فهرست مطالب

نشریه مطالعات علوم محیط زیست
سال نهم شماره 1 (بهار 1403)

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1403/02/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 40
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  • هوشمند باقری قره بلاغ* صفحات 7748-7761

    مردم توجه بیشتری به حفاظت از محیط زیست دارند و به تدریج مصرف محصولات سبز خود را افزایش می دهند. به خصوص در طول همه گیری کووید-19، ادراکات عمومی و الگوهای رفتاری در جهت ایمن تر، سالم تر و سبزتر تغییر یافت. از این رو، مدیران تجاری و پژوهشگران به دنبال راه هایی برای تشویق مصرف کنندگان به خرید محصولات سبز هستند که این مسیله منجر به پژوهش در این زمینه شده است. هدف این پژوهش تاثیر ویژگی های روانشناختی بر نگرش و قصد خرید محصولات سبز با نقش تعدیلگری حساسیت قیمت و احساس حفاظت از محیط زیست است. این مطالعه از لحاظ هدف کاربردی و از نوع توصیفی و با روش پیمایشی انجام شده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش را کلیه مصرف کنندگان محصولات سبز در شهر ارومیه تشکیل می دهند. حجم نمونه مطابق با فرمول کوکران 384 نفر به روش نمونه گیری خوشه ای انتخاب شد. جهت جمعآوری اطلاعات از پرسشنامه استاندارد استفاده شد. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده های پژوهش از مدلسازی معادلات ساختاری حداقل مربعات جزیی بهره گرفته شد. یافته های پژوهش نشان داد که مادی گرایی و کمال گرایی به ترتیب بر نگرش مصرف کنندگان نسبت محصولات سبز تاثیر منفی و مثبت معناداری دارد و همچنین این نگرش به محصولات سبز بر قصد خرید محصولات سبز تاثیر مثبت و معناداری دارد. افزون براین، نتایج نشان داد که حساسیت قیمت رابطه بین مادی گرایی و نگرش نسبت به محصول سبز را تعدیل می کند، اما نقش تعدیلگری مثبتی در رابطه بین کمال گرایی با نگرش نسبت به محصول سبز ندارد. سرانجام، احساس حفاظت از محیط زیست رابطه بین نگرش و قصد خرید سبز را تعدیل می کند.

    کلیدواژگان: احساس حفاظت از محیط زیست، مادی گرایی، کمال گرایی، حساسیت قیمت، محصول سبز
  • روح الله میرزازاده، حسین نظم فر*، ابوالفضل قنبری صفحات 7762-7783

    هدف از این تحقیق بررسی تحلیل فضایی اثرات توزیع کاربری های شهری در توسعه پایدار محله ای کلانشهر تبریز است. تحقیق حاضر از نظر هدف کاربردی و از نظر روش نیز توصیفی - تحلیلی و برای جمع آوری داده ها از مطالعات اسنادی و میدانی استفاده شد. جامعه آماری را خانوارهای شهری در مناطق دهگانه کلانشهر تبریز تشکیل می دهند که براساس سرشماری سال 1395 دارای 1558693 جمعیت و 497898 خانوار بوده است که با استفاده از فرمول کوکران 396 نفر از خانوارهای ساکن شهر به عنوان نمونه تحقیق انتخاب شدند. پایایی ابزار تحقیق به وسیله ضریب آلفای کرونباخ مقدار 823/0 آمد که پایایی خوبی را نشان می دهد. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از آزمون های میانگین، معادلات ساختاری و تکنیک تصمیم گیری SAW استفاده شد. نوآوری پژوهش نیز بررسی وضعیت مناطق دهگانه تبریز از لحاظ پایداری و اثرگذاری کاربری ها، با دیدگاه فضایی در پایداری محلات است. نتایج نشان داد، از نظر توسعه پایدار محله ای، منطقه 8 با نمره 115/0، منطقه 2 با نمره 110/0 و منطقه 1 با نمره 108/0 در رده های اول تا سوم قرار گرفتند. از نظر تاثیر توزیع کاربری اراضی در توسعه پایداری محله ای نیز، شاخص های وجود تفریحات و اوقات فراغت با مقدار تی 91/3، دسترسی به خدمات بهداشتی - درمانی با مقدار تی 33/3، با توجه شیوع ویروس کرونا و الزام به مقابله توسط مراکز بهداشت و درمانی و کاهش استرس مردم در سطح آلفای 01/0 بیشترین تاثیر را در تحقق توسعه پایدار محلات شهری در محدوده مورد مطالعه داشته اند و به طور کلی در توسعه پایدار محلات شهری در کلانشهر تبریز شاخص های کالبدی و زیرساختی ملموستر است.

    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل فضایی، کاربری شهری، توسعه پایدار، پراکنش کاربری ها، شهر تبریز
  • عطا غفاری گیلانده*، هما واعظی، علیرضا محمدی صفحات 7784-7793

    مدیریت بحران اجتماع محور، فرآیندی است که در آن اجتماعات در معرض خطر برای شناسایی، تحلیل و ارزیابی خطر بحران به منظور کاهش آسیب پذیری ها و افزایش ظرفیت ها، به طور فعالانه ای شرکت می نمایند. در عرصه سیاست گذاری رویکرد نهادی، بر اصلاح و بهبود رویه ها و ترتیبات نهادی محلی تاکید می شود. رویکرد نهادی به عنوان رویکرد فرعی مدیریت بحران اجتماع محور؛ از رویکردهای جدید در زمینه مدیریت بحران می باشد؛ بنابراین پژوهش حاضر با هدف تحلیلی بر رویکرد نهادی مدیریت بحران اجتماع محور در ارتباط با مشارکت شهروندان شهر اردبیل و با در نظر گرفتن 6 معیار (حس تعلق مکانی، همیاری اجتماعی، اعتماد اجتماعی، انسجام اجتماعی، سیاست های تشویقی و فعالیت-های آموزشی) و 30 زیرمعیار تدوین شده است. پژوهش حاضر از نظر روش توصیفی- تحلیلی با هدف کاربردی و از نوع پیمایشی می باشد. جهت تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از نرم افزارهای SPSSو Excel استفاده گردیده است. بر اساس نتایج حاصله از محاسبات آماری به عمل آمده متوسط میانگین کلی معیارهای مشارکت شهروندان در مدیریت بحران برابر 2.81 و پایین تر از حد متوسط ارزیابی شده است. در این میان کمترین میانگین مربوط به فعالیت های آموزشی (2.59) و بیشترین میانگین مربوط به انسجام اجتماعی (3.50) می باشد. براساس نتایج حاصل از تکنیک MABAC ناحیه یک از منطقه 1 با مقدار Q، 0.546 رتبه اول و ناحیه سه از منطقه 4 با مقدار Q، 0.432- در رتبه آخر از نظر میزان مشاکت شهروندان قرار دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: رویکرد نهادی، مدیریت بحران اجتماع محور، مشارکت شهروندان، شهر اردبیل، روش MABAC
  • آرمین حاتمی زنوزی، علی مریدی، رضا خلیلی* صفحات 7794-7807

    با افزایش جمعیت جهان، تامین غذا و انرژی یکی از مهم ترین چالش های جامعه بشری خواهد بود. اهداف هزاره سوم سازمان ملل متحد در دستور کار دستیابی به توسعه بلندمدت پایدار جوامع انسانی و تضمین دسترسی به آب، انرژی و غذا برای نسل های آینده است. برای دستیابی به این اهداف، محققان چارچوب ها و رویکردهای بین رشته ای و تخصصی متعددی را برای دستیابی به تعادل پویا و بهینه تولید و استفاده از منابع ایجاد کرده اند که یکی از آن ها همبست آب، انرژی، غذا و محیط زیست است. در این پژوهش هفت شاخص در این راستا مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و مشخص شد شاخص های سرانه تجدیدپذیر منابع آب شیرین داخلی و سهم انرژی تجدیدپذیر در کشور ما در وضعیت بحرانی قرار دارد و به کمک مدل DPSIR فشارهایی که این شاخص های بحرانی بر کشور می گذارد، تجزیه و تحلیل شد، در آخر به کمک مدل DPSIR برای شاخص بحرانی سرانه تجدیدپذیر منابع آب شیرین داخلی پاسخ هایی از جمله سیاست گذاری کلان در حوزه آب به همراه ظرفیت سازی و آموزش، حکمرانی مناسب و مدیریت جامع منابع آب، بهبود تامین و عرضه آب و . . . . ارایه گردید. علاوه بر این برای وضعیت بحرانی انرژی تجدیدپذیر در ایران تعیین شد یک سبد مطلوب انرژی با سهم 44 درصدی برای منابع تجدیدپذیر تشکیل شود .

    کلیدواژگان: همبست آب، انرژی، غذا و محیط زیست، DPSIR، منابع تجدیدپذیر
  • حسین نظم فر*، داود وفاداری کمارعلیا صفحات 7808-7824

    فضاهای سبز شهری از مهم ترین فضاهای شهری محسوب می شوند که تاثیرات بسزایی را در زیست پذیری شهرها از خود بر جای می گذارند. در دوران همه گیری کرونا به دلایل وجود ضعف در تاب آوری فضاهای سبز شهری امکان بازدید از این اماکن برای شهروندان محدود گردید. در همین راستا فضاهای سبز شهری نقش مهمی را در دوران پساکرونا بر عهده دارند به همین دلیل در این پژوهش تاثیر این اماکن بر سلامت روان شهروندان در دوران پساکرونا مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. برای انجام این بررسی از طریق منابع کتابخانه ای و پرسشنامه اقدام شد که 12 سوال از 12 شاخص سلامت روان طرح گردید و از طریق نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده و در فضای مجازی پخش شده و 207 پرسشنامه به طور کامل جمع آوری گردید، برای بررسی داده های موجود از طریق میانگین امتیازی به این صورت که برای گزینه های موجود در پژوهش(کاملا موافقم، موافقم، نظری ندارم، مخالفم، کاملا مخالفم) به ترتیب امتیازهای 4، 3، 0، 2، 1 اختصاص داده شده و با انجام محاسبات مربوطه میانگین امتیازی هر شاخص به دست آمده و با میانگین امتیازی حد متوسط مقایسه شده و نتایج لازم مشخص گردید، عمل گردید. یافته ها نشان داد که فضاهای سبز شهری بیشترین تاثیر را بر کاهش اضطراب و کمترین تاثیر را بر افزایش مطالعه مثمر داشته اند. به طور کلی می توان گفت فضاهای سبز شهری تاثیر مثبتی را بر سلامت روان شهروندان دارند و باید برای گسترش این اماکن در سطح شهرها برنامه ریزی مناسبی صورت گیرد.

    کلیدواژگان: منظر شهری، بهداشت روانی، شاخص های سلامت روان، پاندمی
  • پریسا سرگلزایی نظامی*، سید مهدی حسینی، مریم سارانی صفحات 7825-7838

    تعادل بین تامین خواسته های نسل فعلی و اتی از اهداف برنامه ریزان اقتصاد منابع طبیعی می باشد چرا که بهره برداری از منابع طبیعی می بایستی بگونه ای باشد که برای نسل های آتی حفظ گردند. لازمه این امر توجه بیش از پیش به مدیریت پایدار منابع طبیعی کشور می باشد. در این راستا استفاده از تکنیک برنامه ریزی پویا جهت تعیین مقادیر بهینه برداشت و مدیریت صحیح منابع در دوره های زمانی کوتاه مدت و بلند مدت، لازمه ی تحقق اهداف مذکور بوده و در یاری رساندن به بهره برداران نقش مهمی را ایفا می کند. بنابراین در این پژوهش پس از ارایه روشی برای برآورد ارزش خالص حاصل از برداشت منابع به طرح مدلی پویا جهت بهینه سازی مقادیر برداشت شیلات در منطقه استان س وب در سال 99-1400 پرداخته شد. به همین منظور، مدلی پویا جهت برداشت بهینه از منابع شیلات با استفاده روش ضریب لاگرانژ برآورد شد. پس از بهینه سازی میزان مقادیر برداشت از منبع، مجموع ارزش منافع کنونی خالص به کمک مدل برنامه ریزی پویا در حدود 75/22 میلیون دلار برآورد شد که حاکی از افزایش ارزش منافع کنونی به میزان 46/7 میلیون دلار نسبت به حالت فعلی است. در پایان نیز استفاده از مدل های برنامه ریزی پویا به علت انعطاف پذیری آن ها و قابلیت محاسبه داده های سری زمانی در جهت تخصیص منابع طبیعی تجدیدپذیر طی دوره های متوالی برداشت از منابع توصیه می شود. استفاده از این مدل ها علاوه بر تعیین برنامه مناسب و زمان بندی شده برای برداشت از منابعی طبیعی تجدید پذیر، سبب حفظ و پایداری این منابع در بلند مدت می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: برنامه ریزی پویا، پایداری منابع طبیعی، روش ضریب لاگرانژ، شیلات
  • اسماعیل جهانی دولت آباد*، رحمان جهانی دولت آباد صفحات 7839-7854

    اراضی پیرامون خطوط آهن در اثر بی توجهی به برنامه ریزی و حفظ آن، بطور معمول دارای آشفتگی و معضلات متعددی بوده که بخش عمده ای از آن ریشه در ترکیب و توزیع کاربری های آن دارد. هدف این مقاله بررسی وسعت و سرانه کاربری های خدماتی و وضعیت دسترسی به آن در اراضی پیرامون خطوط ریلی منطقه 16 تهران است. این مطالعه به لحاظ روش، توصیفی- تحلیلی بوده و از نوع تحقیقات «تحلیلی- تطبیقی» محسوب می شود. شیوه گردآوری داده ها به صورت اسنادی است. در تحلیل اطلاعات از فرآیند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP) و مشخصا نرم افزار Expert choise و همچنین نرم افزار GIS استفاده شده است. نتایج حاکی از آن است که در هیچ یک از کاربری های خدماتی بررسی شده، وضعیت نسبت به پیشنهادی طرح جامع، استاندارد کشوری و حتی خود منطقه مساعد نیست. از بین کاربری های موجود، بیشترین کمبود سرانه در مقایسه با منطقه، مربوط به کاربری فرهنگی بوده و به همین ترتیب کاربری های درمانی- بهداشتی، تفریح، کاربری فضای سبز و ورزشی نیز در اولویت های بعدی به لحاظ کمبود سرانه قرار دارند. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که تمرکز عمده قسمت های محروم در بخش مرکزی و مایل به سمت شمال محدوده یعنی قسمت های علی آباد شمالی و متمایل به محله خزانه از سمت شرق و منتهی به نازی آباد از سمت غرب خطوط ریلی و همچنین پیرامون ترمینال جنوب و راه آهن است و تنها بخش هایی از قسمت های جنوبی محدوده یعنی سمت شرق خطوط ریلی بخش هایی از علی آباد جنوبی به صورت برخوردار تعیین شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: کاربری خدماتی، عدالت اجتماعی، سرانه، دسترسی، اراضی پیرامون خطوط ریلی منطقه 16 تهران
  • مهدی جدیدالاسلامی قلعه نو، فریبا اسفندیاری درآباد*، صیاد اصغری سراسکانرود، موسی عابدینی، رئوف مصطفی زاده صفحات 7855-7872

    وقوع خشکسالی در منطقه سیستان و خشک شدن دریاچه هامون و هم چنین بادهای 120 روزه، شرایط مناسبی جهت فرسایش بادی مهیا نموده و موجب وارد آوردن خسارات فراوان به حیات طبیعی و انسانی منطقه شده است. این عوامل سبب شده اند تا حرکت شن های روان در منطقه با سرعت زیادی انجام گیرد و تپه های ماسه ای گسترش زیادی داشته باشند. مطالعات میدانی حاکی از آن است که طی خشکسالی های مکرر منطقه سیستان، حرکت تپه های ماسه ای به حدی زیاد بوده که باعث مدفون شدن تعداد زیادی از خانه های روستایی و از بین رفتن اراضی کشاورزی شده است که این امر خود مهاجرت ساکنان بومی منطقه در سال های اخیر را به دنبال داشته است. مخاطرات ناشی از جابه جایی تپه های ماسه ای در سطح روستاها شامل تهدید سلامت اهالی، مدفون شدن روستاها، تخریب خاک و زیرساخت های عمومی و غیره است. عوامل متعددی از قبیل وزش بادهای شدید و دایمی، کم شیب و کم عارضه بودن دشت، ریزدانه بودن خاک، خشکسالی های متوالی و کمبود پوشش گیاهی در میزان جابه جایی ماسه ها در سطح دشت سیستان نقش دارند. هدف این مطالعه، بررسی روند تغییرات تپه های ماسه ای دشت سیستان با استفاده از بررسی کانی شناسی سری زمانی و استفاده از داده های ماهواره ای لندست و پیشنهاد برخی از راه حل ها برای کاهش حرکت تپه های ماسه ای و به نوبه خود، کاهش اثرات مخرب آن بر زندگی ساکنین منطقه است.در این پژوهش با استفاده از تصاویر ماهواره ای لندست باقدرت تفکیک 30 متر از سال 1997 تا 2020 به بررسی روند تغییرات تپه های ماسه ای در منطقه دشت سیستان پرداخته شد. بر اساس نتایج حاصله، وسعت تپه های ماسه ای در ماه آگوست از 23/8 درصد در سال 1997 به 11 درصد در سال 2020، و در ماه جوالی از 83/8 درصد به 9/12 درصد از سطح کل حوضه موردمطالعه افزایش یافته است که تقریبا روند افزایشی چشم گیری را نشان می دهد.

    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی مخاطرات، تپه های ماسه ای، دشت سیستان، بادهای 120 روزه، فرسایش بادی
  • هادی غائبی*، الهه سلیمانی صفحات 7873-7889

    در این مقاله، سیستم ریفرمینگ بخارآب بیوگاز تلفیق شده با سیستم آب شیرین کن رطوبت زن- رطوبت زدا پیشنهاد شده است که با تحلیل ترمودینامیکی به بررسی اثرات متقابل پارامترهای ورودی بر توابع هدف (بازده انرژی و بازده اگزرژی) با استفاده از روش طراحی آزمایش ها پرداخته شده است. مدل سازی ترمودینامیکی جامع با استفاده از نرم افزار ای ای اس انجام شده است. طبق نتایج حاصل از تحلیل ترمودینامیکی، بازده انرژی، بازده اگزرژی، نرخ جریان جرمی هیدروژن و نرخ جریان جرمی آب شیرین به ترتیب 39/82% ، 65/72% ، 1071/0 کیلوگرم بر ثانیه و 211/0 کیلوگرم بر ثانیه بدست آمده است. به این ترتیب، با استفاده از تحلیل ترمودینامیکی سیستم توسط نرم افزار ای ای اس و انتقال آزمایشات براساس طرح مرکب مرکزی برای پارامترهای استخراج شده (دمای ورودی رطوبت-زدا)، نرخ جریان جرمی گردش یافته سیستم رطوبت زن- رطوبت زدا و دمای ورودی گرمکن سیستم آب شیرین کن) توسط نرم افزار دیزاین اکسپرت ، نتایج حاصله، تاثیر برهم کنش پارامترهای ورودی را نشان می دهد. در روش سطح پاسخ از طرح مرکب مرکزی در طراحی آزمایشی استفاده شده است. مقادیر R2 در پاسخ های بازده انرژی و بازده اگزرژی به ترتیب 99/99% و 97/99% محاسبه شده است که نشان دهنده دقت مدل است. نقاط بهینه برای پارامترهای ورودیA ، B و C و همچنین پاسخ های بازده انرژی و بازده اگزرژی به ترتیب 310 کلوین، 8 کیلوگرم بر ثانیه، 450 کلوین، 9051/0% و 7313/0% بدست آمده است.

    کلیدواژگان: ریفرمینگ بخار آب بیوگاز، سیستم آب شیرین کن رطوبت زن- رطوبت زدا، ترمودینامیک، روش سطح پاسخ و طرح مرکب مرکزی
  • قاسم فتحی، علیرضا محمدی*، عطا غفاری گیلانده صفحات 7890-7899

    مطابق آمارها، کلانشهر تهران در سال های اخیر همراه با شیوع اپیدمی جهانی بیماری های تنفسی و همچنین تنزل شاخص های اجتماعی، زیست محیطی-بهداشتی و آلودگی های هوایی در معرض گسترش بیماری های تنفسی قرار گرفته است. این پژوهش کاربردی و توصیفی-تحلیلی با استفاده از آمار فضایی به تحلیل مکانی-زمانی بیماری های تنفسی در شهر تهران پرداخته و برای شناسایی و درک الگوهای مکانی بیماری های تنفسی در سطح مناطق 22گانه کلانشهر تهران، از مدل های آماری و گرافیک مبنا در محیط سامانه اطلاعات جغرافیایی GIS استفاده شده است و در نهایت با استفاده از آزمون های آماری، الگوهای کلی بیماری تنفسی در سطح مناطق شهر تهران تعیین گردید و در نهایت نقشه های بیماری با استفاده از روش تراکم کرنل استخراج و براین اساس سایر تحلیل انجام یافت. جامعه آماری پژوهش، مناطق 22 گانه شهر تهران است که داده های بیماران تنفسی در بازه زمانی 1397 الی 1400(به تعداد 1995 نفر) است. مطابق تحلیل میانگین مرکزی و بیضی انحراف معیار، منطقه 12 بعنوان یکی از مناطق مرکزی شهر، کانون بیماری های تنفسی شهر تهران است، همچنین با استفاده از شاخص نزدیکترین همسایگی در آزمون خوشه بندی، الگوی توزیع داده های بیماری های تنفسی در سطح شهر تهران بصورت یکنواخت است. با استفاده از مدل تخمین تراکم کرنل در بازه زمانی 1400-1397، در سال 1397 مناطق همسایگی منطقه 12، در سال 1398، منطقه بیشترین درگیری این بیماری را داشته اند17، در سال 1399 با اقدامات پیشگیرانه، منطقه 17 از کانون بیماری ها فاصله گرفته و در پی آن مناطق همسایگی این منطقه از درگیری زیاد با بیماری های تنفسی به دور می مانند. در سال 1400، علاوه بر مناطق درگیر، مناطق شمالی شهر تهران نیز بعنوان کانون های جدید انتشار بیماری های تنفسی معرفی می گردند.

    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل فضایی، بیماری تنفسی، اپیدمیولوژی، مدل تخمیت تراکم کرنل، شهر تهران
  • منصور راسخ*، حامد کرمی، علی خرمی فر، وحید عزیزی صفحات 7900-7910

    از آنجایی که برگ های نعناع دشتی سرشار از مواد فعال زیستی، به ویژه ترکیبات فرار و بسیاری از ترکیبات فنلی است، که فواید مثبت متعددی برای سلامتی انسان دارد و می توان از آن برای جلوگیری از ابتلا به بسیاری از بیماری ها استفاده کرد، بنابراین با توجه به اهمیت این گیاه نیازهای بیشتری برای محصولات دارویی خشک و نعناع معطر با کیفیت بالا وجود دارد. تغییرات پروفیل های بافتی و آروماتیک اسانس توسط روش GC-MS و تکنولوژی بینی الکترونیک مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. محتوای فرار اسانس نعناع در روش های مختلف خشک کردن متفاوت است که منجر به کیفیت متفاوت اسانس می شود. روش های سنتی ارزیابی کیفیت اسانس نسبتا پیچیده، با کارایی پایین و عموما مخرب هستند. یک روش آزمایش غیر مخرب کارآمد برای تضمین تولید کشاورزی و حقوق مصرف کننده ضروری است. بنابراین، این مقاله از فناوری آزمایش غیر مخرب یک بینی الکترونیکی کوپل شده با روش GC-MS ، همراه با روش کمومتریکس، برای تحقق بخشیدن به شناسایی کیفیت اسانس نعناع در روش های مختلف خشک کردن استفاده شد. اثر 8 روش خشک کردن مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. بالاترین مقدار اسانس و ترکیبات ضروری اسانس در روش خشک کردن HAD به دست آمد اما با افزایش دما و سرعت هوای خشک شدن مقدار آن کاهش می یابد، همچنین بدترین روش خشک شدن روش خشک شدن آفتابی بود. سه ترکیب اصلی اسانس Carvone، Limonene و Carveol بودند. همچنین بالاترین درصد طبقه بندی مربوط به روش QDA و MDA برابر با 100 درصد بود همچنین دقت روش ANN نیز برابر 96.7 درصد به دست آمد.

    کلیدواژگان: شناسایی کیفیت نعناع، آزمون غیرمخرب، بینی الکترونیک، تشخیص بو
  • علی خرمی فر، علی میرزازاده*، ولی رسولی شربیانی صفحات 7911-7918

    شلیل گیاهی است که به عنوان یک محصول مهم تجاری در برخی کشورها کشت و در رژیم غذایی بشر به عنوان یک منبع مهم قند و ویتامین ها شناخته می شود. با توجه به افزایش انتظارات برای محصولات غذایی با استانداردهای کیفی و ایمنی بالا، تعیین دقیق، سریع و هدفمند ویژگی های محصولات غذایی ضروری است. در محصول شلیل ارزیابی کیفی پس از مرحله برداشت، برای ارایه محصولی قابل اعتماد و یکنواخت به بازار ضروری می باشد. هدف از این مطالعه، تشخیص و طبقه بندی ارقام شلیل با استخراج ویژگی از الگوهای پاسخ دستگاه طیف سنج و بکارگیری روش های کمومتریکس می باشد. یک طیف سنج فروسرخ نزدیک می تواند طیف های نور بازتابی را با تخمینی از غلظت آن و یا تعیین برخی خواص ذاتی آن، تشخیص دهد و کارایی بالا در تعیین کیفیت ارقام داشته باشد. طیف سنجی نوعی سیستم است که ساختار و رویکردی متفاوت از سایر روش ها (پردازش تصویر، شبکه عصبی و...) دارد و می تواد کلاس بندی و تعیین کیفیت رقم را انجام دهد. در این تحقیق به منظور تشخیص رقم شلیل و مقدار جذب طول موج در 5 رقم این محصول، طیف سنجی بازتابشی در محدوده طول موج های 400 تا 1100 نانومتر انجام شد. پس از حذف نویزها با آنالیز PCA، برای بهبود طیف، پیش پردازش های اولیه مختلف اعمال و اثرات آنها مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. و همچنین با روش آنالیز تشخیص خطی (LDA) بررسی شد. براساس نتایج حاصل، روش PCA با دقت 85 درصد و روش LDA با دقت 100 درصد توانستند ارقام شلیل را تشخیص دهند. نتیجه به نظر می رسد که روش غیر مخرب تصویربرداری فراطیفی قادر به تشخیص رقم محصول شلیل است.

