فهرست مطالب

  • سال بیست و دوم شماره 4 (زمستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/12/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • محمد طالعی*، معین صفرپور، قاسم جوادی صفحات 1-27
    با توسعه اقتصادی و افزایش جمعیت نیاز به انرژی در حال افزایش است و لزوم استفاده از منابع انرژی تجدیدپذیر احساس می گردد. استفاده از انرژی خورشیدی به عنوان یکی از منابع انرژی تجدیدپذیر و پاک در ایران با وجود شرایط مناسب اقلیمی و تابش آفتاب در بیشتر مناطق و فصول سال زمینه مناسبی فراهم آورده است. هدف این پژوهش ارزیابی پتانسیل استان قزوین برای تاسیس نیروگاه خورشیدی است. در این راستا معیارهای مرتبط با مسئله شناسایی، میزان اهمیت معیارها به کمک روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی تعیین و عدم قطعیت موجود در معیارها به کمک تئوری فازی مدل سازی گردیده و به کمک مدل میانگین وزنی مرتب شده و تکنیک رتبه بندی براساس فاصله تا ایده آل نقشه پتانسیل سنجی منطقه تولید شده است. در نهایت نتایج حاصل از AHP-OWA با AHP-TOPSIS مقایسه و ارزیابی شده اند. با توجه به نتایج تحقیق منطقه تاکستان دارای پتانسیل خیلی خوب برای تاسیس نیروگاه خورشیدی است که با تصمیم گیری های صورت گرفته مبنی بر تاسیس نیروگاهی خورشیدی 100مگاواتی در این منطقه هماهنگی دارد. این بدان معناست که نتایج حاصل از این مطالعه قابل قبول بوده و می تواند به عنوان ابزاری کارآمد در اختیار تصمیم گیران و برنامه ریزان مربوطه قرار گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: تصمیم گیری چند معیاره مکانی (SMCDM)، تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP)، تکنیک رتبه بندی براساس فاصله تا ایده آل (TOPSIS)، میانگین وزنی مرتب شده (OWA)، نیروگاه خورشیدی
  • عیسی معصومی جناقرد، نازنین تبریزی*، مهدی رمضان زاده لسبویی صفحات 27-54
    هدف این پژوهش امکان سنجی توسعه گردشگری ورزشی در پیست اسکی آلوارس اردبیل از دیدگاه گردشگران است. روش انجام تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی و از نوع کاربردی بوده و تحلیل داده ها با استفاده از نرم افزار Smart PLS صورت گرفته است. نتایج به دست آمده نشان می دهد، تمام شاخص های سنجش به خوبی تبیین کننده سازه پژوهش بوده و شاخص های مربوط به استفاده از فناوری های نوین (809/0)، وجود باشگاه ها و لیگ استانی (801/0)، برنامه های فرهنگی و جشنواره های بومی موجود در رویدادهای ورزشی (818/0)، تنوع محصولات و فعالیت های ورزشی (838/0) و وجود راهنما و مترجم در محل (814/0) داری بیشترین قدرت تبیین در سازه را دارد. ضرایب مسیر متغیرهای پژوهش حاکی از برقراری ارتباط علی مستقیم میان متغیرهای پژوهش است و شدت این رابطه میان متغیر زیرساختی و متغیر توسعه گردشگری ورزشی (462/0) در مقایسه با سایر متغیرهای مکنون (متغیرهای محیطی و مدیریتی) بیشتر است. در نهایت باید اذعان داشت برازش مدل های اندازه گیری حاکی از آن است که امکان توسعه گردشگری ورزشی در اردبیل با توجه به شاخص های مورد مطالعه وجود دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: امکان سنجی، گردشگری ورزشی، پیست اسکی آلوارس، اردبیل
  • مهدی علیان*، محمدتقی رضویان، حسن اسماعیل زاده، زهره فنی، خدر فرجی راد صفحات 53-85
    سازمان یابی و مدیریت مناطق کلان شهری به سبب تعدد و تکثر روزافزون کنشگران و درهم تنیدگی های افقی و عمودی در حوزه های برنامه ریزی، سیاست گذاری، اجرا و پایش، به یکی از مسائل مهم در سال های اخیر بدل شده است که تاثیرات بسیار مهمی بر کارآمدی این مناطق داشته است. پژوهش حاضر با علم به این که ارائه راهکارها و گزینه های اصلاحی در تبیین مسئله و فهم پیچیدگی کنشگران عرصه مدیریت شهری و به ویژه مدیریت مناطق کلان شهری، در گام نخست مستلزم شناخت بازی شکل گرفته میان کنشگران است، برآن شد تا با تشریح و کاربست نظریه بازی ها در عرصه مدیریت شهری، ضمن شناخت پیچیدگی های مسئله، تعدد و تکثر کنشگران را با مدل سازی تسهیل نموده و به تحلیل رفتارها، تعاملات و تمایلات کنشگران و پیامدهای تصمیمات کنشگران بپردازد تا بسترسازی لازم برای ارائه رهنمودها و سیاست گذاری های کارآمد را باعث گردد. برهمین اساس نتایج حاصله نشان می دهد وضعیتی که به عنوان پایدارترین وضعیت کنش و بازی میان کنشگران مطرح است، مستلزم اصلاحات ساختاری و شناخت مفهوم منطقه کلان شهری در نظام تقسیمات سیاسی کشور با همراهی سایر نهادهای موثر است.
