration of these beads show the particular style of beading art in West Asia that is higher than art of the nomadic society. The art of bead making of Scythian Tribes is a sign of ingenuity of these artists. The discussed ornaments are something beyond the art of a tribal society. Interesting shapes and glazes that seem transparent to this day all suggest that these beads are made for the upper class of the society. Various materials such as gold, bronze, glass, stone and clay which have been used to make the beads, indicates the use of the Scythian Artist from all available sources for the creation of beauty. The standard shapes and colors that are produced when an object is mass-produced indicate the possible existence of the type of workshop site used to construct the beads. In this archaeological site, the quantity of excavated objects is more than any other finding; obviously, we should not only consider the decorative aspect of these objects, but also the other functions of these objects. Among all the beads mentioned, the creativity and ingenuity of the Scythian Artist can be clearly seen in the clay beads. Perhaps the worthless being and availability of the raw material left the artist's hand open for artistic initiative, so that he was able to create a variety of forms. This is better understood by looking at the valuable gold and glass beads. The variety and volume of beads excavated here is nowhere to be seen in any other area of the Scythian, which highlights the importance of beautifying and creating beauty with such small ornaments for buried artists and grandchildren. Khoram Abad Cemetery in Meshgin Shahr is like many other Scythian sites in which bead making was common, but unlike other areas, there are no beads such as ruby, turquoise and crockery are made in this area; which is seen here is mostly stone and clay. This illustrates the using of Scythians from available and easy-to-use resources for bead making.

    Keywords: Scythian Tribes, Khoram Abad Cemetery, Beading Art, Bead Production, Decoration Technique
  • A. Sheikhi *, A. Mirsane Pages 33-42
    The crown in Iran has always been a symbol of the power and glory of the kingdom. The crown has historically been one of the most prominent symbols of the greatness and power of kings, which are authentic documents of the historical facts of any period or king. In designing the crown and displaying its grandeur and beauty, the artists have made great efforts because this was the special order of the court. It is important to note that communication with Western society from the late Safavid Era has varied the court's tastes. The main purpose of this article is to investigate the form of the crowns of the Safavid and Qajar kings. The question to ask is how well the form and ornamentation of the crowns during these periods has gone. The crown of kings has been described in numerous documents that this paper has investigated the murals, paintings and coins of Safavid and Qajar Eras. Studying the evolution of the crown in Iranian Art History and examining its form as a symbol of the greatness of necessity is a step toward identifying an area of fine art in Iran and beginning to study the other aspects of this courtier element. The crown has taken many forms in Iran's historical course. This article examines the form of the Safavid and Qajar crowns and caps.  In addition to majestic crown, the works included a turbaned crown with a conventional and ensign crown with feather, which symbolizes serenity and beauty. The ancient crown continued in the Qajar era but with a different appearance and at the end of the Qajar with a different form. If attention to the congressional crown is evident in the first half of the Qajar rule, but beside it are capss with round tapered ornamentation in the Fath Ali Shah period. In the middle of the Qajar, it became cut and relatively tall cones adorned with feathers. Eventually, the caps became a simple shape and adorned with stone or a pair of pigeon tails. What is possible in this course is that according to the society of that time and the type of cover, crown and cap that has been deformed, in this respect, external communications from the early Safavid Period and especially from the mid-Qajar Era should be considered. The purpose is to identify the form of the crown and cap of the Safavid and Qajar kings. Therefore, the research seeks to make what do the form and decorations of the crown and cap of the Safavid kings and Qajar with regard to the resources and documents of the remnants? The research approach is qualitative and the research method is descriptive, historical and comparative. Findings show that the crown during the Safavid Period and Qajar Period is influenced by its temporal characteristics, although it tends to preserve ancient forms in Iran. The ancient crown of Iran has a framed, angular and turfed line with its effect on the Safavid Era. In the Qajar Era, crowns are also seen with elliptical, conical and cylindrical shapes and angular lines. The continuity of the shape and form of the Iranian ancient crown is evident in the paintings of the Safavid Period, although slight variation can be seen in the crown, but its overall form has continued. The Qajar period has had widespread changes in various areas. In this period, you can divide the crown and cap of kings into five categories. The first category is the continuation of the ancient crown of Iran. The second and third group is a simple hat on the head of Fath Ali Shah and Abbas Mirza, which is embroidered with pearls and jewelry. The fourth bunch of crowns is a cone that is adorned with baguettes. The fifth category is very simple, and their decorations are unique to a feather front of a cylindrical short hat. In this regard, the type of interactions with the West and the journeys of the Qajar kings to Europe have certainly been effective.