    کلیدواژگان: شلیل، کمومتریکس، طیف سنجی، تشخیص رقم
  • شلاله قهری، محمدحسن یزدانی*، علیرضا محمدی صفحات 7919-7930

    مورفولوژی شهری به مطالعه ی فرم شکل گیری و تغییرشکل آن اطلاق می گردد و به عبارت دیگر شناخت ساختار فضایی و خصوصیات شهر از طریق بررسی الگوی اجزاء و روند توسعه آن می باشد. امروزه در مطالعه مسایل شهری، شناخت و تحلیل مورفولوژی شهری در بررسی پدیده ها و تحولات آن ها ضروری است. لذا هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی تحولات مورفولوژی شهر اردبیل با رویکرد کالبدی- فضایی (در چارچوب طرح ها و برنامه های شهر اردبیل) می باشد. تحقیق حاضر از نظر روش توصیفی - تحلیلی بوده و از نظر هدف کاربردی می باشد. جهت تحلیل ریخت شناسی شهر اردبیل از تحلیل چیدمان فضا (هم پیوندی) بهره برده شده است. بدین صورت با استفاده از روش تحلیل نقشه به بررسی ریخت شناسی شهر اردبیل و تغییر و تحولات آن طی دوره های (1355-1373) و (1373- تاکنون) که تحولات ریخت شناسی شهر در این دوران چشم گیرتر می باشد پرداخته شده است. در این راستا از پارامتر (همپیوندی به عنوان اصلی ترین ویژگی چیدمان فضا) به کمک نرم افزارهای Autocad Civil 3D 2017 وArc Gis بهره برده شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد میزان تفاضل هم پیوندی در شهر اردبیل رو به افزایش است و این امر بیانگر انزوای فضایی شهر می باشد. این تغییرات مهمترین عامل تاثیرگذار در تحولات ساختار فضایی بوده و موجب بافت های ناکارآمد شهری شده است. بنابراین یکی از مهمترین عوامل تاثیرگذار در تحولات بافت شهر اردبیل در طی گذر زمان تغییرات همپیوندی ناشی از تغییرات کالبدی -فضایی بوده است.

    کلیدواژگان: ریخت شناسی شهری، چیدمان فضا، پارامتر هم پیوندی، کالبدی- فضایی، شهر اردبیل
  • عاطفه دل گرم*، مصیب پهلوانی، مرجان رادنیا صفحات 7920-7937

    نهادها هنجارهای غیررسمی و قواعد رسمی یک جامعه و ترکیبی از قوانین، حقوق و تصمیم گیری از طریق سازمان هایی هستند که بیشتر بر کیفیت محیطی تاکید؛ و نقش بسزایی در حفاظت از کیفیت محیط زیست دارند. هدف این مطالعه تاثیر کیفیت نهادها بر کاهش انتشار گاز دی اکسیدکربن در بازه زمانی 2001 الی 2021 برای منتخبی از کشورهای عضو پیمان شانگهای با استفاده از الگوی پانل و روش گشتاورهای تعمیم یافته (GMM) است. نتایج این تحقیق و ضرایب متغیرهای موردبررسی حاکی از تاثیر منفی و معنادار متغیرهای کیفیت نهادی، و نرخ رشد اقتصادی بر انتشار CO2 بود؛ و متغیرهای مصرف انرژی، باز بودن تجارت و نرخ رشد جمعیت نشان دهنده تاثیر مثبت و معنادار بر انتشار CO2 است. همچنین اثر متغیرهای صنعت و سرمایه انسانی بر انتشار CO2 بی معنا بوده است. با توجه به نتایج پیشنهاد می گردد که کشورهای عضو پیمان شانگهای با بهبود کیفیت نهادها و توسعه سازمان های زیست محیطی و آزادی مطبوعات و رسانه ها جهت پوشش مخاطرات زیست محیطی و اقدامات قانونی مانند مقررات و استانداردهای زیست محیطی و همچنین ابزارهای سیاست زیست محیطی مبتنی بر بازار نظیر مالیات محیط زیست و کاهش یارانه های دولتی به منظور کاهش انتشار گاز دی اکسیدکربن اقدام نمایند.

    کلیدواژگان: کیفیت نهادها، انتشار دی اکسید کربن CO2، رشد اقتصادی، گشتاورهای تعمیم یافته GMM
  • راضیه پوردربانی*، سجاد سبزی صفحات 7938-7946

    پرتقال یکی از مرکبات قدیمی و پرمصرف است که با وجود مواد و ریز مغذی های بسیار مفید موجود در خود خواص زیادی بخصوص در تصفیه خون و بهبود و پیشگیری از بیماری های بسیاری را دارد. پرتقال سرشار از ویتامین های B,C دارای آهن، کلسیم، فسفر، پتاسیم، سدیم و مس است. ویتامین C که از عوامل مهم مهارکننده سرطان است و پرتقال منبع اصلی این ویتامین محسوب می شود. ضربات مکانیکی بعنوان عامل موثر و اصلی در تلفات پس از برداشت محصول شناخته شده اند. در طی مراحل پس از برداشت بارهای دینامیکی در ایجاد کوفتگی در محصولات بیشتر موثرند. تحقیقات قابل توجهی در مورد خواص مکانیکی بافت میوه، مکانیسم های کوفتگی و روش های پیشگیری، کاهش و تشخیص کوفتگی گزارش شده است. در این تحقیق، هدف بررسی امکان استفاده از تصویربرداری فراطیفی برای پیشنهاد مدل غیرمخرب در شناسایی کوفتگی پرتقال می باشد. در این راستا، ابتدا تعداد کافی از پرتقالهای سالم تهیه شدند و تصاویر فراطیفی انها اخذ شد. سپس به روش مصنوعی، کوفتگی در آنها ایجاد شد و مجددا تصاویر فراطیفی پرتقالها 12 و 24 ساعت بعد از کوفتگی اخذ شد. برای انجام ازمون مخرب و سنجش سفتی پرتقال، 40 عدد پرتقال از هر دسته (سالم، 12 ساعت پس ازکوفتگی و 24 ساعت پس ار کوفنگی) انتخاب شده و تحت ازمون مخرب قرار گرفت و مقادیر سفتی ثیت شد. آزمون دانکن برای مقایسه دسته ها انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که در هردو آزمون مخرب و غیرب مخرب، اختلاف معنی دار اماری در بین هر سه دسته مورد مطالعه قرار داشت و بنابراین امکان شناسایی غیرمخرب کوفتگی پرتقال توسط تصاویر فراطیفی وجود دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: پرتقال، سفتی سنج، تصویربرداری فراطیفی، امکانسنجی
  • سحر حیدری مستعلی*، محمود بیات صفحات 7947-7962

    در این تحقیق، پیوستگی سیمای سرزمین از منظر سنجه های سیمای سرزمین (10 شاخص) و شاخص های تیوری گراف (12 شاخص) تحلیل شد. در مرحله بعد همبستگی بین شاخص های پیوستگی و پارامترهای کیفیت آب با استفاده از ضریب همبستگی اسپیرمن و پیرسون انجام و با روش رگرسیون خطی گام به گام و از طریق مدل های رگرسیون توانی، نمایی و لگاریتمی مدلسازی انجام و با ضریب آکاییکه بهترین مدل انتخاب شد. نتایج نشان داد که در بین سنجه های سیمای سرزمین دو سنجه CONIG و FRAC و نیز طول کریدور و اغلب شاخص های پیوستگی تیوری گراف دارای همبستگی منفی معنادار با پارامترهای کیفیت آب بودند. همچنین بیشترین ضریب تبیین یا R2 متعلق به مدل های CO3 با ضریب تبیین 818/0، دبی آب با ضریب تبیین 733/0، Ca با ضریب تبیین 772/0 و TDS با ضریب تبیین 704/0 بود. همچنین نتایج مدلسازی نشان داد که تقریبا تمامی مدل های منتخب باضریب آکاییکه مدل های غیر خطی است. همبستگی معنی دار شاخص های پیوستگی سیمای سرزمین به ویژه شاخص های پیوستگی تیوری گراف و نیز طول کریدور با شاخص های کیفیت آب نشان دهنده تاثیر ویژگی های ساختاری سیمای سرزمین بر کیفیت آب در حوزه های آبخیز بوده؛ یعنی تکه شدگی سیمای سرزمین و لکه ای شدن به شدت بر کیفیت آب اثرگذار است.

    کلیدواژگان: تئوری گراف، سنجه های سیمای سرزمین، کریدور
  • شهاب حیدری، برومند صلاحی*، بتول زینالی، الهامه پورقاسمی صفحات 7963-7976

    در این پژوهش، کارایی مدل LARW-WG برای تولید و شبیه سازی داده های روزانه بارش در مناطق مورد مطالعه با استفاده از پارامترهای آماری R2، MAE و RMSE مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که در سطح اطمینان 99 درصد تفاوت معنی داری بین داده های واقعی و داده های حاصل از مدل وجود ندارد و مدل کارایی لازم جهت تولید داده های روزانه داراست، لذا پس از اطمینان از توانایی مدل، با استفاد از مدل گردش عمومی جو HadGEM2 تحت سناریوهای RCP 2.6، RCP 4.5 و RCP 8.5 در دوره آتی 2021 تا 2040 به پیش بینی تغییرات بارش منطقه مورد مطالعه پرداخته شد. نتایج حاصل از پیش بینی پارامترهای اقلیمی در ایستگاه الشتر از نظر میانگین بارش سالانه نیز 6/3 تا 9 میلی متر افزایش خواهد داشت و ایستگاه الیگودرز نیز روند از نظر بارش نیز افزایش در حدود 31/0 تا 33/2 میلی متر افزایش نشان داد. همچنین در ایستگاه کوهدشت پارامتر بارش کاهش 70/0- تا 80/3 - میلی متر پیش بینی شده است. نتایج کلی تغییرات بارش فصلی به استثنای ایستگاه کوهدشت که در تمامی فصول کاهش داشته، ایستگاه الشتر به غیر از فصل بهار در تمامی فصل ها افزایش و الیگودرز به استثنای فصل تابستان بقیه ی فصل ها افزایش نشان دادند. طبق این نتایج می توان که شرایط اقلیمی استان لرستان در 20 سال آتی تفاوت چشمگیری با شرایط کنونی آب و هوایی خواهد داشت. با توجه به نتایج ایستگاه کوهدشت نسبت به دو ایستگاه دیگر کاهش بارش خواهد داشت.

    کلیدواژگان: تغییرلت اقلیمی، بارش، استان لرستان، ارزیابی ریسک، مدل HadGEM2
  • حانیه عباسلو*، بهادر ابول پور، مهرداد تکلوزاده صفحات 7977-7996

    در آینده نزدیک و با گران تر شدن هزینه انرژی، کارخانه های بیشتری تمایل دارند از زباله ها برای تولید انرژی استفاده نمایند. هزینه های دفن زباله در حال افزایش است و به طور فزاینده ای باعث افزایش هزینه بازیافت می شود. از طرفی سوخت های جایگزین برای تولید سیمان کارآمد از نظر اقتصادی ضروری هستند. زباله ها، بسته بندی و سایر مواد می توانند جایگزین سوخت های فسیلی گران قیمت مانند زغال سنگ و نفت باشند. اما ابتدا باید آن ها را به سوخت با کیفیت بالا (RDF: Refuse Derived Fuel) تبدیل کرده و به طور ایمن در کارخانه ها نگهداری کرد. این وظیفه ای است شرکت های تولید سیمان با عضویت در ابتکار پایداری سیمان (CSI) و شورای جهانی تجارت برای توسعه پایدار (WBCSD) برای خود تعیین می نمایند. هدف جایگزینی منابع انرژی فسیلی گران قیمت مانند زغال سنگ، گاز و نفت در تولید و کاهش انتشار CO2 بوده است. این مطالعه دیدگاه های ارزشمندی را در مورد تولید RDF به عنوان یک جزء پایدار از یک سیستم مدیریت یکپارچه MSW، به ویژه برای کشورهای در حال توسعه، در جهت دستیابی به اهداف 17 گانه توسعه پایدار (17SGDs) و اقتصاد چرخشی ارایه می دهد. RDFمناسب نسبت به پسماند جامد شهری، ارزش حرارتی بالاتر، رطوبت، خاکستر، کلر، کوگرد و نیتروژن کمتری دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: سوخت مشتق دورریز، سیمان، پسماند، سوخت های فسیلی، پایداری
  • بتول السلیمان، افسانه زرکش*، منصور یگانه صفحات 7997-8007

    مسیله تحقیق: 

    طراحی پلان ها با مدرن شدن جامعه تغییر کرده است؛ این مسیله ای است که در همه کشورهای جهان اسلام بر سر آن توافق وجود دارد. و بر اساس نظر معماران معاصر سوریه یک نظریه ی دیگری وجود دارد که در شهرهایی مانند شهر حمص، این تغییر در پلان ها پس از وارد شدن استعمار فرانسه به سوریه اتفاق افتاد؛ بنابراین لازم است که با تحلیل پلان های خانه ها در دوران مختلف این نظریه اثبات یا رد شود.

    هدف

    این تحقیق با شناسایی ویژگی های پلان خانه های تاریخی و معاصر شهر حمص و بر اساس روش نحو فضا به دنبال توضیح این است که چگونه پیکربندی های فضاها به مرورزمان تغییر کرده اند و در چه زمانی معنای محرمیت در خانه ها از بین رفت.

    روش تحقیق: 

    در قسمت اول تحقیق برای شکل گیری چارچوب نظری به بررسی اسناد و دستیابی به اطلاعات کتابخانه ای پرداخته است سپس در مرحله دوم به صورت کمی از تیوری نحو فضا با استفاده از نرم افزار depth map برای بررسی پلان های منطقه موردنظر استفاده شده است.

    نتایج تحقیق:

     درنتیجه این تحقیق می توان گفت که طرح های معماری مسکونی سنتی به موجب نفوذ فرهنگ معماری غربی به معماری بومی و ساختن بناهای معاصر در دوران استعمار فرانسوی تغییر چندانی نداشت، بلکه به علت تقلید نادرست از معماری نو تغییر کرد و بر اساس آن محرمیت معماری امروز از بین رفت،

    کلیدواژگان: ساختار فضایی، مسکن بومی، نحو فضا، نرم افزار depth map، شهر حمص در سوریه
  • سیما رحیمی بندرآبادی* صفحات 8008-8021

    خشکسالی هواشناسی که از جمله نوسانات اقلیمی است در مناطقی همانند مناطق غرب و جنوب غرب کشور ایران (استان لرستان) که دارای آب و هوای مدیترانه ای است با تناوب های متفاوتی تکرار می شود. برخی از خشکسالی ها در گستره های وسیع و برخی در گستره های محدود عمل می کنند. شدت، تداوم، گستره و فراوانی از جمله ویژگی های خشکسالی به شمار می روند که با تکیه بر شاخص های خشکسالی تعیین می گردند. در تحقیق حاضر به منظور بررسی شدت, مدت, فراوانی (دوره بازگشت) و گستره خشکسالی در استان لرستان از 28 ایستگاه موجود در منطقه که دارای طولانی ترین دوره مشترک آماری (2018- 1990) بودند استفاده گردید. به این منظور از شاخص بارش استاندارد SPI در سه مقیاس زمانی 6 ,3 و 12 ماهه کمک گرفته شد. بررسی نقشه های توزیع مکانی خشکسالی در منطقه نشان می دهد که منطقه مورد مطالعه در سالهای 1997، 1999 ،2000، 2008، 2009 و 2011 تا 2015 خشکسالی فراگیری که دربرگیرنده وضعیت های خفیف تا شدید است را تجربه کرده است. نتایج بررسی ایستگاهی خشکسالی ها نشان میدهد که ایستگاه دزفول کمترین (2 رویداد با حداکثر شدت 2/0-) وایستگاه لرستان بیشترین رویداد خشکسالی (19 رویداد با حداکثر شدت 7/2-) را تجربه کرده اند. نتیجه گیری بررسی منحنی های SAF نشان می دهد که خشکسالیهای با دوره بازگشتهای کوتاه با توجه به اینکه دارای شدت زیادی می باشد سطح کوچکی از منطقه را تحت تاثیر قرار می دهد این در حالیست که خشکسالی با دوره بازگشت بیشتر سطح بزرگتری از منطقه را خواهد پوشاند. بررسی توزیع مکانی احتمال وقوع خشکسالی استخراج شده از شاخص SPI در منطقه نشان می دهد، احتمال وقوع خشکسالی در منطقه بین 12 تا 17 درصد می باشد. قسمت اعظم منطقه بین 14 تا 5/15 % احتمال وقوع خشکسالی را دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: خشکسالی، شدت- فراوانی- گستره، ویژگیهای خشکسالی، SAF، SPI
  • موسی عابدینی*، فریبا اسفندیاری درآباد، افشین پناهی، الهامه پورقاسمی صفحات 8022-8030

    خاک یکی از مهم ترین منابع طبیعی هر کشوری و تامین کننده غذای بشر است. مطالعه مسیله فرسایش خاک و به ویژه ارزیابی عوامل و پارامترهای موثر ضروری است. حوضه رودخانه آلازارچای یکی از حوضه های فرعی رودخانه بالهاری است. در این مطالعه، با تقسیم حوضه به سه زیر حوضه حمزه خانلو ، آلیله و قوزلو ، مقدار فرسایش و رسوب با استفاده از روش های PSIAC و MPSIAC بررسی شدند.داده های لازم در قالب لایه های اطلاعاتی وارد محیط GIS شده و با ترکیب آن ها نقشه پهنه بندی فرسایش و تولید رسوب آماده شد. در نهایت، با بررسی نه عامل موثر فرسایش خاک، حوضه از نظر شدت رسوب به دو طبقه متوسط و زیاد تقسیم شده و میزان رسوب سالیانه آن برآورد شده است. در این راستا، حوضه حمزه خان از نظر شدت رسوب در مدل PSIAC در کلاس رسوب دهی زیاد بوده و زیر حوضه آلیله و قوزلو در طبقه رسوب متوسط قرار دارند. رسوب ویژه کل حوضه 53/427 متر مکعب در کیلومتر مربع، زیر حوضه حوضه حمزه خان 60/674، زیر حوضه آلیله 435 و زیر حوضه ی قوزلو 308 متر مکعب در کیلومتر مربع در سال است. با این حال، در مدل MPSIAC، حوضه حمزه خان در طبقه یا شدت رسوب متوسط و زیر حوضه های آلیله و قوزلو در طبقه رسوب یا شدت کم قرار داشتند. نتایج نشان می دهد که میزان رسوب در روش PSIAC تقریبا دو برابر میزان فرسایش در مدل MPSIAC است. از بین عوامل نه گانه، کاربری اراضی و وضعیت فعلی فرسایش رودخانه با بالاترین نمره نقش مهمی در تولید رسوب دارند.

    کلیدواژگان: آبخیز آلازارچای، فرسایش خاک، مدل ام پسیاک، رسوب
  • حسین حافظی*، سیاب ممی پور صفحات 8031-8045

    از مهم ترین علل ایجاد تغییرات اقلیمی می توان به انتشار گازهای گلخانه ای به ویژه CO2 ناشی از مصرف سوخت های فسیلی اشاره کرد. از مهم ترین سوخت های فسیلی می توان به گاز طبیعی و فرآورده های نفتی اشاره کرد. نفت گاز، نفت کوره و بنزین پرمصرف ترین فرآورده های نفتی طی پنج دهه اخیر کشور هستند. مطالعه حاضر به بررسی نوع رابطه میان مصرف سوخت های فسیلی و میزان انتشار کربن دی اکسید کشور در بازه زمانی 1334-1398 با استفاده از رهیافت ARDL می پردازد. یافته های حاصل از این مطالعه حاکی از آن است مصرف سوخت های فسیلی تاثیر متفاوتی روی انتشار دی اکسید کربن دارد. به طوری که در کوتاه مدت با افزایش یک درصد مصرف در سوخت های نفت گاز، نفت کوره، گاز طبیعی و بنزین، میزان انتشار کربن به ترتیب معادل 55/0، 32/0، 32/0 و 18/0 درصد افزایش خواهد یافت؛ در حالی که نتایج حاصل از کشش های بلندمدت نشان می دهد به ازای یک درصد مصرف سوخت های فسیلی فوق، میزان انتشار کربن به ترتیب 83/0، 49/0، 09/0 و 34/0 درصد افزایش می یابد. بنابراین، نتایج نشان می دهد مصرف نفت گاز هم در کوتاه مدت و هم در بلندمدت، بیشترین تاثیر مخرب روی محیط زیست و انتشار دی اکسید کربن در ایران دارد و نفت کوره و بنزین در رتبه های بعدی قرار دارند. مصرف گاز طبیعی تنها حامل انرژی است که در بلندمدت، کمترین تاثیر بر انتشار دی اکسید کربن دارد و آسیب کمتری بر تخریب محیط زیست وارد می کند. ازاین رو، هرچند سیاست جایگزینی گاز طبیعی بجای سایر سوخت های فسیلی در بلندمدت می تواند تا حدودی انتشار دی اکسید کربن در ایران را کاهش دهد؛ اما با توجه به رشد فزاینده مصرف گاز طبیعی و محدودیت های متعدد در سمت عرضه آن، این سیاست نمی-تواند در بلندمدت تداوم یابد. لذا توصیه می شود سیاست های قیمتی و غیر قیمتی همانند اصلاح یارانه قیمتی و بهبود در تکنولوژی و تجهیزات مرتبط با سوخت های فسیلی نیز موردتوجه قرار گیرد.

    کلیدواژگان: انتشار کربن، مصرف سوخت های فسیلی، مدل ARDL، ایران
  • ژیلا فرزانه سادات زارنجی، مهدی خاک زند، محمدحسن یزدانی*، شیوا ولایتی صفحات 8046-8053

    ورودی های شهر به عنوان مهم ترین اجزای شهر می باشند و علی رغم اهمیت به سزای آن در بازنمایی هویت شهر به مقوله ای فراموش شده تبدیل گشته و در اکثر شهرهای کشور ما اثری از یک فضای ورودی با تمامی خصوصیاتی که باید داشته باشد دیده نمی شود. بدین نحو هم اکنون شاهد شهرهایی هستیم که اثری از یک فضای ورودی، با خصوصیات مطلوبی که باید داشته باشد دیده نمی شود. در این راستا هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی ورودی های شهراردبیل با تاکید بر بعد زیبایی شناختی می باشد. روش پژوهش مبتنی بر روش توصیفی - تحلیلی بوده و از نظر هدف کاربردی می باشد. جامعه آماری تحقیق را نیز خبرگان تشکیل می دهد و در این خصوص با استفاده از روش گلوله برفی 10 خبره در حوزه مسیله مورد بررسی شناسایی گردید. جهت سنجش وضعیت ورودی های شهراردبیل 4 شاخص (معابر، پوشش گیاهی، تابلوها و ساختمان ها، بعد ذهنی) در قالب 20 معیار به کار برده شد. شاخص های مربوطه ابتدا با استفاده از روش آنتروپی شانون وزن دهی شده و با بهره گیری از تکنیک تصمیم گیری ایداس رتبه بندی شدند. براساس شاخص های به کار رفته در پژوهش و نتیجه حاصل از پیاده سازی روش ایداس، در بین ورودی های شهراردبیل، بیشترین میزان ASi به ورودی تبریز- اردبیل (میدان بسیج) و کمترین میزان ASi به ورودی تهران- اردبیل (میدان ایثار) اختصاص دارد. این امر نشان دهنده این است که ورودی تهران- اردبیل در وضعیت نامطلوبی قرار دارند. همچنین بر اساس طیف 5 گزینه ای لیکرت، کیفیت ورودی تبریز- اردبیل بالاتر از حد متوسط (3) ؛ آستارا- اردبیل (میدان فاطمیون) و آستارا- اردبیل (دروازه آستارا) در حد متوسط؛ ورودی های مغان- اردبیل و همچنین تهران - اردبیل پایین تر از حد متوسط و در سطح ضعیف ارزیابی شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: ورودی شهر، زیبایی شناختی، EDAS، اردبیل
  • غلامحسین صفری*، محمد صفری، نسیم موسی خانی صفحات 8054-8071

    امروزه جهان با یک بحران عظیم به دلیل افزایش تقاضای جهانی انرژی و انتشار گازهای گلخانه ای ناشی از مصرف سوخت های فسیلی مواجه است. مصرف حامل های انرژی مقادیر زیادی دی اکسید کربن و سایر آلاینده ها را تولید می کند که محیط زیست را آلوده می کند. بر اساس گزارش های سازمان جهانی انرژی در سال 2019، میزان انتشار دی اکسید کربن 5/0 درصد و مصرف انرژی اولیه 3/1 درصد در سرتاسر جهان افزایش یافته است که می تواند زنگ خطری برای بشر و محیط زیست باشد. از طرفی بخش عمده انرژی مورد نیاز جهان از طریق منابع نفتی، زغال سنگ و گاز طبیعی تامین می شود که تمامی این منابع محدود بوده و با میزان مصرف کنونی در یک زمان کوتاه مدت به پایان خواهند رسید. کاهش شدید منابع سوخت های فسیلی، صنعتی شدن اکثر کشورها ،وابستگی آن ها به انرژی و در نتیجه افزایش قیمت جهانی و همچنین مصرف سوخت موجب بحران انرژی و زیست محیطی در سطح جهان شده است. بنابر این، بحران انرژی، آلودگی ها و آثار زیست محیطی ناشی از استفاده سوخت های فسیلی، باعث شده است تا بشر به دنبال منابع جدیدی از انرژی های تجدیدپذیر باشد که یکی از انواع انرژی های تجدیدپذیر، سوخت های زیستی می باشد. سوخت های زیستی بر اساس مواد اولیه مورد استفاده در تولید آن ها به چهار دسته سوخت های زیستی نسل اول، دوم، سوم و چهارم طبقه بندی می شوند. سوخت های زیستی نسل اول شامل بیومس مربوط به محصولات غذایی است، در حالی که نسل دوم شامل زیست توده لیگنوسلولزی است. نسل سوم دارای منابع بالقوه تجدیدپذیر در قالب زیست توده جلبکی است در حالیکه نسل چهارم شامل زیست توده جلبکی اصلاح شده ژنتیکی (GM) می باشد. هدف اصلی این مقاله، بررسی منابع مختلف سوخت های زیستی، مقایسه نسل-های مختلف سوخت های زیستی با یکدیگر و بحث در رابطه با مزایا، معایب انواع مختلف سوخت های زیستی است.