    کلیدواژگان: مناطق کلان شهری، مدیریت، کنشگران مدیریت شهری، نظریه بازی ها، مدل گراف.ها، مدل گراف
  • خدیجه بوزرجمهری*، حسنعلی جهان تیغ، مهدی معصومی جشنی صفحات 83-112
    پیامدهای منفی ناشی از مصرف مواد غذایی صنعتی و شیمیایی سبب شده اند که در عصر حاضر گرایش به محصولات ارگانیک افزایش یابد؛ با این وجود یکی از عوامل مهمی که مانع موفقیت تولید محصولات ارگانیک می شود، محدودیت های بازاریابی این محصولات هستند که نمونه آن را می توان در روستاهای حاشیه دریاچه هامون مشاهده کرد. بر این اساس هدف پژوهش حاضر شناسایی و الویت بندی محدودیت های بازاریابی کشت محصولات ارگانیک دریاچه ای است. روش این پژوهش توصیفی- تحلیلی است و از نظر هدف کاربردی است. جامعه نمونه شامل هفت روستای دارای کشاورزی ارگانیک (با 600 خانوار) است که با استفاده از فرمول کوکران تعداد 120 سرپرست خانوار به عنوان نمونه بررسی شدند. همچنین برای انجام مقایسه زوجی از نظرهای 10 کارشناس استفاده شد. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از روش های آماری T تک نمونه ای در نرم افزار اس پی اس اس، روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی فازی (FAHP) و روش تحلیلی رتبه ای خاکستری (GRA) بهره گرفته شد. نتایج حاصل از تحلیل سلسله مراتبی نشان می دهد که محدودیت های بازاریابی به سه مولفه محدود می شوند که در این بین موانع سیاست گذاری با ضریب تاثیر 51/0 درصد در رتبه اول، موانع زیرساختی با ضریب تاثیر 40/0 درصد در رتبه دوم و عامل طبیعی با ضریب تاثیر 9/0 درصد در رتبه سوم قرار گرفتند. نتایج حاصل از آزمون T تک نمونه ای نشان داد که در تمامی ابعاد به جز موانع فنی (با میانگین 60/2)، محدودیت های بازاریابی محصولات ارگانیک دریاچه ای بالاتر از میانه نظری (3) هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: محدودیت های بازاریابی، محصولات ارگانیک، کشت دریاچه ای، دریاچه هامون، سیستان
  • فاطمه محمدزاده*، محمدرضا اختصاصی، سید زین العابدین حسینی صفحات 111-139
    آب از منابع محدود و طبیعی که برای بقای انسان ضروری است. در بین منابع آبی، آب های زیرزمینی برای انواع فعالیت های انسانی از منابع ارزشمند محسوب می شود. درحوزه آبخیز دشت بجستان بهره برداری از منابع آب شرب به دلیل مشکلات عمده ای که در منطقه به لحاظ پایین بودن مقدار نزولات جوی و بالابودن میزان هدایت الکتریکی وجود دارد، بیشتر توسط چاه ها صورت می پذیرد. هدف از انجام این پژوهش پهنه بندی پارامترهای کیفی شرب آب های زیرزمینی دشت بجستان براساس طبقه بندی های استاندارد شولر و تهیه نقشه های کیفیت آب شرب و سپس روندیابی تغییرات کیفیت آب زیرزمینی از نظر پارامترهای موثر بر کیفیت آب شرب و نیز تعیین مناسب ترین نقاط براساس اطلاعات موجود در سطح منطقه است. ابتدا پهنه بندی پارامترهای شرب طی یک دوره 8 ساله با درنظر گرفتن بهترین روش درون یابی انجام شد و مساحت طبقات به دست آمد. در مرحله بعد، اقدام به بررسی تغییرات روند کیفی آب شرب طی دو دوره 4 ساله شد و درنهایت براساس روش پدافند غیرعامل محل های مناسب برداشت آب شرب براساس مقادیر مجاز TDS مشخص شد. نتایج نشان داد بهترین روش درون یابی برای پارامترهای کیفی آب، تخمین گر آماری (IDW) بود، همچنین در دشت بجستان 5/26 درصد از منطقه در کلاس نامناسب، 66 درصد دارای کیفیت نامطبوع و تنها 7 درصد از منطقه دارای کیفیتی متوسط از نظر شرب است. در انتها مکان های مناسب از نظر شرب تعیین شد؛ این مکان ها در اصل محل های برداشت آب جهت کشاورزی است و پیشنهاد می شود این چاه ها پلمپ شده و در موارد اضطراری به منظور شرب مورد استفاده قرار گیرند.
