Evaluation of heavy metals in tobacco and hookah water used in coffee houses in Sanandaj city in 2017
Message:
Abstract:
Background And Aim
Tobacco use in various ways such as cigarettes, hookahs, and nas is one of the most important and preventable factors in illness, disability and premature death in the world. Considering the importance of hookah consumption and its impact on the health of people in the community, studies in this regard will be significant. In this regard, the aim of present study was to determine the levels of heavy metals (zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg)) in the tobacco and hookah water used in cafes in Sanandaj city in 2017.
Material and
Methods
In this descriptive-analytical (cross sectional) study, two popular and common brands of hookah tobacco were selected in Sanandaj (Crystal and Palm), and each of the brands was evaluated for three flavors (dassib, lemon, and mint). A total of 36 tobacco samples (before and after use) and 36 samples of water (before and after use) were investigated. The samples were prepared by acid digestion and finally, the concentrations of metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, As, and Hg) was measured by atomic absorption.
Results
The results of this study showed that the highest and lowest concentrations of metals were related to Zn (11/05 µg/g) and As (1/35 µg/g) respectively. In general, according to the results, the order of the metals was Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > As. The results showed that there was a significant difference between Pb in burnt and unburned tobacco, and Pb in burnt tobacco is more than unburned tobacco. In contrast, no difference in the mean of the other metals before and after use has not been made. The results of comparison of metals before and after the use of hookahs in hookah water showed that there was a significant difference in Cu, Zn, and Pb. Moreover, there is no significant difference between the two brands in terms of metals as well as the different taste of the tobacco (p> 0/05).
Conclusion
The results of this study showed that the concentration of metals in tobacco samples distributed in Sanandaj was higher than the standards of WHO. The values indicated were high levels of metals in aromatic tobacco samples, which also require more attention to protect people's health and ways to reduce tobacco use.
Article Type:
Research/Original Article
Language:
Persian
Published:
Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Volume:22 Issue: 6, 2018
Pages:
96 - 106
magiran.com/p1787622  
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