    کلیدواژگان: سوخت های زیستی، سوخت های فسیلی، گازهای گلخانه ای، زیست توده، انرژی تجدید پذیر
  • سید مصطفی عمادی بالادهی*، سید علیرضا موسوی الیردی صفحات 8072-8091

    شیرابه محل دفن زباله از آلاینده های مختلفی چون آلاینده های آلی، جامدات معلق و فلزات سنگین تشکیل شده است. آلودگی آب ناشی از انتقال شیرابه زباله به دلیل اثرات نامطلوب آن بر سلامت انسان، موجودات آبزی و محصولات کشاورزی به یک نگرانی جدی زیست محیطی در سراسر جهان تبدیل شده است. استفاده از تالاب های مصنوعی به دلیل کارآیی بالای آن جهت حذف و کاهش قابل توجه آلاینده هایی نظیر نیتروژن در سال های اخیر مورد توجه ویژه قرار گرفته است. هدف از این مطالعه نیز، مروری بر پژوهش های انجام شده در حوزه تصفیه شیرابه محل دفن زباله در تالاب های مصنوعی است که برگرفته 107 مقاله در بازه زمانی 1987 الی 2023 در پایگاه های اطلاعاتی Web of Science، Google Scholar، ScienceDirect و SID است. به طور کلی آلاینده های آلی مانند COD و BOD5، ترکیبات معدنی همچون فسفر و نیتروژن، فلزات سنگین و جامدات معلق چهار آلاینده مهم شیرابه زباله بوده که حذف آن ها در تالاب های مصنوعی بیش تر مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته است. نتایج بررسی ها نشان می دهد بار و کیفیت شیرابه ورودی، توانایی شیرابه برای تغذیه و رشد میکروارگانیسم ها، نوع و ساختار بستر استفاده شده و درجه بندی آن ها، شیب و سن تالاب و از همه مهم تر کیفیت ساخت تالاب نقش تعیین کننده ای در عملکرد و بازده تالاب دارد. در مجموع، تالاب زیرسطحی عمودی برای حذف COD، فلزات سنگین و نیتروژن کل، تالاب زیر سطحی افقی برای حذف جامدات معلق و فسفر کل و تالاب ترکیبی برای حذف BOD5 و آمونیاک توصیه شده ‎اند. با این وجود، بررسی دقیق جهت طراحی و ساخت سیستم تالاب مصنوعی جهت حصول و عملکرد بهتر و بازده اقتصادی بالاتر ضروری است. هم چنین ترکیب روش های دیگر تصفیه با سیستم تالاب مصنوعی مانند راکتورهای بی هوازی و سلول های سوختی و بعلاوه کاربرد فرآیندهای هوادهی، گردش مجدد و ته نشینی و کاربرد اصلاح کننده هایی نظیر زیولیت و بایوچار نیز در افزایش راندمان حذف آلاینده های موجود در شیرابه پیشنهاد شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: تالاب مصنوعی، شیرابه محل دفن زباله، اکسیژن خواهی شیمیایی، فلزات سنگین، حذف نیتروژن
  • فریبا اسفندیاری درآباد*، بهروز نظافت تکله صفحات 8092-8105

    نیوزمین ساختی به مطالعه آن دسته از حرکت ها، جنبش ها و تغییر شکل های پوسته زمین (از دید فرایندهای زمین شناسی و ژیومورفولوژی) می پردازد که در دوره زمین شناختی کنونی نیز ادامه دارد. برای بررسی فعالیت های نیوزمین ساختی فعال، از شاخص های ژیومورفیک حوضه آبخیز و توان لرزه خیزی گسل ها استفاده شد. در این تحقیق فعالیت های نیوزمین ساختی با استفاده از شاخص های ژیومورفیک و توان لرزه خیزی گسل ها در حوضه خیاوچای مورد تحلیل قرار گرفته است. در ابتدا با استفاده از نرم افزار Gis10.3 و افزونه Archydro زیرحوضه ها و آبراهه های منطقه مورد مطالعه استخراج شد. برای محاسبه دقیق در هر زیرحوضه 15گانه از نقشه های توپوگرافی 1:25000، نقشه های زمین شناسی 1:100000، مدل رقومی ارتفاع 12 متر استفاده شد. سپس درنهایت برای هریک از شاخص ها نقشه پهنه بندی حوضه خیاوچای در پنج رده تهیه شد. در نهایت با توجه مقادیر برآورد شده هریک از شاخص ها شاخص زمین ساخت نسبی فعال برای حوضه خیاوچای استخراج شد. با توجه به شاخص زمین ساخت نسبی فعال حوضه خیاوچای به پنج رده بسیار بالا، بالا، متوسط، کم و بسیار کم نیوتکتونیکی تقسیم شد. براساس نتایج بیشترین میزان فعالیت تکتونیک مربوط به زیرحوضه های 12، 13، 14 می باشد. براساس ارزیابی توان لرزه خیزی این نتیجه حاصل شد رابطه زارع با مقدار 41/4 ریشتر، نوروزی و اشجعی با مقدار 76/5 ریشتر و نوروزی 71/1 ریشتر می باشد. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش فعالیت نیوتکتونیکی متوسط و بالا را در بیشتر زیرحوضه های خیاوچای نشان می دهد که در این مناطق فعالیت گسل خیاو موثر بوده و بنابراین در این مناطق برای مناطق مسکونی خطرات زیادی دربرخواهد داشت. از مهم ترین گسل حوضه خیاوچای می توان به گسل خیاو اشاره کرد که برای مناطق مسکونی در صورت فعال شدن مخاطره آمیز خواهد بود.

    کلیدواژگان: بررسی، فعالیت نئوزمین ساختی، شاخص های ژئومورفیک، گسل، حوضه خیاوچای
  • رسول عباسی*، ولی نعمتی، بهروز نظافت تکله صفحات 8106-8118

    گسترش و توسعه صنعت گردشگری به عنوان بخشی از ابعاد توسعه اجتماعی و فرهنگی هر کشور در کنار توجه به درآمدزایی، اشتغال زایی و مقوله اقتصاد و فرهنگ از اهمیت شایان توجهی برخوردار است. در این پژوهش که در صدد تبیین گردش توریست در سطح بین المللی است، سعی شد با استفاده از روش ترکیبی، نتایج داده های کمی و کیفی در هم ادغام شود. تعداد موارد مورد مطالعه در رویکرد تطبیقی کمی 82 و در رویکرد تطبیقی کیفی 16 مورد بود. در رویکرد تطبیقی کیفی معادله نهایی پژوهش نشان داد جذب گردشگر در شرایطی محقق می باشد. در رویکرد تطبیقی کمی، نتایج نشان داد که تنها دو مسیر علی دارای اهمیت نظری و تجربی بود که در مجموع توان تبیین دفع گردشگر در بیست و یک مورد را دارند. این دو مسیر شروط جهانی شدن سیاسی، فرهنگی و اجتماعی، حاکمیت قانون، رقابت پذیری در زیرساخت ها، امنیت اجتماعی، مردمسالاری و جذابیت فرهنگی و طبیعی را به عنوان شروط کافی در بر می گیرد. مهمترین دستاورد نظری و روشی این پژوهش، تایید تیوری در چند مورد محدود و تعمیم آن به نتایج مشابه و همچنین تکرار نتایج با استفاده از دو روش متفاوت کمی و کیفی بود که نشان از اعتبار نتایج و قابلیت اعتماد ابزارهای اندازه گیری دارد. چرا که این نتایج همسو با نتایجی است که در روش کمی برای مجموعه موارد مثبت به دست آمد.

    کلیدواژگان: گردشگری، مدل سه سطحی، جبر بولی، تعمیم تحلیلی
  • رقیه اسکندری، اباذر اسمعلی عوری*، رئوف مصطفی زاده، سپیده چوبه صفحات 8119-8133

    هدف از پژوهش حاضر ارزیابی تغییرات زمانی و مکانی شاخص های حدی اقلیمی بارندگی در بخش مرکزی استان اردبیل است. در پژوهش حاضر به منظور ارزیابی تغییرات، 11 شاخص حدی اقلیمی در یک دوره 40 ساله انتخاب و مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. ابتدا داده های مورد نیاز تهیه و پس از مرتب سازی، مقادیر مربوط به شاخص های مورد نظر با استفاده از فرمول نویسی در نرم افزار Excel محاسبه شدند. روند تغییرات زمانی شاخص ها با استفاده از نرم افزار ProUCL و تغییرات مکانی شاخص ها نیز توسط نرم افزار GIS بررسی شد. به طور کلی تغییرات شاخص های حدی بارندگی در همه ایستگاه ها دارای روند کاهشی است، اما در ایستگاه هیر معنی دار است. براساس نتایج درون یابی، شاخص های حداکثر بارش ماهانه یک روزه، حداکثر بارش ماهانه 5 روزه و مجموع بارش سالانه در روزهای بارانی در بخش مرکزی و غربی به ترتیب کم ترین و بیش ترین تغییرات را نشان می دهند. شاخص های شدت بارش خام، مجموع بارش سالانه در 95 درصد روزهای بارانی در بخش های شمالی، جنوبی و غربی استان اردبیل بیش ترین مقدار و در بخش شرقی منطقه کم ترین مقدار را نشان می دهد. شاخص های تعداد روزهای دارای بارش 10 میلی متر یا بیش تر، تعداد روزهای دارای بارش 20 میلی متر یا بیش تر و مجموع بارش سالانه در 99 درصد روزهای بارانی به ترتیب کم ترین و بیش ترین مقدار را در شرق و شمالی-غربی منطقه نشان داد. شاخص های طول دوره مرطوب و Rnnmm بیش ترین مقادیر را در بخش های غربی و شرقی و کم ترین مقادیر را در بخش مرکزی استان نشان می دهد. در مجموع می توان گفت که ارزیابی تغییرات شاخص های حدی می تواند راهنمایی در ارزیابی تغییرات اقلیمی و نیز اثرات منفی ناشی از آن بر وضعیت هیدرولوژی باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: شاخص های حدی، روند، تغییر اقلیم، روزهای بارانی
  • اصغر باقری*، زیبا شیرزادی، ابوالمحمد بندری، آمنه سواری مببینی صفحات 8134-8145

    در کشاورزی متعارف از بیش از سیصد نوع ترکیب نهاده های شیمایی نظیر آفت کش ها، علف کش ها، قارچ کش ها و کودهای شیمیایی به -منظور کنترل و آسیب پذیری محصولات کشاورزی و حاصلخیزی خاک استفاده می گردد. پژوهش حاضر به منظور شناسایی عامل های تاثیر گذار بر رفتار بهداشتی گلخانه داران استان خوزستان نسبت به آفت کش ها انجام گردید. جامعه آماری، شامل کلیه گلخانه داران فعال استان خوزستان بودند (90=N). حجم نمونه با استفاده از جدول کرجسی مورگان 80 نفر تعیین شد. ابزار جمع آوری داده ها پرسشنامه بود که روایی و پایایی آن مورد تایید قرار گرفت. داده ها با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS22 و Smart PLS2 مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج مدل معادلات ساختاری نشان داد که متغیرهای نگرش، دانش، منابع اطلاعاتی و سابقه مسمومیت 76 درصد از تغییرات متغیر رفتار بهداشتی گلخانه داران استان خوزستان نسبت به آفت کش ها را پیش بینی کردند. طبق یافته های به دست آمده مهم ترین متغیر تاثیرگذار بر رفتار بهداشتی گلخانه داران نسبت به آفت کش ها، متغیر دانش گلخانه داران نسبت به آفت کش ها است. در واقع دستیابی به ایمنی و بهداشت در کاربرد سموم از طریق نگرش های گلخانه داران نسبت به خطرات سموم شیمیایی، نیازمند دانش و آگاهی صحیح گلخانه داران از خطرات سموم شیمیایی است. دستیابی به ایمنی و بهداشت در کاربرد سموم از طریق نگرش های گلخانه داران نسبت به خطرات سموم شیمیایی، نیازمند دانش و آگاهی صحیح گلخانه داران از خطرات سموم شیمیایی است.

    کلیدواژگان: استان خوزستان، آفت کش ها، رفتار بهداشتی، گلخانه داران، مدل معادلات ساختاری
  • قربان باقری* صفحات 8146-8159

    منابع زیست توده شامل طیف وسیعی از مواد آلی است. مقدار زیادی انرژی زیست توده در ایران وجود دارد که می تواند به عنوان منبع انرژی پایدار جایگزین استفاده شود. اولین هدف مطالعه حاضر بررسی امکان سنجی پتانسیل تولید بیوگاز از پسماند غذایی از نقطه نظر امنیت انرژی و پدافند غیر عامل می باشد. پتانسیل تولید بیوگاز در یک هضم کننده جریان خروجی باز دسته ای نوع بی هوازی در مقیاس آزمایشگاهی ارزیابی شد. تنظیمات دمایی تولید بیوگاز در دمای 35 درجه سانتی گراد و 55 درجه سانتی گراد تنظیم شد. نتایج نشان می دهد که تولید تجمعی بیوگاز در دمای 55 درجه سانتی گراد بیشتر از دمای 35 درجه سانتی گراد بوده است. نتایج نشان می دهد که کل پسماند غذایی تولیدی کشور معادل 7/414491 تن در سال است. این مورد زمانی ارزش می یابد که می توان ادعا کرد امنیت تولید انرژی بیوگاز بستگی به امنیت فراهم شدن مواد اولیه آن دارد و با سیستمی بسیار ساده می تواند به عنوان منبع تولید پایدار به خصوص در مناطق دور افتاده مطرح شود به طوری که هزینه انتقال انرژی به نقاط دور افتاده را کاهش داده و از نقطه نظر پدافند غیرعامل نیز مهم تلقی می شود. به طوریکه در صورت آسیب دیدگی شبکه کلی انتقال انرژی، چرخه تولید، انتقال و مصرف انرژی به صورت کاملا مستقل و مکان محور عمل کرده و پایداری در کل شبکه را حفظ می کند.

    کلیدواژگان: بیوگاز، پسماند غذایی، امنیت انرژی، پدافند غیرعامل، بیومتان
  • ولی راستگار*، رسول صمدزاده، یوسف وثیق صفحات 8160-8176

    ضرورت ایجاد بستر مناسب قانونی با ساز و کارهای تسهیلاتی در فرایند تمایل مشارکت فعال عموم جامعه با توجه به تغییرات جمعیتی و سبک زندگی ها، به منظور زیست پذیری پایدار شهری با مدیریت بهینه پسماندها در مقابل تهدیدات ناشی از آلودگی های محیطی/ بهداشتی می باشد. هدف مطالعه ارزیابی الگوهای مشارکت مردمی مدیریت پسماندها از دیدگاه برنامه ریزی شهری به منظور ارایه رویکردی منطقی با راهکارهای عملی در مشارکت جامعه پرداخته شده است. روش تحقیق طراحی پرسشنامه با جامعه آماری 450 نفر، با روش کمی با طیف پنجگانه لیکرت با 4 مولفه و 13 زیر مقیاس با 35 گویه می باشد. قلمرو جغرافیایی پژوهش شهرستان اردبیل است. به منظور بررسی ابعاد سازه های اصلی داده های تحقیق با تایید پرسشنامه با آلفای کرانباخ 866/0 از نرم افزار آماری SPSS و جهت بررسی دو حالت معناداری و استانداردبودن سوالات برای عامل ها از شاخص-های تحلیل عاملی تاییدی از لیزرل با مقدار df/2x 2.32 نشان از برازش مناسب مدل استفاده گردید. با بررسی فرضیات اصلی و فرعی با رویکردهای مشارکت مدنی با زیرمقیاس های نهادی، قانونی، فرهنگی، فردی و اجتماعی، تخصصی با زیر مقیاس های رسانه ای، آموزشی و بهداشتی، حمایتی با زیر مقیاس انگیزشی، ساختاری و تسهیلاتی و مشارکت تعاملی با زیر مقیاس کارشناسی و عمومی با میزان آماره تی در معادله ساختاری حاصل، نشان از رابطه معناداری و تاثیرگذاری آ ن ها در فرضیات را با 95% اطمینان (1.96) بزرگتر بودند، تایید گردیدند.

    کلیدواژگان: الگوهای مشارکت عمومی جامعه، مدیریت پسماندهای شهری، برنامه ریزی شهری
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  • Asghar Bagheri *, Javad Tarighi, Nayer Emami Pages 7713-7722
    Precision agricultural technologies (PATs) are economically efficient and environmentally sound. However, their on-farm utilization by smallholders is still at a low level. Using a sample of 130 volunteer farmers, the current study investigated progressive farmers’ perception of the barriers to adopting and effectively using PATs in Ardabil province, Iran. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, an online survey was adopted to avoid close contact. A questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection. A panel of experts validated the questionnaire. The reliability of the research instrument was confirmed in a pilot study on 30 progressive farmers. The results indicated that progressive farmers had moderate knowledge about PATs. The lack of extension courses for farmers concerning the operation of these technologies and the need for high investment costs were regarded as the main barriers to adopting these technologies. Based on factor analysis, four factors, namely information barriers, economic barriers, infrastructural barriers, and lack of access, accounted for 74.23% of the variance in the barriers. The results have implications for policymakers and extension services. Progressive farmers as the early adopters of new technologies and the reference group of other farmers should be trained and encouraged to adopt PATs. Because PATs are costly and knowledge-intensive, providing low-interest loans and credits for buying PATs’ equipment, farmers’ precision agriculture associations for buying and collaboratively using these technologies, as well as extension campaigns, Radio-TV programs, and extension courses to train farmers about PATs are essential for utilizing these technologies
    Keywords: Precision agriculture, Adoption, Small-scale farmers, Information technologies
  • Boukaga Farmani *, Mahdi Faramoushi, Mostafa Khani Pages 7723-7729
    In this study was to determine the influence of Thymus migricus extract supplementation on mitochondrial oxidative enzyme activity and the endurance exercise performance. Twenty rats were divided into 2 groups. They received thyme hydro-ethanolic extract dissolved in distilled water to the desired concentration (400 mg/kg.day). All rats in both groups were subjected to endurance running on the treadmill 5 days/wk with maximum speed and duration of 1 h/day at 27 m/min for 8 wks. At the end of the training period, treadmill running to fatigue at 36 m/min speed was applied to determine the endurance capacity. 24 hours after the end of the endurance capacity test, the rats were decapitated. The activities of cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase in the soleus tissue were determined spectrophotometrically. Findings showed that there was no significant difference in liver enzymes between the two groups, thyme supplementation significantly down-regulated the activity of citrate synthase (35%) and cytochrome c oxidase (24%) within the soleus muscle compared to the non-supplemented group (respectively, t14=4.61, p=0.0004; t14 =4.19, p=0.001). The results of the t test revealed that the exhaustive running time of rats in the thyme group was significantly prolonged compared with the non-supplemented group (t18= 4.05, P=0.001).
    Keywords: endurance exercise, performance, Mitochondrial enzyme activity, liver enzymes, Thymus migricus
  • Baharaeh Dagestani Pages 7730-7736
    Potatoes and carrots are one of the major tuber crops in the world with high exposure to various pests and diseases, especially soft rot disease caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. In recent years, several reports relating to the spread of this disease in different parts of Northwest Iran have been published, but so far, no effective solution has been found. Due to the high prevalence of this disease in the region, the use of chemical pesticides, new antibiotics and safe antimicrobial compounds such as herbal extracts and essential oils appears to be necessary. The current research was conducted to assess the antibacterial effects of the three antibiotics Oxytetracycline, Dihydrostreptomycin and Chloramphenicol, in addition to thyme and mint essential oils, as well as neem aqueous and alcoholic extracts on the causal agent of the soft rot disease. Copper oxychloride pesticide was used as the control to compare the efficiencies of the compounds and extracts. The antibacterial effects on soft rot-inducing bacteria were analyzed using the agar gel diffusion and disc diffusion methods in three replicates by applying completely randomized design, and the results were analyzed in the SPSS software. The results showed that among the antibiotics the highest inhibition effect belonged to oxytetracycline. This antibiotic with its inhibitory halo diameter of 43 mm and percentage inhibition of 47.77% showed better performance than all other treatments, whereas copper oxychloride pesticide even at the highest concentration (5000mg/L), the inhibitory halo diameter was 13 mm and the inhibitory effect was 14.77%. Among the essential oils and extracts, the thyme essential oil with the inhibitory halo diameter of 27 mm and percentage inhibition of 30% was the highest among the natural compounds.
    Keywords: soft rot, Pectobacterium, Extract, Antibiotics, Pesticides
  • Mansour Yeganeh *, Mohammad Ali, MohammadReza Bemanian Pages 7737-7747

    Examining housing indicators is one of the different means and methods of knowing the characteristics of housing, with the help of which one can know the effective parameters in housing and facilitate any planning and decision-making about housing. The ever-increasing demand for housing has led to more attention being directed towards the quantitative aspects of housing. As a result, quality indicators of housing have received less attention. While the qualitative indicators of housing play a more colorful role than the quantitative dimensions due to responding to the social-cultural needs of the people of the society. In the reasonableness of housing, attention should first be paid to qualitative indicators such as content, meaning and concept, and then to quantitative indicators such as form. The residence or living space should be efficient in terms of quality indicators. The stated qualitative indicators include material and spiritual aspects. The material aspect is defined and formed by creating an environment with appropriate access and facilities, temperature, humidity and light, etc. The spiritual aspect is formed in order to respond to the spiritual needs of the users and is created through the creation of spaces in accordance with the way of life of the people of the society, which is derived from their culture and social customs.This research has been studied with descriptive analytical research method. The results show that the recognition and reference to the basic concepts and principles of sustainable and native house building and the correct application of their principles on the one hand and the use of new knowledge such as the genetic algorithm to facilitate access to the architectural genome of native and sustainable houses on the one hand On the other hand, the main solutions are to get rid of problems and weaknesses in this field.

    Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Sustainable Housing, Modernization, architectural genome, Quality indicators
  • Hooshmand Bagheri Garbollagh * Pages 7748-7761
    Introduction

    Studying people's attitudes towards greener options helps to understand their purchasing decisions. For this purpose, it is necessary to analyze the reasons that may lead to a negative attitude towards green products, which in turn hinders the sale of green products. One of these reasons may be the marketer's focus on maximizing utility, which has promoted materialism/consumerism as a value structure. By creating artificial demand for products through idealistic marketing, marketers have reinforced materialism and have focused on creating emotional connections between consumers and products by displaying psychological benefits, such as social status, happiness, and the power of product ownership. This has caused consumers to over-consume products to fulfill their endless psychological desires. People pay more attention to environmental protection and gradually increase their consumption of green products. Especially during the covid-19 pandemic, public perceptions and behavior patterns have shifted in a safer, healthier and greener direction. Therefore, business managers and researchers have been looking for ways to encourage consumers to buy green products, which has led to research in this field. The purpose of this research is to the effect of psychological characteristics on the attitude and intention to purchase green products with the moderating role of price sensitivity and environmental protection emotion.