    Keywords: Safavid, Qajar Periods, Crown, Cap, Form
  • A. Azizi Yusefkand *, M. Azizi Yusefkand Pages 43-52
    Abstract The coin is a valid and written document and a tiny rich book and the necessity of recognition and its importance in different aspects is important. A coin is a piece of metal of a certain weight on which the official mark of the state or government which shows its weight and cutie is inscribed. Coinage is one of the great human inventions that continued uninterruptedly, and despite political conquests, it continued on its way, creating a strong communication field for people to use common criteria for evaluating their assets, profits, losses and debts.  The amount of tax, intra-border and cross-border transactions was calculated by coin. In most ancient Iranian coins, the face of the kings was carved head-on, while in the Parthian period most of the faces of the emperors and kings were carved from side and profile on the coins. Even the long bearded royal and bearded faces are clearly visible on their coins. The image of the ruler is in profile, often to the left and rarely to the right, and in some cases the image of the king is presented in full. In the Malek Museum Collection there are only three coins belonging to the Parthian Period, depicted the King's coin, looking to the right. Numismatics had a great service to mankind in order to clarify the past history. The coin primarily has economic and political importance in any period. Besides it indicates the habits, costumes, script, language, art, religion, civilization, development and the decline of social status. As a matter of fact, it is the source of accurate information about the period in which the coin was minted. Malek Museum is one of the precious and great treasures in terms of numismatics of ancient Persia. The Parthian coins existing in the museum have a special place in this collection. The wide variety of decorative motifs used in the Parthian’s coins available at the Malek Museum contains symbolic and historical religious references and other details that provide scholars with useful information about the culture and its history in ancient Iran. These motifs rely on a rich symbol system. In ancient Iran, during the Achaemenid period, Darius I for the first time minted the famous gold and silver coins that were in full use in the world of that day. This trend continued uninterrupted in the post-Achaemenid period. In the Parthian Era, most coins were minted in silver, copper and other alloys, which are aesthetically and historically valuable. Many coins of this period are kept in the Malek Museum. The purpose of this study was to identify the apparent structure of Parthian coins based on a specimen of the Malek Museum Treasury to identify them. The main purpose of the research is to identify, gather and analyze the decorative motifs on the Parthian Period coins in the Malek museum. Introducing the Malek Museum can be of great help to ancient Iranian Art scholars as it has a relatively rich treasure and gathering this volume of ancient Iranian coins into one collection will shorten the difficult way for researchers to search for it. This research was started with the following question: “How is the relation of the image and content structure of Parthian coins in the Malek Museum with art and history of mintage period?” It is an analytical – descriptive research. So, after visiting the Malek Museum, we collected the relevant information using library sources. Then we introduced and described the Parthian Coins in this collection. Finally, according to collected data, we answered the mentioned questions that are the main stand of the research. As a result, it can be noted that Parthians had craved the image of Arsaces I on the back of dirhams for nearly five centuries (about 248 – 250 BC) because of special love and respect to the founder of the dynasty. The method of collecting field information has been through the use of written, library and other sources such as the World Wide Web.