    کلیدواژگان: آب شرب، پارامترهای کیفی، پهنه بندی، شولر، پدافند غیرعامل
  • اسماعیل دویران*، سیما غایب لو صفحات 137-169
    امروزه در ارزیابی کیفیت زندگی شهرها توجه به ایمنی محیط و فضاهای عمومی یکی از شاخص های مهم زیست پذیری شهری محسوب و از اهداف مهم برنامه ریزی و مدیریت شهری قلمداد می شود. ایمنی شهری وضعیتی است که در آن خطرات و عوامل ایجادکننده آسیب های فیزیکی، جسمانی و روانی شهر در فضاهای مختلف در کنترل درآمده و موجب حفظ سلامت و رفاه شهروندان شده و ارتقا سطح پایداری محیط را سبب ساز می شود. پژوهش حاضر به روش توصیفی- تبیینی به بررسی وضعیت ایمنی پارک های با عملکرد ناحیه ای و منطقه ای شهر رشت پرداخته است. روش گردآوری داده ها در این پژوهش کتابخانه ای- اسنادی و میدانی بوده و روش تجزیه و تحلیل در قالب آزمون آماری T، تراز استاندارد و نسبت اختلاف فاصله است. نتایج حاصل از مطالعه شاخص هایی همچون ایمنی تجهیزات، کف سازی، ایمنی وسایل بازی، دیدپذیری فضاها، کنترل و حراست، روشنایی و غیره نشان می دهد که وضعیت ایمنی پارک های شهری شهر رشت در دایره استاندارد حداقل قرار داشته و با استاندارد مطلوب فاصله بسیار زیادی دارد. درعین حال وضعیت شاخص ها در پارک های مختلف متفاوت از هم بوده و از شرایط یکسانی برخوردار نیست.
    کلیدواژگان: کیفیت، سنجش، ایمنی، پارک ها، شهر رشت
  • یعقوب زنگنه*، نیلوفر هنرمندی، مهدی زنگنه صفحات 165-190
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف تحلیل نقش آگاهی از حقوق شهری بر شهروندی فعال بین ساکنان دو منطقه 1 و 5 شهرداری مشهد انجام شده است. این تحقیق از نظر ماهیت جز تحقیقات همبستگی محسوب می شود. داده های مورد نیاز از دو روش اسنادی و پیمایشی گردآوری شده است. واحد پژوهش در این تحقیق فرد و حجم نمونه با استفاده از فرمول کوکران 384 برآورد گردیده است. داده های گردآوری شده از طریق پرسش نامه با استفاده از آزمون های آمار توصیفی و استنباطی از جمله آزمون همبستگی، مقایسه میانگین ها و کای اسکوار و با به کارگیری نرم افزار اس پی اس اس مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته است. نتایج این تحقیق نشان می دهد که سطح آگاهی ساکنان منطقه 1 شهرداری از حقوق شهری با میانگین 124/3 در حد متوسط و در منطقه 5 با میانگین 517/2 پایین تر از حد متوسط بوده و تفاوت میانگین در دو منطقه در حد معنی دار است. از دیگر نتایج تحقیق وجود یک رابطه معنی دار مثبت بین میزان آگاهی از حقوق شهری و مشارکت فعال آن ها با نهادهای مدیریت شهری است. به این معنی که هر چه میزان آگاهی ساکنان از حقوق شهری بیشتر بوده است، مشارکت فعال تری با مدیریت شهری داشته اند، همچنین نتایج تحقیق بیانگر وجود رابطه مثبت معنی دار بین میزان آگاهی ساکنان از حقوق شهری و متغیرهای جنسیت، میزان درآمد و سطح تحصیلات و عدم وجود رابطه معنی دار بین دو متغیر سن و مدت اقامت ساکنان با متغیر وابسته است.