    Methodology

    This study is applied in terms of purpose, descriptive and survey methods. The statistical population of the research consists of all consumers of green products in Urmia city. According to Cochran's formula, 384 people were selected by a simple random sampling method. A standard questionnaire was used to collect information. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to analyze the research data. A structural equation model (SEM) is a specific causal structure between a set of latent variables and observed variables. Through the structural equation model, latent variables (factor or structure) can be measured indirectly by using obvious variables (questionnaire items or questions). As the results showed; the measurement model meets all quality and reliability criteria. Because, all factor loadings are higher than 0.4, composite reliability is higher than 0.7, and the average values of extracted variance are higher than 0.5. The structural model of this study is evaluated through coefficient of determination (R2), predictive correlation (Q2), goodness of fit (GOF) test, and hypothesis testing. Three values of 0.19, 0.33 and 0.67 have been considered as criteria values for weak, medium and strong values of the fit of the structural part of the model by means of the coefficient of determination. According to research findings, it can be stated that all the values of the coefficient of determination are at the medium and strong level for fitting the structural part of the model. The obtained Q2 values show that the model has sufficient predictive relevance, as the values are above the threshold of 0.000. Considering that the model has all the criteria, it can be suggested that the structural model is good

    Conclusion

    Green products have the advantages of high nutritional value, being healthier, tasty, and being free from any chemical substances, and people with a price-sensitive spirit understand these advantages better, and they influence the willingness of such people to buy. It is effective. On the other hand, unfortunately, due to the high price of these products, some profit-seekers have tried to sell normal products with a green label, which has made consumers skeptical about products with a green label. Another reason for these results may be due to the lack of consumer knowledge about the quality of green products. Some evidence shows that there is an increase in the desire among Iranians for such a vegetable product; However, many consumers look for product safety, and are willing to pay a higher price for green products because they increase their level of utility, resulting in reduced health risks, hence, they are able to determine safety. They are green products before purchase. As a result, products with green stickers can strengthen consumers' sense of satisfaction in purchasing their products; in this way, by buying their products, even at a higher price, consumers will achieve a sense of inner satisfaction. It is worth mentioning that when the design of a product is impressive and powerful, consumers will be less sensitive to the price of the product. A focus on materialism tends to increase self-centeredness, which often causes little concern for others (including people and the environment). In contrast, where lower levels of materialism prevail, consumers value the well-being of society and the environment by showing concern and sensitivity towards the use and consumption of products. Sustainable development is now seen as an essential component of modern economic success, and environmental issues are expanding at an alarming rate around the world. The results of this study have important implications for academics, marketers, and policy makers who want to promote the wider use of green products. The findings of the research showed that materialism and perfectionism have a significant positive and negative effect on consumers' attitude towards green products, respectively, and this attitude towards green products has a positive and significant effect on the purchase green products. In addition, the results showed that price sensitivity moderates the relationship between materialism and attitude towards green products, but does not have a positive moderating role in the relationship between perfectionism and attitude towards green products. Finally, environmental protection emotion moderates the relationship between attitude and purchasing green products. In fact, perfectionism can be considered as a subsequent characteristic to achieve high human standards. Perfectionist people seek the best in their personal and social behavior and naturally want the best for their society and therefore look for green products. Consumers expect the green product to have the highest quality. High prices may equate to better products in most people's minds. Because most people believe that a high price reflects the best quality. However, in relation to perfectionism, it will be important to provide products that represent the social identity of people. On the other hand, people who have this motivation buy the green product with the perception that it is rarer and newer; because they have understood that these products are different compared to the products produced normally. Researchers have come to the conclusion that consumers with a high need for perfectionism tend to adapt to new products or brands more than consumers with a low need for uniqueness.

    Keywords: Environmental protection emotion, materialism, perfectionism, Price sensitivity, Green Product
  • Rouhollah Mirzazadeh, Hossein Nazmfar *, Abolfazl Ghanbari Pages 7762-7783

    With the emergence of neighborhoods as spots of urban life, the realization of sustainable development was pursued only in the form of neighborhood development and on a local scale, and in continuation of the global thinking, think locally and act locally. The ultimate goal of sustainable neighborhood development is the connection between social and physical capital. This means that social processes are used for the purpose of identity and physical structure and creating capacity for future development. In other words, planning with the people and not for them is the key element of neighborhood development.The purpose of this study is to investigate Spatial analysis of the effects of land use distribution in sustainable development of the city of Tabriz. The purpose of this study is applied research and in terms of method is descriptive - analytical and to collect data, documentary and field studies (observation, interviews and questionnaires) have been used. The population consisted of urban households in urban areas of Tabriz, which according to the census of 1395 had 1558693 households and 497898 households, and a population of 396 households was selected as research sample using the Cochran formula. The reliability of the research tool was calculated by cronbach’s alpha coefficient which showed good reliability. To analyze the data, the mean, structural equation and saw decision making technique were used. The results showed that, in terms of sustainable development, region 8 with 0.115 grade, region 2 with grade 0.110 and region 1 with 0.108 scores were ranked first to third.Examining the condition of the neighborhoods in the ten districts of Tabriz metropolis showed that the neighborhoods in District 8, District 2, and District 1 have good sustainable neighborhood development compared to other urban areas and access to all types of urban uses (educational, health and medical) , sports, recreation, commercial-commercial, suitable housing, infrastructure and basic services, etc.) are easily possible and these components have a positive effect on the economic, social, physical and environmental dimensions and ultimately the stability of the neighborhood. has had in these areas. In addition to these, in these areas, the social identity of the citizens, social participation, connection and belonging, the existence of personal and social security at the local level, the level of employment and productive income, quick access to urban public transportation, the presence of green and open spaces, the amount Low pollution caused by industries and urban transportation, the existence of a suitable landscape, access to educational services, recreation and leisure, health services, access to suitable housing, and the existence of infrastructure facilities and services have a favorable status compared to other urban areas. And the research respondents in these areas were fully satisfied with the existence of different urban land uses and citizens' access to itIn terms of the impact of land use in the development of neighborhood sustainability, indexes of entertainment and leisure with 3.91 test value have the highest impact on the fulfillment of sustainable development of urban neighborhoods in the study area, and generally in sustainable development of urban localities in Tabriz metropolis, physical indices and infrastructure are more intelligible.Also, the spatial analysis of the effects of urban land use distribution at the level of urban areas and its impact on the sustainable development of neighborhoods in the studied area from the point of view of the citizens showed that, in this area of citizenship identity indicators with a T value of 2.56, the existence of citizens' social participation With a T value of 2.42, the existence of green and open spaces in the city neighborhoods with a T value of 2.78, the presence of recreational and leisure places with a T value of 3.91, access to health and treatment with a T value of 3.33. , infrastructural facilities and services with T value of 3.03 and... have had the greatest impact on realizing the sustainability of the development of urban neighborhoods in the ten regions of Tabriz metropolis. However, among these indicators, "the presence of places of recreation and leisure time and access to health and treatment" has received more attention from the citizens due to the spread of the Covid-19 disease (Corona) in the last one year in the whole world. So that the spread of corona virus has created an unprecedented stress among the citizens, and the citizens and the communities in general are aware of the importance of the existence of health and treatment facilities and places of recreation and leisure in different parts of the cities. have taken and even believe that with this structural change that happened with the spread of this infectious disease in the world and especially in big cities, access to health and treatment facilities (such as: hospitals, clinics, doctors' offices, laboratories, etc.) is very important for the stability of urban areas Also, with the spread of the corona virus and the increase in the number of people infected with this virus in the city of Tabriz, many small-scale businesses were closed, and people who, without employment insurance, do not have access to medical services and care systems, people who work in informal sectors, or work as workers in private, semi-private companies, etc., have faced the risk of poverty and deprivation more And for this reason, in order to prevent these disasters, the existence of health and treatment uses in order to deal with this disaster is one of the necessities of neighborhood development. Also, the results showed that the structural model developed in this research to investigate the impact of land use distribution on the sustainability of urban areas has a desirable and acceptable quality.According to the results of the research, suggestions are presented as follows to be considered by planners in the direction of neighborhood sustainability; 1) Development of health and treatment uses in order to prevent all kinds of infectious diseases and reduce the stress of citizens, 2) Increasing the use of sports, leisure, parks, etc. for the use of citizens and reducing the effects of staying at home during During the period of Covid-19 disease and 3) increasing the participation of citizens in development programs and accompanying them in various stages of formulation, implementation and monitoring of urban development programs, etc.

    Keywords: Spatial analysis, Urban use, sustainable development, Distribution of uses, Tabriz city
  • Ata Ghafari Gilandeh *, Homa Vaezi, Alireza Mohammadi Pages 7784-7793
    Introduction

    Local communities have always been the first to help the victims immediately after the disaster. Therefore, we should try to empower them as much as possible. Today community based components in disaster management occupies a very high position in the field of disaster management. Because in facing various disasters and reducing the damages caused by them, there has been a transition from the traditional paradigm of disaster management, where the focus was on the physical approach, to the new approach of community based disaster management. In this approach, the social dimensions of people's participation in decision-making and their implementation are among the most important stages of the disaster management process. Taking advantage of social resources, building local capacity and empowering the community to face various disasters are the basic components of this approach. In order to optimally manage the different stages of the disaster, various approaches are used. An approach that has been noticed in recent years is the developmental or community based approach. In this approach, an effort is made to increase the ability of the society to adapt to the harmful consequences of risks through capacity building and empowering the members of the society, and by involving participants into actions that lead to the reduction of the risk, and to empower the society to prevent and face with disasters and finally return to the original situation. In the form of this approach, two sub-approaches of the structural ideology and the institutional ideology have been explained in this direction. The structural ideology emphasizes on socio-economic criteria and the institutional ideology is based on the concept of resilience. In fact, the failure of top-down approaches caused a series of social and cultural topics such as trust, values and norms, social capital and human capacities to be taken into consideration in the field of urban, local and regional planning and management.In the field of institutional approach, the correction and improvement of local institutional procedures and arrangements is emphasized. In this field, the main emphasis is not only on activate government political institutions at the local level, but also on the role of agents and non-governmental institutions. According to what is said, it can be found that the Institutional approach as a sub-approach of community-oriented disaster management is one of the latest approaches in the field of disaster management which is oriented in disaster management in connection with the participation of the citizens of Ardabil city.

    Methodology

    The current research is descriptive and analytical with an applied purpose. During the study of the theoretical literature, it was found that basically the realization of people's participation in urban affairs, of which disaster management is also considered a part of; It requires providing the necessary grounds and platforms at the community level. Therefore, due to the wide range of the issues, it was tried to provide the criteria to investigate this issue within the scope of the study. The basis for choosing criteria is based on library and document studies, which include 6 criteria of (sense of place, social cooperation, social trust, social cohesion, incentive policies and educational activities) and 30 sub-criteria. The statistical population of this research is the districts of five regions of Ardabil city, and the questionnaires was used to collect statistics and information. The content validity of the questions of questionnaire was confirmed by professors and experts and the reliability of the questionnaire was obtained using Cronbach's alpha with the coefficient of 0.818. To obtain the statistical sample size, Cochran's formula was used, which was estimated to be 384 people with an error percentage of 0.05 and a confidence factor of 95%. Stratified random sampling method is proportional to attribution. In selecting the samples, we tried to refer mostly to the heads of the household. After indexing, first the average of each index was calculated using SPSS software, and then after weighting the studied indices using the Shannon entropy method, the target areas in the Excel software were ranked using the MABAC method.

    conclusion

    In this research, in order to evaluate the participation of citizens of Ardabil city in urban crisis management, the Likert scale was used and the answers were ranked 1 to 5. In this way 1 refers to the lowest participation and 5 is the highest amount. In this way, the number 3 is considered as the theoretical median of the answers and the average obtained from the participation rate is compared with the number 3. Based on the results of the statistical calculations, the average of the total citizen participation criteria is 2.81 and is lower than the average. Among these, the lowest average is related to educational activities (2.59) and the highest average is related to social cohesion (3.50). Therefore, it can be concluded that despite the high potential of Ardabil city in the field of various risks and despite the repetition of many disasters; unfortunately, the city officials have not been able to realize the main deficiency of the urban crisis management system that is the weakness or lack of public participation.The weakness of people's participation, which is one of the important principles of sustainable management, has caused that despite spending a lot of money in the disaster management system of Ardabil city, the urban system is still disturbed and confused by the occurrence of natural hazards. In addition, in the present research attempts to prioritize the areas of the 5 regions of Ardabil city in terms of the level of citizens' participation in disaster management by using the MABAC method. For this purpose, the citizens' responses were first collected and the average responses were entered in the Excel software as the primary matrix, and then the MABAC method was used to rank the areas. The results show that district 1 of the region 1 with a Q value of 0.546, is at the first rank, district 1 of the region 3, ranked second with a Q value of 0.351; district 2 of the region1, ranked third with a value of 0.315. Also, district 3 of region 4 ranks last with a Q value of -0.432.In order to improve the participation of the citizens of Ardabil in urban disaster management, for each of the criteria considered for the current research the following suggestions and solutions were presented: implementing educational programs and also distributing features such as motivation, worrying about the future, helping and related knowledge and skills in schools, universities and visual, written and listening media seem necessary. Considering that one of the influential factors in citizens' participation is their satisfaction with city facilities and services, therefore, the city officials should distribute city services fairly at the city, ensure public welfare and comfort of the people, and create a safe and healthy urban space in order to Provide the basis for the participation of citizens as much as possible. By holding meetings at the neighborhood level and creating a local council, the city officials can take advantage of citizens' opinions, suggestions and criticisms, and by establishing a disaster management information and communication network which is a communication bridge between city officials and citizens, increase social trust and as a result, provide a greater desire for collaborative affairs among citizens. According to the results of the present research, the average indicators related to the sense of place in the areas that have better environmental conditions and physical quality (district 1 of region 3, district 2 of region 1, district 1 of region 1) compared to other districts is higher. Therefore, it seems that physical improvement - even if it is insignificant - and revitalization of community places in urban areas; It can facilitate the participation of citizens in the disaster management of Ardabil city.

    Keywords: institutional approach, community based disaster management, citizens' participation, Ardabil City, MABAC method
  • Armin Hatami Zenouzi, Ali Moridi, Reza Khalili * Pages 7794-7807
    Introduction

    With the increase in world population, food and energy supply will be one of the most important challenges of human society. According to FAO estimates, the agricultural sector must increase its production by 60% to meet the needs of population growth by 2050. Also, according to the prediction of the International Energy Agency, energy consumption will increase by 50% by 2035. It is also predicted by FAO that irrigation water consumption will increase by 10% by 2050. To achieve security in the field of water, energy, food and environment, researchers have created several interdisciplinary and specialized frameworks and approaches to achieve a dynamic and optimal balance of production and use of resources, one of which is the water, energy, food and environment nexus. With the increasing pressure of consumption on resources and the complex relationships and interactions that resources have with each other, the need for a new approach to identify and analyze these relationships for the sustainability of valuable water, soil, energy, etc. resources is undeniable. The water, energy and food nexus (WEFN) is an approach that makes this possible. WEFN can serve as an approach to evaluate, develop and define the implementation of policies that simultaneously emphasize water, energy, food security and the environment.In the past years, many researches related to the correlation of water, energy, food and the environment have been carried out in different dimensions and the challenges in this field have been examined, including the most complete water security index compiled by the Asian Development Bank (ADB). Central Asian and East Asian countries have been evaluated using this index in 2013, 2016 and 2020. This index is a combination of five key dimensions of environmental water security, economic water security, rural water security, urban water security and resilience against water crises. The results of this research have been used to analyze the weak and strong points of the countries of this region in the management of water resources, and due to its continuous monitoring, the process of changing the status of these countries is monitored.

    Methodology

    In this research, by examining past research on 7 indicators, including people who use minimum basic drinking water services, per capita renewable domestic fresh water resources, renewable energy consumption, renewable electricity output, prevalence of malnutrition, children under 5 years old who are short. The people who use health services with safe management were selected to evaluate the conditions of Iran, and the critical indicators in Iran and the world were compared, and finally, according to the investigations carried out, we examined the related factors. We made a survey so that we could measure the effect of each parameter on the other, for this reason, the DPSIR model was used in order to evaluate the issues and problems in relation to each other and provide an appropriate answer.

    Conclusion

    According to selected selected indicators, Iran is in a critical situation in terms of per capita renewable domestic fresh water resources and share of renewable energy consumption. Now we compare the critical indicators in Iran and the world, which shows that Iran has 25-30% of the world's renewable fresh water resources, which indicates our critical situation. According to this index and its comparison with the Falcon Mark index, our country has entered into water stress. In addition, in 2018, renewable energy resources had a share of 1.04% and nuclear energy had a share of 0.46% in Iran's energy portfolio, which made our country has faced a fundamental challenge in this field, as a result, according to the investigations carried out, we need a model that connects these factors and can measure the effect of each one on the other, for this model, DPSIR is presented To be able to evaluate issues and problems in relation to each other and provide appropriate answers. Among the answers of the DPSIR model in the field of water, we can mention the macro-policies for the country's water management, because in the last two decades, suitable upstream documents in this field have been compiled and approved by the authorities. In addition, in the direction of capacity building, education and public awareness, among the measures that should be taken, it is possible to mention the regular holding of meetings of the Supreme Water Council, the implementation of the protection plan for the country's wetlands by the Environmental Protection Organization and its extension to the country's wetlands. Among the other answers of this model in the field of water was to provide a solution in line with the country's water strategic goals, which are: proper governance and comprehensive management of water resources, improvement of water supply and supply, improvement of productivity and water management, and reform of the water economy structure and investment system. Among other answers provided by the DPSIR model, it is possible to determine an optimal portfolio in the field of energy in order to reduce the water footprint in the field of reducing greenhouse gases and help the country in the path of sustainable development and achieving its goals, including clean energy Contract.In addition, in the direction of capacity building, education and public awareness, among the measures that should be taken, it is possible to mention the regular holding of meetings of the Supreme Water Council, the implementation of the protection plan for the country's wetlands by the Environmental Protection Organization and its extension to the country's wetlands. Among the other answers of this model in the field of water was to provide a solution in line with the country's water strategic goals, which are: proper governance and comprehensive management of water resources, improvement of water supply and supply, improvement of productivity and water management, and reform of the water economy structure and investment system. Among other answers provided by the DPSIR model, it is possible to determine an optimal portfolio in the field of energy in order to reduce the water footprint in the field of reducing greenhouse gases and help the country in the path of sustainable development and achieving its goals, including clean energy Contract.

    Keywords: Water, Energy, Food, Environment Nexus, DPSIR, Renewable Resources
  • Hossein Nazmfar *, Davood Vafadari Komarolya Pages 7808-7824

    Urban green spaces are one of the most important urban spaces that leave a significant impact on the livability of cities. During the Corona epidemic, due to the weakness in the resilience of urban green spaces, the possibility of visiting these places for citizens was limited. In this regard, urban green spaces play an important role in the post-corona era, for this reason, in this research, the impact of these places on the mental health of citizens in the post-corona era was investigated. In order to conduct this study, library resources and questionnaires were used, 12 questions out of 12 mental health indicators were proposed, and 207 questionnaires were completely collected through simple random sampling. To check the available data through the mean of points in such a way that 4, 3, 0, 2, 1 points are assigned to the options available in the research (I completely agree, I agree, I have no opinion, I disagree, I completely disagree) and with Performing the relevant calculations, the average score of each index was obtained and compared with the average score and the necessary results were determined. The findings showed that urban green spaces had the greatest effect on reducing anxiety and the least effect on increasing productive study. In general, it can be said that urban green spaces have a positive effect on the mental health of citizens, and proper planning should be done to expand these places at the level of cities.

    Keywords: Urban landscape, mental health, Mental Health Indicators, Pandemic
  • Paresa Sargolzaee Nizami *, Shseyedmahdi Hoseyni, Maryam Sarani Pages 7825-7838
    Introduction

    Since the fisheries sector is one of the important economic sectors that plays a significant role in providing income and employment for the coastal people of the country. In order to maintain the stability of aquatic resources and access to numerous economic, biological, social and planning goals in aquatic resources, it seems inevitable (Rezaat Kish and Badam Firoz, 2017). One of the important goals in fisheries management is to maintain the process of fishing and harvesting from Aquatic resources and sustainable fishing levels. In order to measure the achievement of goals in the process of sustainable development, a series of indicators should be used. Fisheries management for sustainable development is a multi-dimensional activity that should be investigated in a wide area that requires information and data, or indicators other than fish stocks and fishing activity (Wang et al., 2014). Increasing awareness by economic experts, formulating policies, principles, rules and regulations and also expression of scientific models and strategies appropriate harvested and productivity of natural resources, suitable field for the growth and development of other sectors (industry, commerce, agriculture and services) provided and will lead to a stable outlook in country.

    Methodology

    One of the most important management tools and solutions that can play a constructive role in the sustainability of natural resources is the use of advanced economic models. For this purpose, in this research, after presenting a method to estimate the net value of resource extraction, a dynamic model was designed to optimize the extraction values. The Lagrange coefficient method was also proposed as another solution in this research. This method is essential for optimizing resources that are harvested in the long term.Estimating the present value of net benefits from natural resourcesThe present value of net benefits (NPV) in economics is one of the standard methods for evaluating economic projects. In this method, the cash flow of income and expenses is discounted to the daily rate based on the time of occurrence of income or expenses. In this way, in the cash flow, the time value of spending or earning income is included. Net present value in natural resource economics is used to estimate the present value of resource extraction.The exploitation of natural resources due to rapid population growth and meet the basic human needs of growing and developing. This growth in addition to, production technology developed and harvesting of resources in large scale, emphasis to sustainable economic and environmental activities. According to the vulnerable renewable and non-Renewable resources of countries require that exploit them, for removal existing needs in a manner to be achieved that these resources remain sustainable for coming generation. Achieving this goal requires strong leadership on utilization of existing resources in nature. In this regard, the use of dynamic models for determining optimal amount of harvest and right resource management in the short term and long time periods, necessary to proving to be true this goals and the important role in assist to farmers. For the design of the dynamic optimization model was used Lagrange multiplier method In Chabahar area of Sistan and Baluchestan province in 2021. Excel software was used to solve the model.

    Conclusion

    Today, the exploitation of natural resources is growing and developing due to the rapid growth of the population and meeting the basic human needs. This growth is in such a way that in addition to the development of the technology of production and harvesting of fishery resources on a large scale, it also emphasizes the economic and environmental sustainability of the activities. In this research presented model to determine optimal amount harvest fishery resources in future periods. This model due to changes in discount rates in various periods of time was to be able to allocate resources in a way that in all periods have maximum profit and net benefits. And causes reduce speed to empty store resource and assist to sustainable of resource. The results showed that the storage of a fishery affected by factors such as the amount of storage, the harvest of the source, the discount rate, rate of return on investment and saving rates is a renewable source. Also the result showed that harvest fish from a fishery over 10 periods with fixed-rate of about 0.05 percent, and started from the second year Total value of net benefits in this case is the equivalent of 15.29 million rials. While that after implementing dynamic planning model amount of fish of resource changed of 0.05 to 0.124. After optimization amount harvest of resource, total net present value by model dynamic planning to estimate 22.75 million rials that indicating increase net present value 7.46 million rials regard to present state. Also the net present value of benefits (NPV) of fish harvested during the 10 consecutive periods reduced to increase discount rate and with discount rate cut has increased. In other words, the relationship between changes in the present value of net benefits and the discount rate indirect or reverse. In addition, by increasing and decreasing the rate of return on investment, increase and decrease the amount of storage. This suggests the existence of a direct relationship between changes rate of return on investment and save the fish is over 10 consecutive periods. And relationship between the rate of return on investment and change of net present value of harvesting fish during 10 consecutive periods.In the end, is recommended the use of dynamic programming models due to its flexibility and ability to calculate time series data in order to allocate renewable natural resources during consecutive periods harvesting of resources. The use of these models to determine the appropriate and schedule program for the harvest of natural resource renewable, cause to protection and stability this resources in long term. In the end, the use of dynamic planning models is recommended due to their flexibility and the ability to calculate time series data in order to allocate renewable natural resources during successive periods of resource extraction. The use of these models, in addition to determining a suitable and scheduled program for the extraction of renewable natural resources, causes the preservation and sustainability of these resources in the long term.

    Keywords: optimization, Dynamic programming, Lagrange multiplier methods, Sustainability natural resource, fishery
  • Esmaeil Jahani Dolatabad *, Rahman Jahani Dolatabad Pages 7839-7854

    The combination and distribution of service uses in a specific area is considered as a means of measuring the level of social and spatial justice in the direction of sustainable development. One of the obvious manifestations of urban instability is the inappropriate distribution of urban uses, which not only leads to an imbalance of population in the city, but also can shape the city spaces in contradiction with justice (the most important principle of sustainable development). Among the factors that must be observed in connection with spatial justice is the proper distribution of uses and the correct use of spaces. One of the prone areas in this regard is the land around railway lines in cities and residential areas, which, due to its nature, has many issues and problems that are rooted in the combination and distribution of its uses. Diverse and incompatible styles and forms with the environment, illogical dimensions and proportions, interference with other privacy, disruption of traffic, non-compliance with neighbors and other cultural and physical aspects, etc. are some of these problems. The existing issues and problems, the low quality of life around and within the railway lines, wear and tear, incoherence and inadequacy of laws and regulations and issues of this kind, the need to pay attention to the lands and uses around the railway lines. In this range, it doubles. In this article, the lands around the railway lines in the 16th district of Tehran were selected and examined from this point of view. In terms of method, this study is descriptive-analytical and is considered as "analytical-comparative" type of research. The method of collecting data is in the form of documents. The research process based on the theoretical model obtained after determining the desired area in the lands around the railway lines in the 16th district of Tehran, has been carried out in two basic parts. The first part is related to the investigation of the distribution and distribution of service users in the target area from the perspective of two components, population and area. Service uses in this study include green, educational, health, cultural, religious, sports and recreational uses, and major investigations have been done on these uses. The selection of these uses as service uses was based on the existing plans, especially the comprehensive and special plan, the details of which are given in the findings section. In this regard, firstly, the per capita and the extent of all the service uses in the target area were compared to the region, the proposal of the comprehensive plan and also the national and international standards were examined. In the second part, the status of access to service users was determined using the AHP model and Expert Choice software, as well as the use of GIS software. For this purpose and in order to prevent the interference of service users in the areas around the study area, firstly, the status of access to service users in the entire 16th district of Tehran based on the extent of each user in covering the entire area by the buffering tool (Multiple Ring Buffer) ) was specified in GIS and then the desired area was cut from it (Intersect). Finally, in order to overlap the maps of access to service uses and to produce the final map of the access situation in the area around the railway lines of the 16th district of Tehran, from the Hierarchical Analysis Process (AHP) and especially the Expert Choice software to determine the coefficient of different effects. Different service uses were used according to the conditions of the desired area - the area around the railway lines.The results indicate that the lands around the railway lines in the 16th district of Tehran, as a result of neglecting their planning and maintenance, have many disturbances and problems, some of which are due to inappropriate land use. This is completely against the principle of social and spatial justice and the principles of sustainable development. The lands around the railway lines in the 16th district of Tehran are not in a favorable condition, both in terms of the size and per capita of the land uses, specifically the service land uses, and in terms of the access to the above land uses. Although the extent and per capita of service uses in the 16th district of Tehran is lower than the national standards and even the proposed standards of the master plan in most cases, the land around the railway lines in this region is in a much worse condition than the region itself. In none of the investigated uses in this area, the situation was not favorable compared to the proposal of the master plan, the national standard and even the region itself. Among the service uses, the biggest shortage per capita compared to the region is related to cultural use in the study area. In the same way, medical-health uses, recreation, use of green spaces and sports are also in the next priorities in terms of per capita shortage. However, among the uses that have more per capita than the region, we can mention the use of the railway network, barren lands, religious, administrative-police and residential uses, which are usually not considered as service uses and according to the conditions and The location around the railway lands is obvious. Also, the investigations showed that all the service users in the studied area have a disadvantageous situation in terms of per capita and size compared to the first and second options proposed in the comprehensive plan. The status of access to service uses in the area around the railway lines also showed that, apart from educational use and to some extent religious use and green space, the access status of which is relatively acceptable, access to other service uses, in It is not in a good condition. But all in all, it can be said that a relatively large part of the area around the railway lines of the 16th district of Tehran is in a poor condition in terms of access to services. In terms of accessibility, the deprived parts are relatively scattered all over the range, but the main concentration is in the central part and inclined towards the north of the range, i.e. the parts of Aliabad north and inclined to Khazaneh neighborhood from the east side. and leading to Naziabad from the west side of the railway lines, as well as around the south terminal and the railway, and only parts of the southern parts of the area, i.e. the east side of the railway lines, parts of South Aliabad as has been determined.