    Keywords: Ancient Persia, Coin, Malek Museum, Parthians Coins
  • F. Ghaemi Manesh * Pages 53-64
    The spiral pattern has been used as a valuable and important decorative element in the ornamentation, referred to as "Arabesque". The spiral or arabesque movement was not just for decorating different types of building surfaces, but also had sacred signs. Next, we look at the symbolic meaning of this pattern in Islamic Art. In this paper, the author concludes that the manifestation of this pattern in Islamic art, which is also Arabesque, can also be a kind of environmental art because it is used in three dimensional environments and more importantly, Islamic artists inspired by nature have created this pattern. However, in the eyes of the Islamic artist, it was not objectively likeable and had a tendency for subjective truth, so, by stylizing the design, they came up with a pattern that lost any resemblance to nature. Also, the Islamic artist, like the environmental artist by choosing the environment as the context of the artistic work, has been a return to the original human way of creating human work and the long-standing relationship with nature, so these meanings have led to a commonality between environmental art and Islamic art. In this article, based on the works of contemporary ground artists and Islamic art and examining different examples, their common views on the use of spiral motif are studied and analyzed. "Spiral" is one of the forms in nature that has many mysteries within itself. There are lots of spirals in the nature such as plants, galaxy and atom that have spiral shapes. Human beings have always paid attention to this symbolic and mysterious element, and make a sacred meaning for this shape. Art, like life, approaches the spiral, and the artist, inspired by nature, uses this symbolic element to create his work. Art has always strived to base its truth on nature, which is why every artistic creation is a symbolic aspect of the truth of nature. Naturally, it manifests itself in artistic creations. As mentioned earlier, the origin of the spiral pattern goes back to nature. The artists of Islamic art were inspired by the curved lines in nature and created the Islamic design. Western artists' thinking about art and beauty is sensory-ideal imagery and blends nature with feeling and myth. Nature has always been a reference point for Western art, and especially in environmental art, the land, as the space and the place familiar with human is the bed of artistic work. While Eastern imagination is subjective-intuitive it conceives of beauty and truth in the abstract nature beyond the earth, and of the latent and subjective, and the extrasensory, which is naturally the origin of the art of the East. There is, of course, a common denominator that both of these arts have always linked earth proportions and celestial abstractions with curved lines, which is the spiral pattern. In this article, the semantic and formal connotation of the "Spiral" is expressed in a comparative way between Islamic art and environmental art, as well as the relationship between the beauty of the spiral and the common point established between the art in the East and the West and its symbolic meaning in these arts. By study on the works in environmental art, such as the Robert Smithson’s “Spiral Jetty”, and in Islamic art, which is "Arabesque" as a kind of environmental art, it was concluded that "Spiral" is a common motif between Islamic art and environmental art, and it ultimately leads to unity in the meaning and form. The balance, tranquility, dynamism and harmony of this motif have made artists use it to achieve the concepts of holiness, unity and beauty in their work. The type of this research is qualitative and research method is descriptive-comparative. Also Theoretical framework of research is based on the views of traditional philosophers.
    Keywords: motif, Spiral, Islamic art, Environmental Art
  • A. Mousavilar, F. Khabiri * Pages 65-74

    Medium as an interface to convey thoughts and information is a broad concept that has been changed along with the evolutions of each period; therefore, it is difficult to have a comprehensive definition of it. The passage of time and recent developments in art history has transformed the meaning of media. In contemporary art, media have been merged, their borders have been faded, and new forms have been emerged. The question is how the audience communicates with the new types of art, and how the perception of the artwork becomes possible? This paper aimed to explain the developments of art perception in new artistic media with the phenomenological approach of Merleau-Ponty. It tries to examine the meaning and the position of the medium in art and show how dominant art movements in each period have affected the boundaries of media in art. This research represents a descriptive-analytical study of the texts and data about the evolution of art perception in new art media. Different types of art, such as painting, sculpture and photography, have their own territory of expression determined by the media through which the themes of an art form are recognized. Medium demarcation became apparent in modernists’ theories. Against the modernist approaches to achieve pure art, with the express advances in technology in the 20th century, the concept of media in art became meaningless, so that the target audience in the new media art is faced a deformation of media. One of the features of new media art is late understanding which can be interpreted as altering the perception of the audience of the new media art. In the process of changing the concept of medium, several changes occurred in the perception of the target audience. Despite the changes made in the course of art history, explaining the concept of media in the art can be explored with the concept of “perception” by Merleau-Ponty. Husserl's phenomenology impacted Merleau-Ponty's conception of sensory perception. He focuses on immediate and direct contact with the world and strives to interpret it philosophically. In describing perception, for Merleau-Ponty, the evolution of media perception can be examined based on the audience's experience of perception. From his approach, the principle percept has been replaced by experience in understanding the meaning of the media in art. In the new art media, the target audience misplaces its connection with the work of art. In Merleao-ponty’s phenomenology, one must re-discover the perceived world through modern art and philosophy. His doctrine is that the objects of the world emerge to us based on our perceived experience of that phenomenon. He holds this view to be right about artworks as well. In other words, the meaning of an artwork arises through the experience. The meaning of an artwork does not come from the representation of the work, rather, through the process of perception of the work. In art history, various art forms have been instrumental in communicating and perceiving art, however, in contemporary art, the media has been de-materialized and here is the level in which experience -in the concept of “perception”- comes to support the art. In order to understand the multiple and contradictory features of the media, the audience strives to avoid using traditional tools in art. In Merleau-Ponty’s approach, the audience needs exposure: They need experience in order to perceive rather than categorizing and limiting the art, and the meaning of the artwork is what is gained through the audience experience. Descriptive phenomenology as the approach of the article includes the exploration, analysis, and direct description of the medium. This approach disregards previous preconceptions. An approach that is consistent with the characteristic of contemporary art. This research is a descriptive-analytic review of documents and data that explains the process of transformation of the audience's perception of artworks into new artistic media. The results show that by changing the function of media in art, the experience of perceiving the work of art through the media is not possible. The art media, as the communication and artistic perception tool, has been dematerialized in new art media, and the audience with its own perceptive experience completes the work of art.

