Evaluation of heavy metals in tobacco and hookah water used in coffee houses in Sanandaj city in 2017
Background And Aim
Tobacco use in various ways such as cigarettes, hookahs, and nas is one of the most important and preventable factors in illness, disability and premature death in the world. Considering the importance of hookah consumption and its impact on the health of people in the community, studies in this regard will be significant. In this regard, the aim of present study was to determine the levels of heavy metals (zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg)) in the tobacco and hookah water used in cafes in Sanandaj city in 2017.
Material and
In this descriptive-analytical (cross sectional) study, two popular and common brands of hookah tobacco were selected in Sanandaj (Crystal and Palm), and each of the brands was evaluated for three flavors (dassib, lemon, and mint). A total of 36 tobacco samples (before and after use) and 36 samples of water (before and after use) were investigated. The samples were prepared by acid digestion and finally, the concentrations of metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, As, and Hg) was measured by atomic absorption.
The results of this study showed that the highest and lowest concentrations of metals were related to Zn (11/05 µg/g) and As (1/35 µg/g) respectively. In general, according to the results, the order of the metals was Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > As. The results showed that there was a significant difference between Pb in burnt and unburned tobacco, and Pb in burnt tobacco is more than unburned tobacco. In contrast, no difference in the mean of the other metals before and after use has not been made. The results of comparison of metals before and after the use of hookahs in hookah water showed that there was a significant difference in Cu, Zn, and Pb. Moreover, there is no significant difference between the two brands in terms of metals as well as the different taste of the tobacco (p> 0/05).
The results of this study showed that the concentration of metals in tobacco samples distributed in Sanandaj was higher than the standards of WHO. The values indicated were high levels of metals in aromatic tobacco samples, which also require more attention to protect people's health and ways to reduce tobacco use.
Article Type:
Research/Original Article
Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Volume:22 Issue: 6, 2018
96 - 106
برخی از خدمات از جمله دانلود متن مقالات تنها به مشترکان مگیران ارایه می‌گردد. شما می‌توانید به یکی از روش‌های زیر مشترک شوید:
اشتراک شخصی
در سایت عضو شوید و هزینه اشتراک یک‌ساله سایت به مبلغ 300,000ريال را پرداخت کنید. همزمان با برقراری دوره اشتراک بسته دانلود 100 مطلب نیز برای شما فعال خواهد شد!
اشتراک سازمانی
به کتابخانه دانشگاه یا محل کار خود پیشنهاد کنید تا اشتراک سازمانی این پایگاه را برای دسترسی همه کاربران به متن مطالب خریداری نمایند!
  • دسترسی به متن مقالات این پایگاه در قالب ارایه خدمات کتابخانه دیجیتال و با دریافت حق عضویت صورت می‌گیرد و مگیران بهایی برای هر مقاله تعیین نکرده و وجهی بابت آن دریافت نمی‌کند.
  • حق عضویت دریافتی صرف حمایت از نشریات عضو و نگهداری، تکمیل و توسعه مگیران می‌شود.
  • پرداخت حق اشتراک و دانلود مقالات اجازه بازنشر آن در سایر رسانه‌های چاپی و دیجیتال را به کاربر نمی‌دهد.