    Keywords: Service user, Social Justice, per capita, Access, lands around the railway lines of the 16th district of Tehran
  • Mahdi Jadidoleslami Ghalehno, Fariba Esfandiari Dorabad *, Sayyad Asghari Seraskanroud, Mousa Abedini, Raoof Mostafazadeh Pages 7855-7872

    The occurrence of drought in the Sistan region and the drying up of the Hamon Lake, as well as the 120-day winds, have created suitable conditions for wind erosion and caused a lot of damage to the natural and human life of the region. These factors have caused the movement of loose sand in the region at a high speed and the sand dunes to expand a lot. Field studies indicate that during frequent droughts in the Sistan region, the movement of sand dunes has been so great that it has caused the burial of a large number of rural houses and the loss of agricultural land, which has led to the migration of the natives of the region in recent years. has followed The dangers caused by the displacement of sand dunes at the level of villages include threats to the health of residents, burial of villages, destruction of soil and public infrastructure, etc. Several factors such as strong and permanent winds, the low slope and low complexity of the plain, the fineness of the soil, successive droughts and the lack of vegetation play a role in the amount of sand movement in the Sistan plain. The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in the sand dunes of Sistan plain by using time series mineralogy and using Landsat satellite data and to propose some solutions to reduce the movement of sand dunes and in turn, reduce its destructive effects on the lives of the residents of the area. The research was conducted using Landsat satellite images with resolution of 30 meters from 1997 to 2020 to investigate the changes of sand dunes in the Sistan plain. According to the results, the extent of sand dunes in August increased from 8.23% in 1997 to 11% in 2020, and in July from 8.83% to 12.9% of the total area of the studied basin, which is almost the trend. It shows a significant increase. Also, the changes in the area of Hamon Lake from 1997 to 2020 show that the lake's water volume has decreased greatly, and this indicates that the expansion of sand dunes in different years is directly related to the changes in the lake level in different times, and the reason for the displacement of sand dunes is the erosive winds of the region. Which have a north to northwest direction with an angle of 330 to 360 degrees (the 120-day wind of Sistan) and the most important facies of harvesting are the saline and puffy areas of the Hamun lake bed and the northern plains.On a global scale, the occurrence of storms and floods are among the most destructive natural hazards (Vesterb and et all, 2022), as most accidents are caused by these two hazards (Yakshin and et all, 2022). Hazards mean natural events that potentially cause danger to humans and what is valuable to them. Hazard has the potential to cause damage, for human health, human, economic, educational activity, damage to property, damage to the environment, loss of flora and fauna, pollution and insecurity of natural disasters are dangerous (Rahimi Harabadi, 2019). The active and dynamic nature of the sand dunes causes the movement of sands towards the settlements to be more frequent and creates many dangers such as threats to the health of residents, burial of villages, destruction of soil and public facilities, and causes financial losses, migration of residents, and finally, a human disaster. (Jadidoleslami, 2019). Therefore, in order to plan fundamentally to solve the problem, it is necessary to analyze the origin of the sands, the role of the morphometric parameters of the sand dunes in the extent of their displacement, and considering the fact that the area is residential, the risks of the sands are identified and solutions are provided to reduce the risks. Sand dunes in the realm of the wind process are considered to be one of the most dynamic geomorphic phenomena on the earth's surface, which are affected by the characteristics of wind speed, direction and frequency on the one hand, and on the other hand by the characteristics of the earth's surface and sedimentary materials (Abbasnejad and Zahab Nouri, 2013). The results of studies on a scale of 1:250,000 show that the sand dunes of Iran include 11 sand seas and 39 hill fields that cover approximately 1.1 million hectares (Abbasi et al., 2019). Sandstorms are one of the most important weather phenomena that spread in many deserts and dry areas of the world, and in recent years, they have received a lot of attention, and every year these incidents cause a lot of damage and casualties in all parts of the world.In order to carry out this research, first, with direct field observations and field operations, to determine the harvesting areas, sampling was done from the transport areas and possible harvesting areas, and based on the mineralogical characteristics and the examination of the genetic relationship of the samples, the primary origin of the sediments was investigated. In order to identify the harvesting areas, sampling was done from the place of accumulation of sands, from different points of possible harvesting areas, and the genetic relationship (similar properties) of the three areas (harvesting, transportation and sedimentation) was investigated through the physical and chemical analysis of the sediments. Took Also, four synoptic stations (Zabol-Zahak-Hirmand-Hamon) were also studied.According to the presented results, the level of heavy metals in the air of Enqelab Street is not hazardous to the health of the residents. Therefore, there is no need to spend enormous expenses in this area. Nevertheless, the health of permanent and temporary residents is threatened by chromium and arsenic due to their high rate of carcinogenesis. The outcome of these investigations indicates that despite recording few different values in some places, the air pollution levels are equal in whole the area, from Enqelab Square to Imam Hossein Square. However, the air pollution level of ValiasCr rossroads is relatively considerable. This difference only has resulted from high volume of traffic in the crossroads. Unfortunately, traffic of students in this area is so heavy that solving Valiasr Crossroad’s traffic issues are considered as an important priority.

    Keywords: Risk Assessment, sand dunes, Sistan plain, 120-day winds, Wind erosion
  • Elahe Soleymani Pages 7873-7889

    In this paper, biogas steam reforming (BSR) coupled with a humidification dehumidification unit (HDH) was proposed and the novel thermodynamic analysis interaction effects on energy efficiency and exergy efficiency via the design of experiments was used. Comprehensive thermodynamic modelling has been performed using EES software. From the outlet results, the energy efficiency, exergy efficiency, hydrogen mass flow rate and freshwater mass flow rate of the system are obtained 82.39% and 72.65%, 0.1071 kg/s and 0.211 kg/s, respectively. Thus, by utilizing the thermodynamic analysis of the combined system by EES software and transferring the experiments based on the central composite design for the input parameters (the inlet temperature of the dehumidifier, humidifier and dehumidifier circulated mass flow rate and the desalination heater inlet temperature) extracted by the design expert software, the results show the impact of the interaction of the input parameters. In RSM model, the central composite design (CCD) is employed in the experimental design. values in energy and exergy efficiency responses were calculated 99.99% and 99.97%, respectively that shows the model has a good accuracy. The optimum points for parameters of A, B and C and also responses of energy efficiency and exergy efficiency are obtained 310 K, 8 kg/s, 450 K, 0.9051% and 0.7313%, respectively.

    Keywords: Biogas steam reforming, Humidification-dehumidification unit, Thermodynamic, Response surface methodology, Central composite design
  • Ghasem Fathi, Alireza Mohammadi *, Ata Ghafari Gilandeh Pages 7890-7899
    Introduction

    Respiratory diseases are one of the most important diseases that have involved the world community (Kermani et al., 2015). According to the statistics of the World Health Organization, one-fifth of people in the world are suffering from these diseases, and in 2005, the ranking of chronic respiratory diseases was 13, and in 2016, the ranking of this disease reached 5. Also, chronic respiratory diseases ranked 11th in terms of the occurrence of physical disabilities in 2020 (World Health Center website, 2021). Respiratory disease, which is generally related to lung disease, includes a group of diseases that cause lung dysfunction by involving parts or parts of the respiratory system. Sometimes respiratory disease is caused by damage to the pleural membrane (pleura), pleural cavity, or respiratory muscles and nerves. Every year, lung diseases affect many people in society, which reduce the level of performance of a person in daily activities. Respiratory system diseases in England are the most common cause of referral to general practitioners (Etamidi et al., 2018). Respiratory diseases are classified into two types, infectious and non-infectious (Khoshdel et al., 2013), infectious respiratory diseases are widely distributed at the community level and are transmitted from person to person, often in the form of lung infection or the same essence. Pneumonia occurs (Gunathilakaabc, R., et al, 2018), and its non-infectious type is often caused by exposure to environmental and biological pollutants (Kimberly, A, 2017). Iran's respiratory diseases are always a major challenge. According to a four-year study, the rate of asthma in the adult population of the country is 9%, and in children and adolescents, it is 11%. In Iran, chronic respiratory diseases are the third cause of death after cardiovascular diseases and road accidents (Ethmarian et al., 2012).On average, 200 people die in Kalansehr, Tehran, due to respiratory diseases per year (Kermani et al., 2015). Therefore, it is necessary to identify and plan for the reduction and prevention of these diseases in the city of Tehran. In order to make correct preventive plans, we must know how the diseases are distributed in the place, so that the influence of environmental factors on the increase or decrease of the affected people is necessary. to be able to measure specific diseases (Ghadami et al., 2012). In recent years, due to the spread of Corona, the number of respiratory diseases has increased significantly in the country, especially in Tehran. Most respiratory diseases lead to severe lung or pleural infections (pneumonia).Geographical epidemiology is a part of descriptive epidemiology in the style of spatial analysis that examines the geographical distribution of morbidity and mortality rates (Rivero, A, et al, 2015). For the prevention, management, and control of diseases, various information technology methods such as geographic information systems (GIS) are used. Based on this, a geographic information system will be used in this study. The aim of this research is to analyze the spatiotemporal respiratory diseases in Tehran using the Kernel density estimation model using Geographical Information System (GIS).

    Methodology

    The current research was done based on the purpose, applied, and based on the descriptive-analytical method. In order to identify and understand the spatial patterns of respiratory diseases at the level of 22 districts of the Tehran metropolis, statistical and graphic models have been used in the geographic information system (GIS) environment. At first, to identify the foci of concentration of respiratory diseases, the analyzed data were considered as points, and mapping of the disease was done. Then, by using statistical tests, the general patterns of respiratory diseases were determined at the level of the regions of Tehran, and finally, disease maps were extracted using the kernel density method, and based on this, other analyzes were performed. The most important statistical tests used in this research are the mean center, standard deviation ellipse, clustering tests, and kernel density estimation methods. The statistical population of the research is the number of people suffering from respiratory disease (1995 people) within the legal limits of the city of Tehran, which is between the years 1397 and 1400.

    Conclusion

    Identifying and analyzing the ranges of diseases at the city level using the GIS geographic information system makes it possible for the health organization of any country to identify pathogenic factors and reduce its growth rate and apply preventive policies. Using the results of the analysis of this research in relation to respiratory diseases at the level of the regions of Tehran, it is possible to provide preventive measures. According to the analysis of the central mean and ellipse of standard deviation, District 12, as one of the central districts of the city, is the center of respiratory diseases in Tehran. The findings of the research showed that by using the closest neighborhood index in the clustering test, the distribution pattern of respiratory diseases data in Tehran city is uniform. Most of the respiratory diseases that spread in an infectious manner due to their contagious nature spread quickly in all areas of the city, and this is also true in the case of Tehran. According to the results of the ellipse of the standard deviation, the areas with the highest incidence of respiratory diseases in the city of Tehran are located in the northeast and southwest sides of the city. According to the findings of the research using the kernel density estimation model in the period of 1397-1400, in 1397 the areas that are in the neighborhood of District 12 are known as centers of respiratory disease in Tehran. In 2018, region 17 was introduced as the second main center of respiratory diseases in Tehran. In 2019, with preventive measures, region 17 moved away from the center of diseases, and after that, the neighboring areas of this region were not affected by the disease. Respiratory tracts stay away. In the year 1400, the northern areas of Tehran were introduced as new foci of the spread of respiratory diseases. The areas that are most affected by respiratory diseases are often the areas that are at a lower level in terms of social and environmental factors and generally have a low quality of living.

    Keywords: spatial analysis, Respiratory disease, Epidemiology, Kernel density estimation model, Tehran
  • Mansour Rasekh *, Hamed Karami, Ali Khorramifar, Vahid Azizi Pages 7900-7910
    Introduction

    The use of plant-derived compounds is common in medicine and preventive health care, while the scope of use of some substances is steadily increasing. The mint family, with more than 200 genera and 3000 species, is very important economically and medicinally. The mint genus contains 25 to 30 species that grow in different temperate regions of Asia, Europe, Australia and South Africa. There is a great diversity in terms of chemical composition among the species of the mint genus. Peppermint essential oil (Mentha spicata L.) is rich in carvone, which produces the special aroma of mint. The yield of essential oil of Sentha spicata is lower than that of Mentha piperita. Carvone is the main component of Mentha spicata and Mentha longlifolia, while Carvone is absent in Mentha piperita, Mentha aquatic, Mentha arvensis and Mentha pulegium. Peppermint essential oil and extract are used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries all over the world. Mentha spicata essential oil and leaves have therapeutic uses and its general properties are analgesic, tonic, stomach tonic, antitussive, anticonvulsant, astringent, analgesic and sedative. Peppermint oil has been used since ancient times for medicinal purposes, mostly to treat headaches, colds and neuralgia. It can also relieve skin irritations and digestive problems and has antispasmodic effects. Although, there is mixed information about the chemical composition of Mentha spicata essential oil, many studies have confirmed carone and limonene as its main components. Carvone is responsible for the smell of peppermint essential oil. The high price of carvone in the market has pushed breeders to improve mint varieties with high carvone. Different chemotypes are characterized by specific odors and biological activities, which indicate different applications in the aromatic and pharmaceutical industries. For example, Europeans enjoy the scent of Carvone. The use of medicinal plants in the food and pharmaceutical industries depends on the amount of biologically active substances and their chemical composition. Changes in the concentration of volatile compounds of mint during drying also depend on several factors, including drying conditions (temperature, air speed), humidity, variety and age of the plant, climate, soil and harvesting method. The drying process and storage conditions of the dried plant can have an adverse effect on the medicinal properties of the essential oil. Drying is one of the efficient methods to preserve agricultural products and maintain food quality. Drying, as an important food preservation technique, is used in the food industry. Drying is required to reduce the water activity of the product to suppress the growth of microorganisms and inhibit chemical reactions to increase the shelf life of the product at room temperature. In addition, drying lightens shipping weight and reduces storage space. Conventional drying methods include hot air drying (HAD), vacuum drying (VD), vacuum freeze drying (VFD), and microwave-hot air alternating drying (MW-HAD). HAD is the most common method that dries food in an oven with a constant flow of hot air. As an optimal approach for drying raw vegetable food, this method has easy operation and low cost, but it requires a long drying time and has low energy consumption.

    Methodology

    After the drying process, the essential oil was extracted from the dried product, and for this purpose, a Clonger machine was used using the water distillation method. Distillation with water is a method of extracting essential oils. This method is cheap because it mostly uses water as a solvent. Qualitative GC-MS analysis of the extracted essential oils was performed using an HP 6890 gas chromatograph coupled to an HP 5973 mass-selective detector (Agilent Technologies, Foster City, CA, USA) operating at 70 eV mode. The electronic nose consists of three parts: (1) a sample transport system (2) a detection system consisting of a set of gas sensors with partial characteristics and (3) an odor data processing system. The e-nose instrument can detect the presence of VOCs in various molecular structures with high accuracy and reliability regardless of more or less odor. Samples were analyzed using a portable e-nose, which consists of a multiple gas sensor array, a signal acquisition unit, and pattern recognition software. Essential oil samples (1 mL) were placed in a 10 mL sealed glass vial and equilibrated at 40 °C for 30 min under stirring. Clean ambient air was used as the carrier gas to transport the volatiles in the headspace of the sealed glass vials to the temperature and humidity controlled sensing chamber. The conductivity change in the sensor array is expressed by the normalized response of the sensor. Each measurement cycle lasted 100 seconds, which allows the sensor to reach a steady state, and the data collection interval using a computer was 1 second. Between measurement cycles, the sensor was purged for 200 s with purge gas filtered through activated charcoal to return the sensor signal to baseline. 15 measurements were made for each sample of peppermint essential oil. Data obtained from GC-MS analysis were first processed by in-house MSD Chemstation and structural identification was performed through NIST 2014 library research along withretention index (RI) validation. The dataset consists of pre-processed signals from 9 MOS gas sensors obtained in the e-nose during 120 measurements corresponding to 8 independent samples evaluated with 15 repetitions. The performance of e-nose for evaluating peppermint essential oil samples was evaluated using three supervised statistical methods, namely QDA, MDA and ANN.

    Conclusion

    Drying is the most suitable method used to preserve the natural products of plants. Choosing a special drying method is one of the important costs in the production and commercialization of medicinal plants. This study determined the effect of different drying methods on the quantity and quality of peppermint essential oil. The results showed that the highest yield of essential oil was in the HAD1A drying method and the lowest yield was related to the sun drying method. Also, the obtained compounds of the essential oil were determined by the GC-MS method, and in the HAD drying method, 18 compounds were determined, and the content of some of them decreased significantly with the increase of the drying temperature. In the dried samples, the main components were Carvone (64.30-7.45%), Limonene (24.21- 6.59%) and Carveol (18.34-1.92%). Also, the aroma characteristics of mint essential oil were evaluated with the help of an E-nose. Three classification algorithms QDA, MDA and ANN were used, and the highest percentage of classification related to QDA and MDA methods was 100%, and the accuracy of the ANN method was also 0.967%. The findings of this study provide a theoretical basis for the development of hot air thin layer drying process for medicinal plants and improving their sensory quality and related products. The future perspective is to continuously improve the in situ drying technique for medicinal plants and develop a suitable monitor system to control the sensory quality of the final products based on the findings of the current study.

    Keywords: Mint quality identification, non-destructive testing, electronic nose, Odor identification
  • Ali Khorramifar, Ali Mirzazadeh *, Vali Rasooli Sharabiani Pages 7911-7918
    Introduction

    Nectarine is a plant that is cultivated as an important commercial product in some countries and is known as an important source of sugar and vitamins in the human diet. Due to the increase in expectations for food products with high quality and safety standards, accurate, fast and targeted determination of the characteristics of food products is necessary. In the nectarine product, quality evaluation after the harvesting stage is necessary to provide a reliable and uniform product to the market. The purpose of this study is to identify and classify nectarines by extracting characteristics from the response patterns of the spectrometer and using chemometrics methods. A near-infrared spectrometer can detect the spectrum of reflected light by estimating its concentration or determining some of its inherent properties. The quality assessment of agricultural products includes two main methods, quality grading systems based on the external characteristics of agricultural products and quality grading systems based on internal quality assessment, which has gained outstanding points in recent years. In the meantime, several methods have been invented for the qualitative grading of agricultural products based on the assessment of their internal properties in a non-destructive manner, and only some of them have been able to meet the above conditions and have been justified in terms of technical and industrial aspects. To be meanwhile, spectrometry can be highly efficient in determining the quality of cultivars. Spectroscopy is a type of system that has a different structure and approach from other methods (image processing, neural network, etc.) and can perform classification and determination of digit quality. With increasing expectations for food products with high quality and safety standards, the need for accurate, fast and targeted determination of the characteristics of food products is now essential. Because manual methods do not have automatic control, they are very tiring, difficult and expensive, and they are easily affected by environmental factors. Today, spectroscopic systems are non-destructive and cost-effective and are ideally used for routine inspections and quality assurance in the food industry and related products. This technology allows inspection works to be carried out using wavelength data analysis techniques and is a non-destructive method for measuring quality parameters. In this research, using spectrometry and chemometrics methods, the variety of nectarine fruit was identified.

    Methodology

    For this study, 5 different nectarine cultivars were prepared from the gardens of Moghan city (Ardebil province) and were tested and data collected. A spectroradiometer model PS-100 (Apogee Instruments, INC., Logan, UT, USA) was used to acquire the spectrum of the samples. This spectroradiometer is very small, light, and portable, has a single-wavelength sputtering type with a resolution of 1 nm and a linear silicon CCD array detector with 2048 pixels that covers the spectral range of 250-1150 nm (Vis/NIR) well. Also, there is the ability to connect the optical fibre to the PS-100 spectroradiometer and transfer the data to the computer with the purpose of displaying and storing the acquired spectra in the Spectra Wiz software through the USB port. With the aim of creating optimal light in contrast mode measurements, an OPTC (Halogen Light Source) model halogen-tungsten light source, which can be connected to an optical fibre, was used. This light source has three output powers of 10, 20, and 30 watts, which were used in this research. Also, a two-branch optical fibre probe model (Apogee Instruments, INC., Logan, Utah, USA), which includes 7 parallel optical fibres with a diameter of 400 micrometres, was used in counter-mode measurements. After providing the necessary equipment, the optimal spectroscopic arrangement was designed and implemented in order to facilitate the experiments and minimize the effect of environmental factors during the spectroscopic process. The data obtained from spectral imaging may be affected by the scattering of light by the detector with sample change, sample size change, surface roughness in the sample, the noise created due to the increase in temperature of the device and many other factors, and unwanted information affect the accuracy of calibration models. Therefore, to achieve stable, accurate and reliable calibration models, data pre-processing is needed (Rossel, 2008). In this research, Savitzky-Golay smoothing, first and second derivatives, baseline, standard normal distribution, and incremental scatter correction were applied to the data. The use of non-destructive methods based on spectroscopy in the full range of wavelengths requires spending time and very high costs, which makes the practical application of this method almost impossible; therefore, one should look for a way to find the optimal wavelengths and limit the wavelengths to the minimum possible value. Chemometrics uses multivariate statistics to extract useful information from complex analytical data. The chemometrics used in this study started with principal component analysis (PCA) to explore the output response of the sensors and reduce the dimensionality of the data. In the next step, linear diagnostic analysis (LDA) was also used to classify 5 varieties of Shail. (PCA) is one of the most common statistical data reduction methods. This method is an unsupervised technique used to explore and reduce the dimensionality of a dataset. The analysis itself involves the determination of variable components, which are linear combinations of many investigated characteristics. In this research, in order to construct the LDA model, the data were randomly divided into two parts: 70% of the samples were used for training and cross-validation, and the rest of the data were used for independent validation.

    Conclusion

    Based on the results of the PCA analysis presented in Figure 2, the first principal component (PC-1) describes 72% and the second principal component (PC-2) 13% of the variance of the tested samples. As a result, the first two principal components together express 85% of the data. Considering that it is possible that the degree of correlation between the properties of different samples during the tests, due to various reasons such as technical problems of the equipment, data collection, incorrect sampling, etc., in some samples, inappropriate or socalled outliers The LDA method is a supervised method that is used to find the most distinct eigenvectors and maximizes the between-class and intra-class variance ratios and is capable of classifying two or more groups of samples. The LDA method was used to identify the nectarine cultivars based on the output response of the spectrometer. Unlike the PCA method, the LDA method can extract the resulting information to optimize the resolution between classes. Therefore, this method was used to detect 5 nectarine cultivars based on the output response of the spectrometer. The results of the identification of figures equal to 100% were obtained.

    Keywords: Nectarine, Spectroscopy, Cultivar Recognition, chemometrics
  • Shalale Ghahri, MohammadHasan Yazdani *, Alireza Mohammadi Pages 7919-7930
    Introduction

    the city of Ardabil with its unique characteristics is an important example of the historical cities of Iran, whose physical analysis requires a more comprehensive research approach. This city was the cultural origin of the Safavids during the Safavid period and inspired the developments of other Iranian cities during this period. Developments that were rooted in a special culture that arose in Ardabil. The historical core of this city, like other Iranian cities, has been affected by the hasty actions resulting from industrial development and modernism, and it has suffered many problems. In addition, the worn-out tissues of this city have many complexities and physical-spatial problems in terms of morphology, which has caused the quality of life in this city to decrease. Therefore, the spatial and physical organization of this city requires a systemic and comprehensive approach and macro planning. Therefore, in the present research, the morphology and formation of problematic tissues in Ardabil city has been investigated and analyzed over time. In this regard, the current research seeks to answer the question, what are the changes in the morphology of Ardabil city during the periods (1373-1355) and (1373-present)?.

    Methodology

    The present research is descriptive-analytical in terms of method and practical in terms of purpose. In order to analyze the morphology of the city of Ardabil, the analysis of space arrangement (co-linking) has been used. In this study, using the map analysis method, to investigate the morphology of Ardabil city and its changes and developments during the periods (1373-1355) and (1373-until now) in Ardabil city level using the parameter (interconnection as the main feature of the layout Space) has been done with the help of Autocad Civil 3D 2017 and Arc Gis software. In order to carry out the research process, it was first prepared using documents and manual maps related to the initial periods of growth and development in the municipality, and other maps were prepared with the help of the Tafadili plan map of Ardabil city with the application of physical changes related to each period, as maps The basis for drawing the axial line was done by considering the principles governing how to draw the lines in the studied courses with the help of AutoCAD software. Then, urban blocks were removed and the remaining linear layers were saved. In order to continue the work, each of the maps were reread using the Syntax Space plugin in the Arc Gis environment, which is one of the spatial arrangement analysis tools, and the spatial analysis parameter was performed by detecting the degree of connectivity, and the map and descriptive table were obtained from the results. The output was taken. In the continuation of the work process, in order to better understand the spatial analysis, by executing the commands related to the classification of the values along with the graphic display, the data output was saved in the form of tables, graphs and graphic maps, and these data were the criteria for descriptive analysis in different periods. it placed. The analysis was based on the evaluation and analysis of the correlation average and the correlation difference (difference between the highest and the lowest degree of correlation).