    Keywords: New Media art, Art Perception, Phenomenology, Merleau-Ponty
  • M. Mounesi Sorkheh *, S. Dadgar Pages 75-84

    Characteristics of uniforms of nurses and patients admitted to internal medicine and pediatric emergencies of Shiraz Ghadir Mother & Child Hospital as one of the most important pediatric treatment centers in the first half of 2016 in terms of design, material and color according to national and global standards was reviewed. The quality and features of nurses’ uniforms and also pediatric hospital gowns in terms of design, model, material and color according to national and global standards in the hospitals are important. A child nurse is employed to care for infants, children and adolescents in these areas. The uniforms in these sections vary depending on the place of work. Nurses’ uniforms in this section should reflect professionalism, cleanliness and fit with their work environment. In many medical centers, baby nurses wear scrubs. The scrub uniform includes a lightweight short-sleeved blouse with trousers available in a variety of designs with baby designs and colors. In some hospitals, colored scrubs are used to make patients more easily diagnosed in different units. Nurses, usually in scrub clothes, feel more comfortable and moving. Research Questions: To what extent is the nursing and hospitalized patients complied with the standards of the Ministry of Health coverage and how much satisfiable is that? The aim of this study is analyzing the features of nurses and hospitalized children’s clothing, along with improving quality and optimizing their standard. According to national standards for hospital staff and patients, the general form of uniforms is determined by the hospital head and human resources manager. Outside Iran today, non-surgical scrubs are recognized as acceptable forms for nurses that are available in a variety of designs and colors for both men and women. Scrub literally means clean and sterile. Scrub is a garment used by surgeons, doctors, nurses and other staffs who come into contact with the patient and is available in both sterile and non-sterile forms. In general, patients' clothing should be easily accessible to the body and be of pure or blended natural cotton fibers, cheerful colors and fabrics appropriate to children. Nurses’ clothing should be cut, pocketed with wrist embroidered straps and made of natural fibers. In terms of objective, this is an applicable study with analytical and descriptive research method. The type of research is descriptive in terms of purpose, and the research method is descriptive-analytical. The data were collected by simple random sampling and SPSS software and descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used for data analysis. For this study, the purpose and how it works was given to different units of the mentioned hospital and oral consent was taken from them. The results showed that the design, material and color of the nurses’ uniforms were satisfiable and the views of parents of hospitalized children, on average were satisfactory, in average level and consistent with the standards of the Ministry of Health. The findings showed that despite changes in nurses’ and patients’ clothing throughout history, clothing now adheres to a specific standard in terms of fabric, color and type of sewing. Nurses’ uniforms in children’s ward is cut with pocket with ribbed embroidery, bright and cheerful colors and in  terms of material, with cotton fabrics (Tetron or Trigal) that can be washed repeatedly and can be ironed easily. The characteristics of the hospitalized children’s clothes are blouses and pants and hats that are open and loose with no irritation or sensitivity. Also according to the observations it was concluded that nurses’ uniforms in terms of design, material and color have been satisfactory. The findings of this study highlight the importance of proper design for nurses’ clothing in hospitals, especially nurses in pediatric wards and in compliance with national and international standards. Also, hospitalized children’s clothing is very important in design, material and color and is very effective in their morale. Factors such as age, material, type of illness, family circumstances and child morale are influenced by the level of anxiety during the hospitalization. These emotions can be mitigated by the appropriate design and selection of clothing colors and the sense of comfort and happiness can be enhanced by patients’ clothing and nurses’ clothing in hospitalized children.

    Keywords: Coverage Standards, Nurse Uniform, Pediatric Hospital Gown, Pediatric Unit, Shiraz’s Maternal & Child Ghadir Hospital