    Conclusion

    The morphological changes of Iranian cities are affected by historical events during a period of 43 years from the beginning of the contemporary century. The spatial structure of Ardabil city, like other cities in the country, has been affected by various factors, and with the passage of time and in the course of various developments that have occurred, it has gradually taken on the texture of the city as it is today. The old context of Ardabil city consists of six main neighborhoods of the city including: Gazran, Sarcheshmeh, Pir Abdul Malik Towi, Ali Qapo and Ochdekan, the first characteristic of these neighborhoods is their growth in relation to the market (city) which has expanded radially. But at the same time with the construction measures, the shape and growth and expansion of the city changed in such a way that with the entry of Bazar Street and the neighborhoods, they were split and the center of the neighborhoods is located at the edge of the streets. In addition, point elements such as banks, urban meeting places, cinemas and public libraries have caused the mixing and connection of similar uses with trans-neighborhood functions in some neighborhoods. This structure has formed the main body of the city fabric and has played an important role in the development process of the city until today. Due to having such a role, changes in the values of the spatial structure have been one of the influential factors in the changes in the morphology of Ardabil city.Period (1373-1355): The third period (50s) can be considered the period of physical growth and development without a pattern to the expansion of the checkered pattern function and the centralizing structure. In this period, along with the increase in thecity's population, the city's inner limits did not have the capacity for the additional population. Therefore, with the destruction of the fence, development and expansion continues towards the south and north. In this period after the Islamic Revolution (1960s), the conditions of the revolution and political developments such as the imposed war in most sectors, especially in the urban construction sector, became disorderly, and subsequently, the urbanization and urban development of Niaz also became irregular. The rapid growth of urbanization and the physical expansion of the city in this period continued strongly in the official form and within the framework of comprehensive, special and informal plans in the form of car settlements and peripheral structures. Among the most important features of this accelerated growth, we can mention the horizontal expansion of the city, the transformation of the physical structure, the excessive acceleration, the increase of the urban limits in unbalanced and balanced forms, and the ignoring of the city's internal capabilities and opportunities.Period (1373-present): The analysis maps of space layout parameters for the city of Ardabil in this period show that the east-west axis of Imam Khomeini Street of the city has the highest value of connection and connects the important points of the city to each other. After that, the north-south axis of Kashani street has the highest value of connection. In general, the main thoroughfares of the city are shown in the red color spectrum. Therefore, based on the theories of space arrangement, the probability of movement and activity in these axes is high. According to the Niaz connection map, the most accessible urban roads in terms of communication are the north-south axis of Kashani Street and the east-west axis of Imam Khomeini Street. In other words, these axes are the main axes in the spatial structure of Ardabil city and play the most role in shaping the spatial structure of Ardabil city. As expected, the heart of the city has the highest degree of inclusive connectivity. In general, based on the results of this study, it can be said that one of the most important factors influencing the changes in the fabric of Ardabil city over time is the changes in the degree of connectivity caused by the changes. It has been physical-spatial.In this regard, the most important suggestions are:The weak and strong points of the main morphology of each city should be redefined in the construction and urban development plans and identified with the help of the space layout method; The spatial structure of less developed neighborhoods should be investigated and analyzed before any intervention (renovation, reconstruction or improvement) by means of methods such as space layout; context-oriented urban planning and design should be taken into consideration and the spatial and non-spatial values of the area should be considered in urban plans; The role and impact of the main elements of the historical area of the city in the entire structure of the city should be considered and the inner structure of the neighborhoods and how it relates to the surrounding context should be understood and deduced to improve its structural problems; Equal distribution of uses and suitable neighborhoods to realize dynamism, activity and vitality in all the historical context of the city should be considered and investigated; In examining and analyzing the spatial structure of cities and problematic contexts, researches should be analyzed based on specific features in the spatial structure and organization related to the area.

    Keywords: Urban Morphology, Space Layout, Cohesion Parameter, Physical-Spatial, Ardebil City
  • Atefeh Delgarm *, Mosayeb Pahlavani, Marjan Radnia Pages 7920-7937

    Institutions are the informal norms and formal rules of a society and are a combination of laws, rights and decision-making through organizations that emphasize more on environmental quality which their existence has a significant impact on protecting the quality of the environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the quality of institutions on the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions in the period from 2001 to 2021 for a selection of member countries of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization using the panel model and the generalized method of moments (GMM). The results of this research and the coefficients of the examined variables indicated a negative and significant effect of institutional quality variables and economic growth rate on CO2 emissions; and the variables of energy consumption, trade openness and population growth rate have shown a positive and significant effect on CO2 emissions. Also, the effect of industry variables and human capital on CO2 emissions has been insignificant. According to the results of this study, it is suggested that in order to reduce the CO2 emissions, the member countries of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization should adopt the following policies: improving the quality of institutions, developing of environmental organizations, freedom of media and press to cover environmental risks and also adopting legal measures such as environmental regulations and standards as well as market-based environmental policy tools such as environmental tax and reduction of government subsidies.

    Keywords: Quality of Institutions, CO2 Emissions, Economic Erowth, Generalized Moments of GMM
  • Razieh Pourdarbani *, Sajad Sabzi Pages 7938-7946

    Orange is one of the old and widely used citrus fruits, which, despite the presence of very useful substances and micronutrients, has many properties, especially in blood purification and healing and prevention of many diseases. Oranges are rich in vitamins B, C, iron, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and copper. Vitamin C, which is one of the important factors in inhibiting cancer, and oranges are the main source of this vitamin. Mechanical shocks are known as effective factor in post-harvest losses. During post-harvest stages, dynamic loads are more effective in causing bruises. Considerable research has been reported on the mechanical properties of fruit tissue, the mechanisms of bruising and the methods of prevention, reduction and detection of bruising. In this research, the aim is to investigate the possibility of using hyperspectral imaging to propose a non-destructive model in identifying bruised oranges. In this regard, first a sufficient number of sound oranges were prepared and their hyperspectral images were taken. Then, bruises were artificially created in them, and hyperspectral images of oranges were taken again 12 and 24 hours after bruising. To perform the destructive test and measure the firmness of oranges, 40 oranges from each class (sound, 12 and 24 hours after bruising) were selected and subjected to the destructive test and the hardness values were recorded. Duncan's test was performed to compare classes. The results showed that in both the destructive and non-destructive tests, there was a statistically significant difference among all the three studied categories, and therefore it is possible to non-destructively identify bruised oranges by hyperspectral images.

    Keywords: Orange, Penetrometer, Hyperspectral Imaging, Feasibility study
  • Sahar Heidari *, Mahmoud Bayat Pages 7947-7962

    In this research, the continuity of land landscape was analyzed from the perspective of land landscape metrics (10 indicators) and graph theory indicators (12 indicators). First the correlation between correlation indices and water quality parameters was performed using Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficient and then with the help of stepwise linear regression method and through power, exponential and logarithmic regression models and using Akaike coefficient, the best model was chosen. The results showed that there was a significant negative correlation with water quality parameters between the land quality measures of CONIG and FRAC and the length of the corridor and most of the continuity indices of graph theory. Also, the highest coefficient of explanation or R2 belonged to CO3 models with a coefficient of explanation of 0.818, water flow with a coefficient of explanation of 0.733, Ca with a coefficient of explanation of 0.772 and TDS with a coefficient of explanation of 0.704. Almost all selected models are nonlinear models. Significant correlation of land feature continuity indicators, especially graph theory continuity indicators and corridor length with water quality indicators, shows the effect of structural features of land landscape on water quality in watersheds.

    Keywords: Graph theory, Landscape metrics, Corridors
  • Shahab Heydari, Salahi Bromand *, Batool Zeinali, Elhameh Pourghasemi Pages 7963-7976

    Using R2, MAE, and RMSE statistical parameters, the feasibility of the LARW-WG model for producing and simulating daily rainfall data in the study areas was examined in this study. As a result, after confirming the model's capability, the HadGEM2 atmospheric general circulation model was used to forecast the changes in rainfall in the study area for the future period of 2021 to 2040. The results showed that at the confidence level of 99% there is no significant difference between the real data and the data obtained from the model, and the model has the necessary efficiency to generate daily data. According to Elshtar stations forecasted climatic parameters, annual rainfall would rise by 3.6 to 9 mm on average, and in Aliguderz station, rainfall will rise by 0.31 to 2.33 mm on average. indicated an improvement. Additionally, it is expected that the precipitation parameter in Kohdasht station would drop from -0.70 to -3.80 mm. Elshtar station showed an increase in all seasons except for spring, and Aligudarz station showed an increase in all other seasons except for summer, with the exception of Kohdasht station, which decreased in all seasons. These findings indicate that the climate in the province of Lorestan will change drastically from the current climate during the next 20 years. Kohdasht station's findings indicate that rainfall will be less than at the other two locations.

    Keywords: climate change, Rain, Lorestan province, Risk Assessment, HadGEM2 Model
  • Haniyeh Abbaslou *, Bahador Abolpour, Mehrdad Takallozadeh Pages 7977-7996

    In the near future and with the cost of energy becoming more expensive, more plants tend to use waste for energy production. The cost of landfilling is increasing and it is increasing the cost of recycling. On the other hand, alternative fuels are necessary for the production of efficient cement from an economic point of view. Wastes, packaging, and other materials can replace expensive fossil fuels such as coal and oil. But first, they should be converted into high-quality fuel (RDF: Refuse Derived Fuel) and stored safely in factories. This is a duty cement production companies set for themselves by being a member of the Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSI) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). The goal has been to replace expensive fossil energy sources such as coal, gas, and oil in production and reduce CO2 emissions. This study provides valuable insights into RDF production as a sustainable component of an integrated MSW management system, especially for developing countries, in order to achieve 17 SDGs (17 Sustainable Development Goals) and a circular economy. Suitable RDF has higher moisture, ash, chlorine, sulfur, and nitrogen content than LHV municipal solid waste.

    Keywords: RDF, cement, Waste, Fossil fuels, Sustainability
  • Batool Alsulaiman, Afsaneh Zarkesh *, Mansour Yeganeh Pages 7997-8007
    Introduction

    The design of plans has changed with the modernization of society; This is an issue that has consensus in all countries of the Islamic world. And according to the opinion of contemporary Syrian architects, there is another assumption that in cities like Homs, this change in plans happened after French colonialism entered Syria; Therefore, it was necessary to prove or reject this assumption by analyzing the plans of houses in different eras.Residential architecture involves spatial relationships that accommodate functions, provide social relationships, and create visual interest. Through openings and walls, architects manipulate the continuity and discontinuity of visual fields in two and three dimensions.Syntax of space, which is the subject of this study, is a scientific or research approach to understanding and evaluating architectural space. The "space syntax" method can expand and develop in many urban problems and can be the foundation of a methodical approach to architectural and urban space. The purpose of this method is to describe the spatial models and display them in the form of graphic forms and thus facilitate the scientific interpretations of the desired spaces.Therefore, the current research aims to identify the features of the historical and contemporary house plans of Homs City and to know the common features and elements of difference between them. And specifically, it can be said that investigating the concept of privacy and its effect on the spatial configuration of traditional and contemporary residential buildings is the main goal of this research.Therefore, the main question of the research is raised as follows: in what way does the spatial configuration of traditional and modern houses in the city of Homs respond to the essential need for privacy? And in the passage of time from the Ottoman era to the present, what changes have been made in the spatial configuration of the houses in the historical city of Homs?

    Methodology

    This research has a theoretical approach based on the goal it pursues. The research method is interpretative-comparative; and according to its topic, several traditional and contemporary houses in Homs city have been investigated. And the required information has been collected through the study of documents, library sources, written sources, and maps of houses, in addition to a field survey of the old neighborhood of Homs city. Then, using the Space-Syntax method, the spatial structure of the selected houses has been analyzed and investigated.The sample studied is the houses of the old city of Homs. Considering the variable effect of the plan shape and the number of spaces and the physical shape of the buildings in general, the houses were selected based on the variable shape of the plans over time. And therefore, 12 houses from the old neighborhoods of Homs City were selected as a case study.

    Results

    In this research, through the method of space arrangement and analysis of space syntax and based on the models resulting from the Depth map software from the analysis of residential buildings in the old neighborhood of Homs city, the plans were placed in the context of three main types of analysis:1- Access and hierarchy of spaces:And this is to measure the access in the spaces of the houses in different periods and its results can be seen in the correlation diagram resulting from the space syntax software.Analyzing the plans of Ottoman period houses, it seems that the central courtyard plays the role of access to different spaces. And it can be said that the courtyards have the highest degree of integration and access to deeper spaces is done through this space. But the houses of the French period were designed in such a way that they don't have a yard, but they have an intermediate space in the house similar to a yard, based on which the role of access to the spaces becomes somewhat similar to traditional houses. In fact, these houses have a space that acts as a distribution space. Contemporary houses that were built after the independence period have different and generally modern designs that do not have a yard or a large space like that, they only have about one corridor. And these buildings reflect great integration between spaces and there is easy access to all spaces.2- Confidentiality:And to check the privacy in houses, the method of visible space (and metric step) has been used. The analysis of the maps shows that assuming the origin of the entrance door of the houses, the rooms of the traditional houses are much longer than the rooms of the contemporary houses compared to the origin point. Also, the analysis of the maps of the French-era houses shows that the visual communication of the rooms is appropriate compared to the entrance.3- Overlapping connection and co-linking (explanation):Based on the findings from the upper table, it can be said that there is a correlation between the two variables of connection and co-connection; It can be said that in traditional houses, the regression line has a slope of approximately 45 degrees, which means that the reading between the amount of connection and co-connection in these houses is very high. And to some extent, it can be seen that the traditional houses left over from the Ottoman era and the houses that were built during the French era have more connections than the houses that were built after independence from colonialism.And based on the examination of the accessibility and hierarchy of spaces, privacy, and clarity, it can be summarized that the contemporary houses, compared to the houses of the previous periods, are both smaller in the area and have lower permeability. And by checking the maps based on the depth map program, it is clear that the spatial depth decreases in new houses compared to historical houses, and the integrity increases on the contrary; this is a big spatial transformation in the spatial arrangement of houses. And it can be said that due to the limitation of space and the removal of the yard from the house plan, in most cases the shared rooms have a role similar to the yard in modern houses, so the modern private space is only protected by closing the doors of the room.

    Conclusion

    The historical city of Homs is a treasure that is full of traditional houses, buildings that belonged to the Ottoman period, plus houses left over from the French era, and contemporary buildings that were built after independence. In this research, house plans were analyzed.The purpose of the current research is to focus on the spatial communication of houses in different periods, therefore, this research has examined fifteen examples of houses in the city of Homs with the spatial-spatial technique. And as you have seen in the findings of the research, similar spatial organizations can be seen in the shape classifications of the houses of the Ottoman period and the houses of the French period, unlike the houses of the contemporary period. Spatial connections that are not clearly seen in contemporary houses from the special features of the traditional houses of Homs city; In modern houses, bedrooms have little depth, while in traditional houses, they have the highest depth, and this shows low attention to privacy in the spaces and low attention to social relations between the residents of the space and intimacy and comfort.Now, based on the obtained results, it is possible to explain the configuration based on the old plans, and based on that, suitable plans for building residential buildings can be proposed. It should be noted that privacy is not related to the presence of a yard in traditional houses, but it is related to the lack of connection between the spaces in the bed of the houses. Because the buildings left from the French era had good privacy even though they did not have a yard, it can be said that the plans of these houses are a suitable model for building contemporary buildings and these examples should be considered in today's plans.

    Keywords: spatial structure, Native Housing, Space Syntax, Depth Map, Homs city in Syria
  • Sima Rahimi Bondarabadi * Pages 8008-8021
    Introduction

    Drought, which is one of the climatic variabilities, is repeated with different intervals in areas such as the western and southwestern regions of Iran (Lorestan province), which has a Mediterranean climate. Some of the droughts operate in wide areas and some in limited areas. Intensity, continuity, extent and frequency are among the features of drought which are determined by relying on drought indicators. In this research, in order to investigate the intensity, duration, frequency (return period) and the extent of drought in Lorestan province, 28 stations in the region that had the longest common statistical period (1990-2018) were used. For this purpose, SPI (standard precipitation) index was used in four-time scales of 1, 3, 6 and 12 months.

    Methodology

    After determine of the length of the statistical period, homogeneity and quality tests such as Run test, double mass curve and Mann-Whitney non-parametric test were performed on the data and corrections were made if necessary.In order to analyze the temporal changes of drought, the SPI time series graph was drawn in different time scales (1, 3, 6, 9, 12 months) at different stations. According to these graphs, many drought events have occurred in almost all stations and the only difference between them is the beginning and end of the drought, the duration and severity of the drought.In order to investigate the characteristics of droughts, all the drought events should be investigated in each station. In this study, the threshold level equal to -0.5 has been chosen. The results of the investigation of different drought events show that the studied stations have experienced drought events from at least 11 (Aligudarz station) to at most 19 (Lorestan station). The average severity of these droughts is -0.13 to -0.63 and its maximum severity is from -0.2 to -2.7.Analysis the spatial distribution maps of drought in the region shows that the studied region has experienced drought in 1997, 1999, 2000, 2008, 2009 and 2011 to 2015, which includes moderate to severe conditions.In this research, using the method of frequency analysis, the return period of droughts with a certain duration was calculated for each station and region and Severity-Duration-Frequency curves were obtained by region.Then the Severity-Area-Frequency regional curves were calculated and drawn for the region. These curves show that droughts in the region are generally widespread and affect a wide area of the region.

    Conclusion

    In general, the investigations carried out in the region indicate that:The analysis of SPI shows that many drought events have occurred in all of stations and the only difference between them is the time of beginning and end of drought, the duration and intensity of drought. The droughts of 1985, 1999, 2000, 2008 to 2009, 2011 to 2014 and 2018 are among the events that can be identified in most of the stations.The study of SPI shows that most of droughts in all stations are droughts with 1 to 3 months' duration; duration of 4 to 7 months also are significant in study area. survey the characteristics of drought events shows that the studied stations have experienced from minimum 2 to maximum 19 drought events. The average intensity of these droughts is -0.13 to -1.41 and its maximum intensity is from -0.2 to -2.7.SAF curves show that droughts with short return periods affect a small area of the region due to their high intensity, while droughts with longer return periods will cover a larger area of the region.The spatial distribution of the probability of drought in the region (extracted from the SPI index) shows that the probability of drought in the region is between 12 and 17 percent. Most of the region has a probability of drought between 14 and 15.5%.The results of the investigation of different drought events show that the studied stations have experienced drought events from at least 11 (Aligudarz station) to at most 19 (Lorestan station). The average intensity of these droughts is -0.13 to -0.63 and its maximum intensity is from -0.2 to -2.7. Methodology After determine of the length of the statistical period, homogeneity and quality tests such as Run test, double mass curve and Mann-Whitney non-parametric test were performed on the data and corrections were made if necessary.In order to analyze the temporal changes of drought, the SPI time series graph was drawn in different time scales (1, 3, 6, 9, 12 months) at different stations. According to these graphs, many drought events have occurred in almost all stations and the only difference between them is the beginning and end of the drought, the duration and severity of the drought.In order to investigate the characteristics of droughts, all the drought events should be investigated in each station. In this study, the threshold level equal to -0.5 has been chosen. The results of the investigation of different drought events show that the studied stations have experienced drought events from at least 11 (Aligudarz station) to at most 19 (Lorestan station). The average severity of these droughts is -0.13 to -0.63 and its maximum severity is from -0.2 to -2.7.Analysis the spatial distribution maps of drought in the region shows that the studied region has experienced drought in 1997, 1999, 2000, 2008, 2009 and 2011 to 2015, which includes moderate to severe conditions.In this research, using the method of frequency analysis, the return period of droughts with a certain duration was calculated for each station and region and Severity-Duration-Frequency curves were obtained by region. Then the Severity-Area-Frequency regional curves were calculated and drawn for the region. These curves show that droughts in the region are generally widespread and affect a wide area of the region. Conclusion In general, the investigations carried out in the region indicate that:The analysis of SPI shows that many drought events have occurred in all of stations and the only difference between them is the time of beginning and end of drought, the duration and intensity of drought. The droughts of 1985, 1999, 2000, 2008 to 2009, 2011 to 2014 and 2018 are among the events that can be identified in most of the stations.

    Keywords: Characteristic Drought, Drought, SAF, Severity -Area-Frequency, SPI
  • Mousa Abedini *, Fariba Esfandiari Darabad, Panahi Afshin, Elhameh Pourghasemi Pages 8022-8030
    Introduction

    Soil erosion is a natural process that causes soil loss due to various environmental factors such as climate, soil, topography and vegetation (Abedini et al., 1402: 115). Nowadays, due to the ever-increasing population of the world, the importance of soil erosion studies as one of the most important issues in the sustainable development of agriculture and food production and its environmental effects is more obvious. Due to its environmental and economic effects, soil erosion is a serious global problem that affects many natural and human ecosystems (Abedini et al., 1401: 106).The issue of soil erosion and land degradation is one of the most important issues in natural sciences, the evaluation of its environmental and economic consequences requires quantitative data. In addition, soil erosion has long-term destructive effects on natural and human-managed ecosystems. Soil erosion causes a decrease in soil fertility and productivity, has an adverse effect on the quality and quantity of runoff, and reduces the efficiency of irrigation dams and canals and food production (Abedini, 1400: 100). One of the most important factors in increasing soil erosion is the lack of awareness of the economic value of this ecosystem gift. In recent decades, soil erosion by runoff (WSE) has become a serious problem worldwide, as the ratio of natural resources to population is drastically decreasing. The surface soil is the first part that is exposed to erosion and the amount of nutrients in the soil is greatly reduced. This reduces organic matter (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) and other elements needed for the growth of crops (calcium, magnesium, etc.) (Ariafar, 2014: 4).In the Alazarcha basin, the formation is sensitive to erosion, inappropriate use of land, texture, topographical conditions of the area, etc. are factors that cause erosion at the basin level, as an important issue in the development of agriculture and protection of natural resources. In this study, searches using the PSIAC model; The studies of soil erosion in Alazarchai River watershed are carried out and finally, the parts prone to erosion in different parts of the basin are separated and identified.

    Methodology

    In order to collect the following data and information from the relevant organizations, necessary measures have been taken:1- Topographic maps of the studied area with a scale of 1:50000. 2- Geological maps of the studied area with a scale of 1:100,000. 3- Meteorological data and statistics of the studied area (climate and meteorology of Ardabil province). 4-Excel software for preparing charts and data analysis.5- Arc GIS and Arc view software for map preparation.In different stages of this research, statistical and graphic software have been used to prepare and draw tables, charts, maps and data analysis. The most basic aspect of the present study was the identification of geomorphological working units of the studied basin. For this purpose, the information in geological and topographical maps was digitized using Arc Map software. In the next step, tectonic, lithology, hydrography, direction and slope maps were prepared using ArcGIS software. Due to the large volume of information and in order to increase the accuracy of work, information layers have been integrated to identify work units using Arc Map software. Other software used in this research include Surfer and Excell graphic software, which were used in the preparation of maps and specifications, tables and data analysis, respectively. The purpose of this study is to evaluate erosion and sediment production in Alazarchai watershed. For this purpose, after identifying the study basins, we estimate the amount of sediment using the PSIAC experimental model. In this method, according to the strength and weakness of each factor, a number is assigned to it. Finally, taking into account the sum of the numbers obtained for different factors, the sedimentation rate of the basin is satisfied. This method using GIS requires that an information layer be prepared for each effective factor in erosion. Therefore, in this research, using arc gis 10.2 software, we divide the watershed into 3 separate hydrological units (Figure 2) and examine the MPSIAC factors according to the hydrological units.

    Conclusion

    In the assessment of soil erosion and sediment production in Alazarchai basin, among the factors affecting soil erosion in the MPSIAC model, the land use factor with a score of 46.56 is the first priority and the land cover is the last priority with a score of 5.25. Other factors (geology, soil, topography, weather, runoff, current state of erosion and river erosion) are in the next priorities with scores (21.47, 22.18, 18.85, 17.93, 10.65, 44.75, 35.07) respectively. Also, after scoring nine factors affecting soil erosion using calculations, the specific sediment in cubic meters per square kilometer per year was obtained in each of the sub-basins of the study area using PSIAC and MPSIAC models. Finally, the level and intensity of sedimentation of the basin and its sub-basins were determined using Table (3) to determine the level of sedimentation and soil erosion level. The results showed that according to the PSIAC model, the erosion rate of the Alazar watershed is 674.60 cubic meters per square kilometer per year under the Hamza Khan basin, 434.99 cubic meters per square kilometer under the Alilah basin, and 308 cubic meters per square kilometer per year under the Quzlu basin. The main reason for the high amount of sediment in the Hamza Khanlu sub-basin is alluvial defenses and alluvial cones. which caused it to become sensitive to erosion and eventually cause the formation and accumulation of sediment in the area.Also, the results obtained from the two models show that the specific sediment and sediment load of the basin and its sub-basins in the PSIAC model is twice the sediment load and specific sediment of the basin and its sub-basins in the MPSIAC model. The amount of specific sediment of the entire basin in the PSIAC model is 472.53, but in the MPSIAC model, it is 238.47 cubic meters per square kilometer per year. There are differences in the class and intensity of sedimentation of these two models in the entire basin and its sub-basins. In the PSIAC model, Hamze Khan sub-basin is in high sedimentation class (IV) and Alileh and Qozlu sub-basins are in medium sedimentation class (III), while this class in Alazarchai basin and its sub-basins are in sedimentation class III and II in the MPSIAC model, which The intensity of erosion and sedimentation in Hamza Khan sub-basin is moderate and in Alileh and Quzlo sub-basins it is low.

    Keywords: Alazarchai watershed, Soil erosion, PSIAC model, Sediment
  • Hossein Hafezi *, Siab Mamipour Pages 8031-8045

    The issue of climate change has become a significant global concern over the past few decades. Greenhouse gas emissions, specifically carbon dioxide (CO2), resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels, are a primary contributor to this phenomenon. Of the various types of fossil fuels, natural gas and petroleum products are the most widely used. Specifically, gas oil, fuel oil, and gasoline have been the most commonly utilized petroleum products in Iran over the last five decades. To examine the relationship between fossil fuel consumption and total carbon dioxide emissions in Iran from 1955 to 2018, the current study employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model. The findings reveal that fossil fuel use has multiple impacts on carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, a one percent increase in the consumption of gas oil, fuel oil, natural gas, and gasoline results in a corresponding increase in carbon dioxide emissions of 0.55%, 0.32%, 0.32%, and 0.18%, respectively. The analysis of long-term elasticities reveals that a one percent increase in fossil fuel consumption corresponds to a 0.83%, 0.49%, 0.09%, and 0.34% increase in carbon emissions, respectively. The study's results demonstrate that the utilization of gas oil has the greatest negative impact on the environment and carbon dioxide emissions in Iran, both in the short and long term. Fuel oil and gasoline follow closely behind. In contrast, consuming natural gas has the least negative effect on carbon dioxide emissions and the environment in the long run. However, due to supply-side constraints and increasing natural gas consumption, switching from other fossil fuels to natural gas cannot be sustained as a long-term policy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Therefore, it is recommended that policymakers pay attention to both price and non-price policies, such as reforming price subsidies and advancing fossil fuel-related machinery and technology.

    Keywords: Carbon Emission, Fossil Fuel Consumption, ARDL model, Iran
  • Zhila Farzaneh Sadat Zaranj, Mehdi Khakzand, MohammadHasan Yazdani *, Shiva Velayati Pages 8046-8053
    Introduction

    One of the most effective and attractive points of any city is its entrance scenery, which leaves an impressive memory in the mind of every viewer, considering that the entrance in every city is a space through which the observer has the first visual and perceptual communication. establishes with the city. Therefore, the quality of this space has a considerable effect on the perceptual experience of the observer, as a result, it is considered as one of the most important urban spaces, the field of action of urban planners and designers, nowadays it is one of the most important issues that the opinion of architects, planners and designers has turned the city towards itself, the issue is the need to improve the quality of the view and the urban landscape in the framework of the visual-aesthetic component of the quality of the environment. It seems that not alone, but in addition to the improvement of other environmental quality components, such as functional-activity, semantic-perceptual and environmental components, can provide a basis for improving the quality of the environment in the public areas of the city in this direction. Ardabil city is also among the historical cities with an outstanding urban identity and history as one of the main tourist destinations. But in spite of its special features in terms of cultural and historical burden and its outstanding location, the entrances of this city are one of the most problematic urban spaces that are struggling with numerous and diverse systems. Since the continuation of these evil practices can have negative effects on the social, cultural and economic status of this city. Therefore, evaluating the quality of these inputs is considered the most important challenge for urban planners and designers in order to improve the quality of the urban image and landscape and create a favorable mental image for people. In this regard, the aim of the current research is to evaluate the quality of the aesthetic dimension of the entrances of Ardabil city, which seeks to answer the following question:Based on the aesthetic criteria, how is the prioritization of the entrances of Ardabil?

    Methodology

    Based on the approvals of the Ardabil city council and municipality and the approval of the governorate and ministries of the country, this city is divided into five municipal districts, 15 urban districts and 51 main neighborhoods. Currently, the city of Ardabil has spread over an area of more than 6200 hectares and according to the general population and housing census of 2015 of the Statistics Center of Iran, it has a population of 529,374 people (Nobukht et al., 2019: 285). The scope of the current research is the 5 main axis of Ardabil city, which determines the connection of this city with the surrounding areas. These entrance axes are: Tabriz-Ardebil entrance (Basij Square); Entrance of Moghan - Ardabil (Vahdat Square); Tehran-Ardebil entrance (Isar Square); Astara-Ardebil entrance (Fatemiyoun square) and Astara gate The research method of this research is based on descriptive-analytical method and is practical in terms of purpose. In order to collect data, library and survey methods have been used, the research statistical community also consists of experts, and in this regard, using the snowball method, 10 experts were identified in the area of the investigated problem. A five-point Likert scale (1=very low, 2=low, 3=moderate, 4=high, 5=very high) was used to evaluate the questions. Idas model is one of the new multi-criteria decision making techniques. Idas model means evaluation based on the distance from the average solution and this technique is used to rank options. In methods such as Topsis or Vicor, we measure the desired option based on the distance from the positive and negative ideal, that is, the desired option is the one that has the smallest distance from the positive ideal and the largest distance from the negative ideal. But in the Idas method, the best solution is related to the distance from the average solution (AV). In this method, we do not need to calculate positive and negative ideals, but we consider two criteria to evaluate the desirability of options; The first measure is the positive distance from the mean (PDA) and the second is the negative distance from the mean (NDA).

    Conclusion

    Considering that the entrance of the city is the first space of the city and guides travelers into the city, therefore the first mental image of a city is formed through the entrance. Therefore, a successful entrance is an entrance that can create a favorable image in the traveler's mind while entering the city. Despite the importance of this topic in today's era, due to the unmeasured expansion of cities, the entrances not only lack coherent planning, but have degraded to such an extent in terms of quality that in their spatial design, often only visible elements are planned to remind the concept of entry, embedding a It is a welcome sign that shows the entrance to the city. Therefore, these spaces have become the forgotten parts of the city. Since the entrances of the city are one of the main components of the physical and spatial structure of the city, the disorderly condition of these entrances can reduce the cohesion of the urban landscape and the cultural load of the city and disrupt its cultural and social image. Therefore, due to the importance of the appearance and landscape of city entrances in the urban identity in order to achieve the category of urban environment quality, it is inevitable. Therefore, in this research, relying on this main assumption, the aim of the current research was to evaluate the quality of the aesthetic aspect of the entrances of Ardabil city. . Also, according to experts' opinions based on a 5-point Likert spectrum, the quality of Tabriz-Ardebil entrance is above average (3); Astara-Ardebil (Fatemiyoun Square) and Astara-Ardebil (Astara Gate) on average; The entrances of Mughan-Ardebil and Tehran-Ardebil have been evaluated below the average level and at a weak level. After selecting the criteria and options, the weight of the criteria has also been calculated by Shannon's entropy model. In this research, the goal is to analyze and rank the entrances of Ardabil city based on aesthetic indicators. By ranking, you can find out the status of the options, which means that by comparative comparison, you can find out which ones are in a good condition and which ones are in an unfavorable condition, so that the necessary measures can be taken in this case. Based on this, in this research, the entrances of Ardabil city have been studied using the Idas model. In the following, the results of the implementation of this model in the Excel environment are given. According to the results of the Idas model, in a general conclusion, the entrance of Tabriz-Ardebil with the highest ASi score is in the first place, the entrance of Astara-Ardebil (Fatiyoun Square) with a score of (0.823) is in the second place; Astara-Ardebil entrance (Astara gate) with Amitaz (0.718) in the third place, then Moghan-Ardebil entrance with a score of (0.538) and Tehran-Ardebil entrance with Amitaz (0.428) respectively in the fourth place and Chenjam have been placed. Also, according to the opinion of experts based on a 5-point Likert scale, the quality of Tabriz-Ardebil input is above average (3); Astara-Ardebil (Fatemiyoun Square) and Astara-Ardebil (Astara Gate) on average; The entrances of Moghan-Ardebil and Tehran-Ardebil are lower than average and evaluated at a weak level

    Keywords: City Entrance, Cognitive Aesthetics, EDAS, Ardebil
  • GholamHossein Safari *, Mohammad Safari, Nasim Moussakhani Pages 8054-8071

    Today, the world is facing a huge crisis due to the increase in global energy demand and the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions caused by the use of fossil fuels. The consumption of energy carriers produces large amounts of carbon dioxide and other pollutants that pollute the environment. According to the reports of the World Energy Organization in 2019, the amount of carbon dioxide emissions has increased by 0.5% and primary energy consumption by 1.3% worldwide, which can be a warning for humans and the environment. On the other hand, most of the world's energy needs are provided by oil, coal and natural gas resources, all of which are limited and will be exhausted in a short time with the current consumption. The severe decrease in fossil fuel resources, the industrialization of most countries, their dependence on energy, and as a result the increase in the global price of fuel, on the one hand, has caused an energy crisis, and on the other hand, the increase in fuel consumption and inaccuracy in the way it is used has caused It has become a global environmental crisis. Therefore, the energy crisis, pollution and environmental effects caused by the use of fossil fuels have caused humankind to look for new sources of renewable energy, which is a type of renewable energy, biofuels. Biofuels are classified into four categories of first, second, third and fourth generation biofuels based on the raw materials used in their production. The first generation biofuels include biomass related to food products, while the second generation includes lignocellulosic biomass. The third generation has potentially renewable resources in the form of algal biomass, while the fourth generation includes genetically modified (GM) algal biomass. The main purpose of the article is to review the various sources of biofuels, compare different generations of biofuels and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different types of biofuels.

    Keywords: Biofuels, Fossil Fuels, GHGs, Biomass, Renewable Energy
  • Seyed Mostafa Emadi Baladehi *, Seyed Alireza Mousavi Elyerdi Pages 8072-8091
    Introduction

    Landfill leachate is a complex refractory wastewater which consists of extensive level of organic compounds, ammonia, and heavy metals. Contamination of water by landfill leachate has become a serious environmental concern worldwide due to its adverse impact on human health, aquatic organisms, and agricultural crop production. Basically, the pollutants found in landfill leachate include heavy metals, extraneous organic compounds (XOCs), organic compounds, and inorganic compounds. on the other hand, Advanced physico-chemical and biological leachate treatment technologies require continuous budget and energy supply and sufficient technical capabilities for the operation and maintenance of the equipments. Therefore, high-tech solutions are not sustainable for many landfill sites, particularly in developing countries. In recent years, constructed wetland (CW) has received promising attention in the treatment of landfill leachate, because of its costeffective and eco-friendly nature and simplicity in operation, in addition to higher treatment efficiency. Besides their small ecological footprint, CW systems possess similar aesthetic value as natural wetland systems. Constructed wetland systems consist of different media types, and typically, same species of emergent plants. The inherent features of wetland plant species such as extremely high transpiration rates, frost resistance, disease resistance, and tolerance to high heavy metal(loid) concentrations make them successful for remediation purposes. Additional characteristics including ease of rooting, fast establishment, quick growth, extensive rates of photosynthesis, and elevated usage of water make them successful in CW systems. Further, the clear advantage of using vegetation species in a CW is provision of supporting media for biological activities. Moreover, ecological advantages including carbon sequestration, erosion control, pollution prevention, and enhancing landscape appearance are some of the prevailing benefits of wetland plant species. Constructed wetland system is mainly classified into free water surface system (FWS) and subsurface flow system (SSF). In FWS, oxygen is prevalently introduced into the wetland via algal photosynthesis and atmospheric diffusion. In SSF, leachate flows underneath and through the plant rooting media, and subsequently leachate level is maintained below the tip of the substratum. In terms of fewer issues arising from odors, disease-related vectors, and public exposure, SSF is highly recommended for landfill leachate treatment. SSF is of two types, horizontal and vertical. In the horizontal flow systems (HSSF), the leachate is fed into the inlet and continues its way under the surface of the bed in a more or less horizontal path until it reaches the outlet zone. Conversely, in the vertical flow systems (VSSF), landfill leachate is fed on the whole surface area through distribution system and passes the filter in a more or less vertical path. In VSSF, greater oxygen transport is involved compared to the HSSF. As a result, VSSF is more efficient for removing ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) and organic matter from landfill leachate. The efficiency of landfill leachate remediation achieved by CW depends upon different factors including the type of media used (sand, gravel, clay, or silt), availability of microorganisms, and selectivity of plants (monoculture or mixed beds). The purpose of this study is to investigate the use and efficiency of different types of constructed wetlands for the treatment of landfill leachate, the selection of suitable plant species, the mechanism of pollutant removal, and finally a summary of the performance of the constructed wetland system in the treatment of various leachate pollutants in laboratory and field studies.

    Methodology

    To carry out this study, keywords such as " Constructed wetlands", "landfill leachate pollutant " and "Landfill leachate treatment" were searched in the Web of Science, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and SID databases. For these keywords, 164 articles were found from 1987 to 2023. After the screening, quality review and removal of repetitive and unrelated articles, 107 relevant articles were used. The main criterion for the selection of articles was the effectiveness of various types of constructed wetlands for the treatment of landfill leachate, the selection of appropriate plant species, and the mechanism and efficiency of pollutant removal. The quality of the articles was evaluated through the SJR index, the citation, the Impact Factor and the SNIP index.

    Results

    A review of the researches shows that Constructed wetlands for landfill leachate, on average, showed a removal efficiency of 60–80% for BOD5, with FWS and VSSF showing the highest removal. A closer look at the BOD5 range showed that FWS had been used only for very low inlet concentrations. For studies with higher BOD5, mostly hybrid CW have been used. COD removal efficiency, on the other hand, covered a wider range between 20 and 60%. While hybrid and VSSF CW showed similar COD removal, it should be noted that HSSF have been used for leachates with COD values in higher range compared to VSSF and hybrid CW. BOD5/COD ratio, while reduced in the effluent compared to influent, was almost predominantly similar in different types of CW. This can also be due to the lack of reported data in the literature, as many of the studies only report BOD5 or COD as an indicator of organic matter; therefore, the BOD5/COD ratio were not always available. CWs showed 60–75% removal efficiency in removing Ammonia-N, with hybrid CW being the most successful. It should be noted that hybrid CW have been used for leachates with the greater NH3 concentration as well. As expected, the greatest extent of nitrification was observed in VSSF and hybrid CW, while VSSF CW were most successful in removing TN. In terms of TSS and TP, while overall removal ranges of 50–65% and 55–80% for TSS and TP, respectively, are observed for all CW, HSSF and hybrid CWs proved to be the most successful in removing TSS and TP. The number of studies reporting heavy metal removal using CW was found to be small, making it harder to draw firm conclusions. VSSF CW appear to have been the most successful CW type in removing different types of heavy metals. Heavy metals removals have been reported in the range of 15–95%, with Phragmites sp. plants proving to be the most successful species in removing metals.

    Conclusion

    In the last couple of decades, an on-site treatment of landfill leachate with the help of CW is widely practiced in numerous nations in the world. It is obvious that CW could be the ideal technology for landfill remediation due to its cost-effective and eco-friendly nature. Additionally, establishing vegetation in landfill sites will facilitate erosion and hydraulic control by reducing infiltration of rainfall. It appears that the degree of success in terms of contaminant removal efficiency by CW systems varies depending upon the plant species selected, availability of microbial community, climatic conditions, physico-chemical properties of soil, and CW configuration. Also, treating landfill leachate using CW demands careful attention and design specifications must to be investigated case by case. To enhance the performance of biodegradable organic compound removal from landfill leachate, pre-CW strategies such as using aeration and sedimentation are needed, but their quantifiable removal performance enhancement and economic assessment should be investigated further. Constructed wetland can also be modified by biochar/zeolite/adsorbent addition, and combined with other methods, such as double-chamber anaerobic reactor and microbial fuel cell-coupled constructed wetland in order to increase the removal efficiency of pollutants.

    Keywords: Constructed Wetlands, Landfill Leachate, Chemical Oxygen demand, heavy metals, Removal nitrogen
  • Fariba Esfandyari *, Behrouz Nezafat Takle Pages 8092-8105
    Introduction

    Faults are one of the important tectonic elements that, by cutting the earth's crust into pieces and moving the crust pieces vertically and horizontally, in addition to causing earthquakes, directly participate in the creation of primary landforms, which are the primary structural forms for the action of dynamic factors and the creation of secondary forms. On the other hand, faults along their length create weak points in the earth's crust and thus create the necessary conditions for magmatism, salt diapirism, hot springs, etc. Faults can also be involved in the creation of some meanders, rapids, deviations, captivity of waterways, as well as the formation of lakes and wetlands. Geomorphological tectonics is the study of landforms caused by tectonism and the interaction between tectonics and geomorphic processes {11}. Almost no region in the world can be found that has not been affected by neotectonic changes during the last few thousand years {21}. Geomorphic indices have been widely used as a tool for identifying and characterizing parts deformed by active faults {12}. The goal of geomorphometry is to extract the shape features of the earth's surface and its complications using digital models of the earth's surface and parameterization software. Quantitative measurement of landforms allows geomorphologists to investigate the role of active tectonics in changing landscapes by measuring geomorphological indicators in different landforms {22}. In the simplest form, landforms and shapes that make up the earth are characterized by size, height, slope. In other words, numerical measurements allow geomorphologists to objectively and concretely compare and evaluate different shapes, and by calculating patterns and indices, they can recognize and explain the geomorphological differences and similarities of a certain area from another area {2}. New studies have been conducted inside and outside of Iran, which are mentioned below.{24 and 25}, investigated active tectonic assessment in Hableroud and Kurdan basins based on geomorphic indicators. These researchers came to the conclusion that Kurdan basin is in class 1 and Hableroud basin is in class 2. According to the classification of tectonic index (IAT), it can be said that both regions are tectonically active, but the amount of tectonic activity in the Kurdan basin is higher than in the Hableroud basin. {27}, evaluated the active tectonics of the Sirvan river basin using geomorphic indices, and they came to the conclusion that the results of this index indicate that among the studied sub-basins, the Shuisheh sub-basin with an average of class 2 has a more active condition than the other sub-basins. Is. {28}, in order to evaluate the active tectonics in the area of Idia Eska in the southwestern part of Cameroon using geomorphic indicators. The results of the work of these researchers showed that the reactivation of the faults located in this area are the cause of severe earthquakes. {10}, they studied the tectonic and geomorphological activities in the San Lucas region in the Central Cordillera using morphological and geomorphological indicators. They came to the conclusion that the most tectonic activity is related to the slopes of Mount Simiti, north of the Simiti San Blas faults, in line with the faults trending northwest-southeast and in the north of Palestine basin. {26,38, 19, 14, 16, 4). The aim of the current research is to evaluate and analyze the neotectonic activities and seismic power of faults using geomorphic indicators (case study: Khiauchai watershed).

    Methodology

    The present research has been carried out to investigate and analyze the assessment of the relative amount of land-building activity using zoomorphic indicators in Khiauchai watershed. In the first stage, to perform the calculations related to each index and to compare the results obtained from the index calculations, the studied area was divided into sub-basins. By using Archydro plugin in GIS10.3 software and DEM 12 meters elevation digital model, sub-basins, main waterway networks were extracted and the studied area was divided into 15 sub-basins. Then, in the next step, the indices were calculated. In the next step, using 1.100000 geological maps of geological organization and mineral discoveries in the study area, the main structures of the region such as faults were determined. All main faults and minor faults located in the area were identified. In the final stage, the results of measuring the geomorphological indicators and the main structures of the region were studied and analyzed. The indicators studied in the region are: Relative prominence index (Bh), drainage density index (Dd), shape factor index (Pf), integral and hypsometric curve index (Hi), river longitudinal gradient index (SL), valley floor width to height index (Vf), ratio index The width of the valley to the height of the valley (V) is the index of the ratio of the shape of the drainage basin (BS).

    Conclusion

    According to the evaluation of neotectonic activity using the geomorphic indicators of the Khiauchai watershed, it was concluded that the region is in a high neogeological state in terms of tectonic activities. Finally, based on the shape factor index, the most neotectonic activity is related to sub-basins 3 and 14. The most neotectonic activity based on drainage density index is related to sub-basins 11 and 12. Also, sub-basin 14 has the highest value in the salience index in terms of neotectonic activity. Longitudinal gradient index of sub-basins 14 and 12, integral index of sub-basin 4, valley floor width index of sub-basins 8, 10 have the most neotectonic activities. The index of the ratio of valley width to the height of the sub-basin is 10, and in the ratio of the shape of the sub-basin, 8 is the most neotectonic activity. Therefore, it can be concluded that based on the index of relative tectonic activity, the largest area of Khiauchai basin is in the category of medium and high tectonic activity. Based on the evaluation of the seismic power, this result was obtained: Zare has a magnitude of 4.41, Noorozi and Ashjai have a magnitude of 5.76 and Noorozi has a magnitude of 1.71. Therefore, it is suggested to prevent human and financial damages caused by neotectonic activities on the fault, preventive activities should be carried out to prevent unauthorized constructions on the studied faults.

    Keywords: Survey, neogeological activity, geomorphic indicators, fault, Khiauchai basin
  • Rasoul Abbasi *, Vali Nemati, Behrouz Nezafat Takle Pages 8106-8118
    Introduction

    The growth and development of the tourism industry, especially in the case of developing countries that face many problems such as high unemployment rate, lack of or limited foreign exchange resources and single product economy, is of considerable importance. The understanding of the communities in this case that the tourism industry is considered a desirable and stable source of foreign exchange income has caused tourism to achieve a very wide meaning and concept in various economic and social dimensions and is considered as an important industry. In many parts of the world, natural beauty and attractiveness are the primary and basic reasons for attracting tourists and developing the tourism industry (Nad Alipour, 2015: 6). In case of the presence of the causal conditions resulting from the theory in the positive experimental examples and its absence in the negative examples, this research will enable us to generalize the results to the research theory and strengthen the reliability of the theory according to the alignment with the experimental examples. . According to the definition of the World Tourism Organization (WTO), tourist refers to people who travel to a country other than their country of residence and pursue a goal other than what they have in their own country (Abdini and Ranjbari, 2015: 15). , those activities of people who travel to places and places outside their residence and work for the purpose of recreation, rest and doing other things and do not stay there for more than one consecutive year are referred to as tourism

    Methodology

    In this comparative research, a combined approach was used. The strategy adopted in this study is the simultaneous hybrid method in which quantitative and qualitative data were converged and integrated in order to comprehensively analyze the research problem. In this research, the researcher tried to collect both quantitative and qualitative data at the same time and then integrate the information in the interpretation of the final results (Creswell, 2009). In the comparative-quantitative approach, the case-oriented fuzzy logic approach was adopted. This study was conducted among 82 countries. In terms of time, the current study is cross-sectional and includes data between 2011-2016. The second approach is the comparative-qualitative case-oriented approach, which is based on multiple case studies based on the logic of repetition. On the one hand, this type of research design is similar to an analytical comparison that uses the double agreement method, that is, the agreement and difference method, that is, the comparison of two sets of positive and negative cases (Newman, 1991: 421). On the other hand, according to the mentioned plan, not only induction logic has been used, but according to the theoretical model of the research, attention has also been paid to predicting the results in "multiple conflicting situations". Hence, the repetition of items used is almost similar to that used in multiple experiments (Robert Yin, 2003: 47).The research sample of this study includes a set of countries that are considered rich in terms of tourism potential, but in practice some of them have been successful and some have been unsuccessful. The set of positive cases includes 8 countries, all of which are among the first eight countries in attracting foreign tourists. In contrast to the 8 negative countries, there are cases that, despite their rich cultural and historical heritage and many natural attractions, are not as successful in attracting foreign tourists as they should be. In order for the theory to have an acceptable analytical generalization capability, the selection of the cases under study was done based on targeted theoretical sampling. With this account, if the theoretical prediction matches the results of the set of positive cases (so-called real repetition) and the results of the set of negative cases (so-called theoretical repetition), then the experimental findings confirm the theoretical model of the research and the results of the research can be at least compared to similar cases. It generalizes (Chalbi and Abbasi, 2014: 52).In this method, each of the conditions for attracting foreign tourists using Boolean algebra based on the calibration technique and determining the criteria of membership, non-membership and the intersection point in the total of successful and unsuccessful cases as a suitable comparative and analytical method, in relation to the result placed and after calculating the inverse causality in connection with the occurrence of a single result, in the final analysis by combining the theoretical conditions, the inverse causality of tourist attraction was tested at the macro level. An attempt was made to standardize the scales and determine the cut-off points for these 16 countries by using external criteria, especially the specialized knowledge and experience of key informants. The criteria for selecting countries was based on the success rate in attracting tourists and the ranking of countries in having natural and historical heritage and natural attractions. The 8 countries in the set of positives are all ranked 1st to 8th for attracting tourists, with the exception of Thailand, all of them also benefit from cultural and natural attractions. In contrast to the 8 countries in the set of negative cases, there are cases that are not very successful in attracting tourists despite their rich cultural heritage and natural attractions.

    Conclusion

    In general, this research aimed to answer this question in the form of sociological analysis, in general, what factors in the form of a combined causality cause the strong or weak performance of countries in attracting foreign tourists. For this purpose, the researchers tried to integrate and converge the results of quantitative and qualitative methods by presenting a combined theory and using a combined method (quantitative and qualitative). An attempt was made to collect both quantitative and qualitative data at the same time and integrate them in the interpretation of the final results. In the quantitative comparative approach, the results of inverse and combined causality showed that among the many causal paths, only two causal paths were of theoretical and empirical importance, which are sufficient conditions to explain the non-occurrence of the event (tourist attraction). These two paths include the conditions of political, cultural and social globalization, rule of law, competitiveness in infrastructure, social security, democracy and cultural and natural attractiveness as sufficient conditions. In the qualitative comparative approach, the final equation of the research showed that the attraction of foreign tourists is realized in the conditions where the conditions of social security, social capital, competitiveness, cultural, social and political globalization are present in the society, and in the absence of these variables, it cannot be expected to attract foreign tourists. The empirical examples of this claim are some unsuccessful countries in which the above combined conditions were not present. The most important theoretical and methodological achievement of this research was confirming the theory in a few limited cases and generalizing it to similar results, as well as repeating the results using two different quantitative and qualitative methods, which shows the validity of the results and the reliability of the measurement tools. From a theoretical point of view, it can be boldly said that the research theory in connection with these experimental examples has a higher capacity or potential power, and with the development of the results of this study within the theory, this theory has high reliability due to the alignment of external examples with it. Also, the beauty and innovation of this research is that it tried to present a unified model and showed its experimental examples in large and small Ns (quantitative and qualitative comparative methods). So that there was no example, the empirical contradiction of this theoretical claim.What are important are the combination of variables and the construction of sufficient causal combinations that lead to the occurrence of the desired event. Without an effective and durable relationship with the world system, especially from two political, social and cultural dimensions, it is not possible to have a share of its material and spiritual gifts in the field of tourism industry. There is no country that does not have a networked and overlapping connection with the world system, and at the same time has been successful in attracting foreign tourists. Therefore, globalization significantly increases tourism opportunities. It also increases the global competition of the tourist destination at the international level. At the level of the internal structure of tourism, it is linked with economic, social and political justice, and the general efficiency of societies plays an essential role in this. The social system must have the necessary efficiency in various economic, political, social and cultural fields. To organize the tourism industry, it is an undeniable necessity to protect the rights and safety of tourists, which is related to the responsibility of the government at the macro level. Competitiveness in the field of public goods (including public infrastructure) are among the factors that should be considered in this connection.

    Keywords: Tourism, three-level model, Boolean algebra, analytic generalization
  • Rogayeh Esgandari, Abazar Esmali Ouri *, Raoof Mostafazadeh, Sepideh Choobeh Pages 8119-8133
    Objective

    Climate change and its consequences have become a threat to the planet, the natural and man-made environment, and it leads to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions, global warming. In recent decades, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased, and this factor of climate change, such as temperature, has decreased. One of the effective factors in the management of agricultural and industrial projects is that changing the pattern of distribution and its amount, especially its decreasing trend, can play important role in determining the time of crop cultivation and water resources planning. Temperature as one of the important climatic factors, causes changes in the temporal and mechanical pattern of climatic phenomena and droughts, floods, storms and heat waves. Destructive climate change is due to a great increase or intensity of extreme weather phenomena and climatic events. In fact, extreme events rarely occur, but they have a direct impact on communities and vulnerable areas. Studies have proved that climate change is driven by simultaneous increases in evapotranspiration and changes, contributing to water cycle processes. Social and environmental impacts of extreme events are locally significant as a result and can severely affect specific sectors and locations. From a statistical point of view, climatic events, changes in the average limit and deviation of climatic indicators alters the occurrence probability of number of frost days, cold and hot days and nights, and the length of the growing season. Climate change intensify the hydrological cycle and change the amount of evaporation and transpiration and the pattern of precipitation. Climate change and global warming increase droughts and their continuation, and this change also causes uneven distribution and affects water resources. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temporal and spatial variations of climatic rainfall indices in the central part of Ardabil province.

    Method

    In this study, 11 climatic extreme indices were selected and evaluated in a 40-year period (1973-2014) to evaluate changes. At first, the required data were prepared and after processing, the values of the indices were calculated using Excel software, then the temporal trend of the indices was analyzed by ProUCL software. Evaluating the existence of a trend in the time series data is one of the important aspects of time series. In this regard, non-parametric methods are usually used due to the lack of statistical assumptions. In this research, the Man-Kendal method was used to investigate the changing process of climatic extreme indices. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test has the ability to adopt with non-normal time series that does not follow a specific distribution. Also, this test has a small influence of the outlier values in the time series. Regarding the spatial interpolations, there are several methods to estimate the spatial changes of variables. The difference between these methods is the way of calculating the weight that is given to the observed points around the unknown point. In this research, the inverse distance weighting method was used, which estimates the values of unknown points through the weighted average of observational data with identical points.

    Results

    In general, the changes in rainfall extreme indices have a decreasing trend in all stations, but it is significant in Hir station. Based on the results of interpolation maps, the indicators of maximum 1-day monthly rainfall, maximum 5-day monthly rainfall and total annual rainfall on rainy days in the central and western parts show the least and most values, respectively. Raw rainfall intensity indicators, total annual rainfall in 95% of rainy days in the northern, southern and western parts of Ardabil province show the most values and in the eastern part of the region the least values. The indicators of the number of days with rainfall of 10 mm or more, the number of days with rainfall of 20 mm or more and the total annual rainfall in 99 percent of rainy days showed the least and most changes in the east and north-west of the region, respectively. The indicators of wet period length and Rnnmm indices show the most values in the western and eastern parts and the least values in the central part of the province. The high values of number of rainy days index with more than 20 mm precipitation are related to Sablan slopes. It should be noted that the maximum length of the dry season is longer in the middle parts than in the areas of Musharraf and the north, as well as in the slopes of Sablan. The spatial distribution pattern of the maximum wet period index is also such that the maximum length of the wet period is in the stations located on the path of rainfall caused by the incoming moisture from the Caspian Sea and Gilan province, and this effect of the increase of the wet period is also clearly visible in the stations of Sablan slopes.

    Conclusions

    According to the findings of the study, the least changes in precipitation extreme indices occurred in central stations and the highest values in precipitation extreme indices occurred in stations located in western part of the study area. Overall, it can be said that assessing changes in extreme indices can be a guide in assessing climate change and its negative effects on soil and water conditions. It should be noted that the changes in extreme indicators in different regions will be different based on climatic conditions, but in most areas, the changes in extreme indicators are such that extreme events are intensified. One of the important effects of climate change is changing the rainfall regime and the pattern in the future. In many cases, changes in precipitation characteristics and extreme events may not follow the general trend of precipitation reduction. Spatial evaluations of changes in the occurrence and trend of extreme climatic indicators can help in identifying the signs of climate change. The dominant trend of increasing changes in rainfall extremes can have a significant contribution in intensifying the flood occurrence. The extreme rainfall events have undergone many changes in recent years under the influence of many factors. Considering the occurrence of severe floods under the effect of extreme rainfall events, examining the changes in the trend of these events in the past years and predicting them in the future will be effective in planning and managing water resources and natural disasters caused by these events. Forecasting changes in climatic extreme events is necessary to take effective considerations to deal with the harmful effects of climate change. In general, it can be said that the analysis of indicators related to extreme events can complement the results of evaluating the annual average values of climatic variables.

    Keywords: “Extreme indices”, “Trend”, “Climate change”, “Rainy days”
  • Asghar Bagheri *, Ziba Shirzadi, Abolmohsmmad Bondori, Ameneh Sawari Mobini Pages 8134-8145

    In conventional agriculture, there are more than three hundred types of chemical inputs such as pesticides, herbicides, fungicides and chemical fertilizers which are used to control the vulnerability of agricultural products and soil fertility. This research was carried out to identify Factors affecting hygiene behavior of greenhouse owners on pesticides in khozestan province Statistical population consisted of all active greenhouse owners in khozestan province (N=90). The sample size was determined by Kerjesy and Morgan table (n=80) The research tool was a questionnaire which its validity and its reliability was confirmed. Data were analyzed using the software of spss and Smart PLS. The results of structural equation showed that variables attitude, knowledge, information source, , background of poisoning can predict 76 percent of changes of hygiene behavior of greenhouse owners on pesticides. According to the results knowledge of greenhouse owners on pesticides was the most important variable affecting their hygiene behavior. In fact, improvement of greenhouse owners knowledge on danger of pesticides can result in their safer and more hygiene behavior Achieving safety and hygiene in the use of pesticides through greenhouse farmers' attitudes towards the dangers of chemical pesticides requires the correct knowledge and awareness of greenhouse farmers about the dangers of chemical pesticides.

    Keywords: Khuzestan Province, Pesticides, Hygiene behavior, Greenhouse Owners, Structural Equation Model
  • Ghorban Bagheri * Pages 8146-8159
    Introduction

    Iran is very rich in fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas. After fossil fuels, biomass is the fourth source of sustainable energy in Iran and around the world. Biomass resources include a wide range of organic materials, which are mainly divided into six groups: 1) wood, 2) waste collected from the forest and agriculture, horticulture, and food industries, and 3) garbage. urban solids, 4) sewage, 5) animal waste, 6) sewage, and industrial organic waste. The direct use of these sources can produce heat and if they are used to produce biofuels such as biogas, which can be used in engine generators to produce electricity. On the one hand, Iran benefits from non-renewable fossil fuel sources such as oil and gas, and on the other hand, this country has unlimited potential for sustainable energy sources such as the sun, geothermal, wind, hydrogen, and biomass. also benefits. In fact, renewable energy sources are becoming more popular day by day. The human population will soon be deprived of non-renewable energy sources. Perishable materials and solid waste (biomass) are abundant, and the operation of the biogas system is very simple, therefore, many countries, including China, Germany, and Sweden, have requested to produce more bioenergy. Nowadays, much attention is paid to renewable energies. Several studies have been conducted in relation to biogas production and GHG reduction. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most important factor among all the greenhouse gases released during fossil energy production. This study is an introduction to the sources, status, and prospects of food waste as the main biomass in the direction of sustainable biogas energy production in Iran. This study consists of five stages. In the first step, we present an introduction to the overview of the research. In the second stage, we discuss the production of biogas and the amount of biomass production and also measure the production and consumption of energy. In the third stage, we discuss the reduction of pollution caused by greenhouse gases. In the fourth stage, we observe the plan from an economic point of view and finally provide a comprehensive conclusion of the issue.

    Methodology

    In this study, food waste was used as the main biomass material for biogas production. The required food waste was obtained from the canteen of Mohaghegh Ardabili University located in Ardabil province. To measure the initial moisture content of food waste, 100 grams of food waste was placed in the oven for 24 hours and weighed again. The difference in weight showed the amount of moisture in food waste. Total solids (TS) were determined by subtracting the amount of moisture from the total amount of food waste. Volatile solids (VS) were also determined by burning 5 grams (TS) at 550°C for two hours in an electric oven based on the American Public Health Association (APHA) standard. The amount of nitrogen in the biomass and the level of organic carbon were in accordance with the APHA standard using the Kjeldahl and chemical burning methods. Digesters were placed in a hot water bath at a temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. Temperatures were measured and controlled using a digital thermostat with an accuracy of ±0.1°C. The biogas produced from the digesters was transferred to another set of plastic bottles and their volume was measured using the water displacement method. The produced biogas was transferred to NaOH solution and after absorbing CO2 and H2S, methane was extracted and its percentage was calculated using the displacement method with an accuracy of ±5 ml. The experimental results of this study show that the amount of biogas produced at a temperature of 35°C is equal to 314.11 L/kg.VS and at a temperature of 55°C it increases to 8.364 L/kg.VS. It is about 17.7% of the total VS, so, for 12 tons of waste, VS is equal to 2.124 tons. In this way, the reduced volume of biogas is 667.19 cubic meters. Assuming the low heating value of biogas (18 MJ/m3), the total heating value of produced biogas will be 3335.48 kWh. The energy produced in a period of biogas production, with the amount of 12 tons of waste, will be 277.95 kW.h/ton at a temperature of 35 degrees Celsius and 322.84 kW.h/ton at a temperature of 55 degrees Celsius. The main challenges in ensuring energy security are the use of economic production resources. Currently, the cost of producing energy from biogas is slightly higher than other types of energy due to the technology used in it.

    Conclusion

    Based on calculations, biogas produced from 12 tons of waste is about 667.19 cubic meters. If the percentage of methane in biogas is considered to be 60%, the total amount of methane produced is equal to 400.3 cubic meters. The price of 1 cubic meter of natural gas in Iran is about $0.05. Therefore, the income from the sale of biogas will be $20, which is a small amount, but the remaining sludge in the digester, which is sold as nitrogen-enriched fertilizer, has more customers in the agricultural and horticultural sectors. It can be predicted that after the fermentation operation in each period of biogas production, about 11 tons of wet fertilizer with 80% humidity will be obtained, which is equivalent to 6.6 tons of organic nitrogen fertilizer with 40%humidity. Currently, the price of organic fertilizers in Iran is 25 dollars per ton. As a result, the income from the sale of organic fertilizers is about 165 dollars per production period.In this study, methane fuel produced from food waste was proposed as an alternative source of natural gas fuel. Therefore, according to the calculations made in this research, by replacing produced methane with natural gas, about 4517.6 tons of carbon dioxide was released into the atmosphere. Considering the concerns about global warming and the commitment of countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions according to the Paris Agreement, it can be said that the use of produced biogas can be beneficial. Economic calculations showed that considering all the income from the sale of biogas and fertilizer and the amount initial cost and maintenance cost of biogas production, the initial investment cost to make biogas from food waste can be returned after 36 months after the return. Biogas production and the system will serve as a source of the net and sustainable income for its owners. This case is valued when it can be claimed that the security of biogas energy production depends on the security of providing its raw materials, and with a very simple system, it can be presented as a source of sustainable production, especially in remote areas, so that It reduces the cost of energy transmission to remote points and is also considered important from the point of view of passive defense. So that in case of damage to the overall energy transmission network, the cycle of energy production, transmission and consumption operates in a completely independent and location-oriented manner and maintains the stability of the entire network.

    Keywords: Biogas, Food waste, energy Security, Passive Defense, Biomethane
  • Vali Rastgar *, Rasoul Samadzadeh, Yousef Vasigh Pages 8160-8176

    Introducción:

    Currently, most of the produced waste such as; Household, institutional, urban and street wastes, industrial and commercial areas, as well as construction and demolition wastes (Birhanu & Berisa, 2015), agricultural wastes, chemical and non-biodegradable, organic, biomedical materials in most In countries, in general, after collecting the municipal waste at the source, the disposal process is carried out as a mixture in landfills (Banerjee & Sarkhel, 2019). The amount and composition of the produced waste is different due to the consumption pattern in different countries and changes significantly with the passage of time. The existing waste sites are filling up at a very fast rate, and it is more difficult to build new landfill sites due to the lack of land, the increase in land prices, and high demand. Lack of urban waste management in developing countries due to the lack of necessary technologies, insufficient and limited financial resources, low and insufficient skills in the collection and storage of waste in urban open spaces, undesirable disposal measures. Widespread garbage in landfills, as well as one-third of garbage being left indiscriminately on the streets or in drains, lead to serious problems on the personal and social health of humans and the environment. Animals, the aesthetic landscape of urban nature and the reduction of tourism and economic value caused by the changes in the ecosystem of the region due to the pollution and reduction in the quality of soil and surface and subsurface water in the areas adjacent to the landfill sites as a result of the leachate flowing in The environment and rivers, especially in the rainy season, the increase of greenhouse gases and the emergence and intensification of all kinds of rodents, insects, urban and domestic flies, and its unfortunate consequences in the form of the production and spread of various cancerous and contagious diseases and injuries. and deaths caused by it (Abdel-Shafy, Hussein I; Mansour, Mona S.M, 2018; Sinthumule & Mkumbuzi, 2019; Zambezi, F. M, et al. 2020) in the long term, imposing various types of exorbitant costs Attacks on communities, and individual/social concerns on the population living in its vicinity Makwara & Magudu 2013; Tanyanyiwa, 2015; Das, et al. 2016; Serge Kubanza, Nzalalemba, Kalra, N, 2020). Ardabil city municipality was established in 1303, today with a population equal to 560,000 people according to the census of 2016, with a daily production of 370 tons and an annual production of 11,100 tons of wet and dry garbage and collecting and burying them without any separation process and operation, in two places Gurjan and Taleb Qashlaghi intersections are carried out by contractors with high costs. One of the basic new approaches in the field of urban waste management is the approach of public participation. Therefore, this research seeks to provide models of the public participation approach in urban waste management from the perspective of urban planning.

    Materials & Methods

    This research aims to investigate and evaluate the patterns of public participation in urban waste management from the point of view of urban planning, in order to achieve the goals of identifying practical suggestions and implementing legal/civil, specialized, supportive, and interactive solutions with the approach of changing the cultural/social pattern. Waste production has a strategic contribution to helping sustainable urban livability by facilitating the process of people's participation in the planning and optimal management of all types of urban waste in Ardabil city. According to the objectives of the research, the researcher designed a questionnaire with 35 questions with a statistical population of 450 people, using a quantitative survey/applied method with a five-point Likert scale with 4 components and 13 subscales, in an effort to answer the research questions such as; In general, is there a significant relationship between public participation and optimal urban waste management in Ardabil city? Is there a difference between the support approach (types of motivational, structural, and facilitating mechanisms) of people's participation in urban waste management and reduction of urban costs, between the approach of legal/civil structures (factors of people's participation resulting in the amendment and improvement of administrative rules and regulations in providing services) In urban waste management and culture building, between educational/specialist approaches (media, education, and health), people's participation in urban waste management and information, awareness, and knowledge in mass and social media and finally between interactive participation approach Is there a significant relationship between public participation and the optimal management of urban waste?, so that the reasons for the lack of attention of the citizens of Ardabil in the management of urban waste (garbage) are determined in the hypotheses based on the questions.

    Result and discussion

    The standard coefficient of the structural equation between the support approaches of public participation in urban waste management and reduction of urban costs is equal to 0.96 and its t-statistic is also equal to 12.32. Because the t-statistic in the resulting structural equation (12.32) is greater than the t-statistic with %95 confidence (1.96). Therefore, the assumption of a significant relationship in the hypothesis is confirmed with %95 confidence. The standard coefficient of the structural equation between civic approaches of public participation in urban waste management and cultural development is equal to 0.8 and because the t-statistic (20.12) is greater than the t-statistic with %95 confidence (1.96). Therefore, the assumption of a significant relationship in the hypothesis is confirmed with %95 confidence. The standard coefficient of the structural equation between the specialized approaches of public participation in urban waste management and information and awareness in mass and social media is equal to 0.59 and the resulting t-statistic (16.93) is greater than the t-statistic with %95 confidence (1.96). Therefore, the assumption of a significant relationship in the hypothesis is confirmed with 95% confidence. The standard coefficient of the structural equation between the interactive participation approach of public participation and the optimal management of urban waste is equal to 0.8 and its t-statistic is also 12.65 greater than the value of the t-statistic with %95 confidence (1.96), so the assumption of a significant relationship in the hypothesis with %95 assurance is confirmed.

    Conclusion

    Considering the assumptions in the research results and based on interviews with experts and the results of the questionnaire, the current state of the waste management process in Ardabil city has been investigated; Due to the lack of skills and insufficient expertise, budget and facilities, the issue of laws and regulations, lack of serious will and lack of knowledge and desire among managers and city officials and councilors and the city council, lack of appropriate legal mechanisms. , the facilities and facilities regarding waste separation at the source in residential and industrial towns, houses, and stores are very few and insufficient. In the waste collection sector, the number of waste bins in urban areas is low, and on the other hand, the collection method and schedule are not set properly. Therefore, the participation of citizens is very weak. Therefore, it is suggested to amend the laws and create a platform for executive, supervisory and motivational mechanisms and the positive approach of urban planners with the cooperation of formal and informal centers and organizations, academic, religious, and urban trustees, and with cooperation and accompaniment. Mass and social media in the direction of education, awareness, and information in creating a desire for the participation of the general public in the systematic management of sustainable management of urban waste in organizing the production, reduction, separation, recycling, and recovery of all types of urban waste, an expensive and costly burden. The municipal administrative shower will be removed.

    Keywords: Patterns of general community participation, urban waste management, Urban planning
  • Abuzar Nasiri, Najmeh Shafiei *, Ahmad Heidari, Nader Jandaghi Pages 8177-8183

    Flooding is a serious global problem, so as its intensity and frequency increase, global concerns in terms of loss of fatalities and economic losses associated with this phenomenon also increase.. In this research, were used Landsat 8 image satellite, DEM30 SRTM, annual precipitation statistics of Rain gauge stations and geological layer 1:10000.Then, in order to analyze the effective parameters in flood risk, two methods, IWPCA,respectively were used in MATLAB, and ARCGIS software. In the next step, in order to validate the two methods, the OLS method was used to validate the mentioned model. The final flood hazard is modeled (at the last stage, the least-square method was used to test the mentioned models.The weighted linear combination (WLC) method was used for spatial modeling and layer combination to prepare potential flood maps. The results of Flood Risk Zoning with IWPCA was presented. The flood rates by IWPCA model was about 147 km2 of the watershed, respectively. The value of this parameter in the central and northern parts was higher than in other regions. Finally,the validation of the model showed that IWPCA with R2 and P-value of 0.76 and 0.0001 had the highest degree of agreement between the dependent and independent variables.

    Keywords: : Flood zoning, IWPCA, OLS, Firouzabad watershed
  • Hanie Abbaslou *, Masoumeh Mahmoodi Meymand, AliReza Ghanizadeh Pages 8184-8190

    It is proven that the financial benefits of using the proposed new tailings materials in terms of environmental sustainability are much higher when compared to normal materials. The research has been conducted to investigate the possible environmental problems of using iron ore mine tailings in civil engineering projects (road construction materials). Therefore, two main iron ore mine tailings of Gol-e-Gohar complex produced in magnetite and hematite plants were evaluated in terms of leaching heavy elements after application as road materials. To address the potential application of tailings as road materials, the main characteristics of tailings such as elemental analysis, pollution indicators, and engineering properties after stabilization by Portland cement were measured. The leaching of dangerous elements in a natural and stabilized state of compacted tailings at different times and pHs were assessed. The total amount of elements by ICP analysis showed that the Mn, Fe, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Cu are more abundant in the two tailings and their leaching must be tested. The general results showed that leaching with different leakage times and solutions at different pH have no effect on the release of elements through tailings, so their efficiency as road materials from an environmental point of view is acceptable providing meet the engineering standards as materials. In addition to leaching experiments, contamination, enrichment, and geo-accumulation indices also confirmed leaching results.

    Keywords: Environmental Sustainability, Elements Releasing, Engineering properties, Chemical properties
  • Ebrahim Alipour *, MohammadHasan Yazdani, Alireza Mohammadi Pages 8191-8196

    Health is the people's inalienable right, and its provision is considered a social goal. The need for health services is planned based on the condition of human societies for survival and maintenance of Health and its promotion in communities. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate and evaluate the status of primary health care and how to provide services to related institutions in the sheds of suburbs of Ardabil. The present research cross-sectionally evaluated the status of primary health care indicators in the suburbs of Ardabil. Research data were collected through the library and field methods, and the tool used was a researcher-made questionnaire that was distributed and completed among all supervisors. The essential aspects of the questionnaire were considered by emphasizing the comprehensiveness of services and components related to the category of primary health care. The results showed that the condition of primary health care components in the study areas is not good. Also, the mean rank of influential research variables in primary health care is not equal, so the highest mean (3.41) belongs to immunization against major infectious diseases, and the lowest norm (1.45) belongs to the preparedness variable. Dealing with natural disasters shows the importance of improving the Health of citizens and protecting them against major infectious diseases by taking the necessary measures. Considering that Health is an inalienable right of every human being, therefore, the fair distribution of health services and social and economic resources related to this field should be the top priority of those in charge, which requires a careful review of the principles. We are providing health services and well-codified planning in this regard, motivating people to enjoy it. In addition, public Health should be involved in self-care and provide the basis for the participation of residents and the private sector in all stages.

    Keywords: Primary Health Care, Marginalized, Ardabil, Justice
  • Gholamhossein Jafari, Farzad Naseri Moghanlou * Pages 8197-8201
    The ever-increasing demand for energy, the destruction of the environment as a result of the indiscriminate exploitation of fossil fuels, the exhaustion of fossil fuels, the growth of energy demand, and the rapid growth of industries are among the most critical factors that have made modern and industrial societies face more significant challenges. For this reason, using natural, immaculate, renewable energies such as solar, wind, geothermal, hydrogen, and biomass instead of fossil fuels is receiving more attention. Parsabad-Moghan is located in the northern region of Ardabil province, which can be known as one of the windy potentials in the area, which can have a high potential in the production of wind energy. This study calculated the potential of electricity generation from wind energy by considering a sample turbine every month. Based on the results obtained, it can be said that if the wind energy produced in this city is replaced with electricity from the urban grid, fuel consumption can be significantly avoided, and consequently, the amount of carbon dioxide production can be reduced. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that the use of wind energy in this region has high energy supply reliability and the potential to provide sustainable wind energy. Also, this region is prone to use combined powers to achieve a sustainable energy source. These energy sources can combine wind, solar, and biomass energy.
    Keywords: Parsabad Moghan, Clean Energy, Wind Energy, Carbon dioxide, Renewable Energy
  • Gholamhossein Jafari, Farzad Naseri Moghanlou * Pages 8202-8206
    The existing problems in using fossil energy sources have caused significant progress in producing Biodiesel from different raw materials. The high price of edible vegetable oils, followed by the high cost of product production, leads the biodiesel industry to use cheap raw materials derived from waste. Also, due to the existence of different stages of production, the amount of environmental effects of each production route differs. This study aims to evaluate the cycle of Biodiesel obtained from waste oil, algae oil, and microalgae and to investigate its environmental and economic effects. In this regard, recent sources published evaluating waste oil, and microalgae biodiesel cycles were studied and analyzed. The present study collected the study database using systematic review guidelines from Scopus, web of science (WoS), and google scholar. About 890 research articles have cooperated in the review process. The results showed that microalgae biodiesel production using wastewater and biocatalyst significantly reduce environmental effects. The production system of biofuels from microalgae requires a high investment, which includes 47-86% of the total production costs. Biodiesel from WCO produces less CO2 compared to first-generation Biodiesel. The added value of WCO is preventing water pollution through its release. Using eggshell CaO biocatalysts in WCO biodiesel production shows better environmental effects than KOH alkaline catalysts. In the WCO life cycle assessment, the waste collection stage and the details of this stage should also be considered. The following study tries to report the policies for obtaining sustainable biodiesel production from algae.
    Keywords: Algae, Biodiesel, life cycle assessment, Clean Energy, Renewable Energy