    کلیدواژگان: مشهد، حقوق شهری، حقوق شهروندی، شهروندی فعال
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  • Mohammad Taleai*, Moen Safarpour, Ghasem Javadi Pages 1-27
    With economic development and population growth, the global need for energy is increasing steadily. Fossil fuels are the most commonly used fuel in the world, but their resources are limited. Therefore, for sustainable development, the need to use renewable energy sources is felt more than ever. Solar energy recognized as the most important and most affordable one. In Iran, the availability of suitable climate and sunlight in many areas and seasons has provided a good basis for using this kind of energy. The purpose of this research is to utilize a MCDM approach for evaluating the potential of different regions in Qazvin province for the establishment of a solar power station. In this regard, several evaluation criteria were identified and their importance was determined by the AHP method and then their uncertainty is modeled using fuzzy theory. Then, a potential map was developed using OWA and TOPSIS methods. Finally, the result of utilizing AHP-OWA method is compared with AHP-TOPSIS. Comparison of the weights of indicators shows the weather factors as important ones. In addition, according to the research findings, the Takestan region was recognized as a good area for establishing a solar power plant. Based on previous studies, construction of a 100MW solar power station in this area has been confirmed. This means that the proposed method is acceptable to be used by decision-makers as an effective tool.
    Keywords: Keywords: Solar Power Station, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA), Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Making (SMCDM).
  • Issa Masoumi, Nazanin Tabrizi*, Mehdi Ramezanzadeh Pages 27-54
    Winter sports tourism is a key economic factor in many mountainous regions worldwide. This type of tourism is considered to be one of the most important and profitable that has become more popular in recent years. Ski resorts in the present era have become one of the areas of tourism planning and management.In other words, this kind of tourism has helped create local businesses due to its many enthusiasts and has turned into a strategy for economic growth and development. Iran's Ardabil province is in a relatively good position in terms of winter sports and mineral waters attractions. The authorities need to use these potentials for developing winter sports.The aim of this study is to measure sports tourism developmentwith recreational complex and ski resort of Alvaras Sarein from the perspective of tourists. Methodology The statistical population of this study is sports and non-sports tourists who traveled to the area at least once, as well as tourism and sportsexperts in the province of Ardebil. Due to the limited statistical population, Morgan Table was used to determine the sample size. A total of 380 questionnaires were distributed in which 318 questionnaires were approved and were collected for analysis. The data collection method was library and a researcher-made questionnaire. In order to determine the validity of the questionnaire, the views of professors and experts in the field of tourism and sportswere taken. To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used. In order to analyze the data and research objectives, structural analysis equations for measuring variables were used in the smart pls software environment. In this research, effective variables for the development of sport tourism in the Alvares ski resort included infrastructure, environmental, sports factors and management factors, each of which includes a group of indices.   Results and Discussion The results of load factor analysis show that all of the indices are well explained by the research structure. Indices related to the use of modern technologies (0.809), the existence of clubs and provincial league (0.801), cultural programs and native festivals in sports events (0.818), variety of products and sports activities (0.838) and the presence of a guide and translator on site (0.814) have had the most explanatory power in the structure. Whereas distance indices from the airport (496/0), safety (511/0), signs and indications for guidance (561/0), locker room and storage and heating system (591/0), distance to the ski resort (527/0). Facilities and equipment intended for the disabled (0.508), wind speed in the region (0.551), natural landscapes (0.772), rivers and hot springs (0.483),the climate of the region (0.580), cleanliness from the point of view of waste accumulation (0.548), distance to centers (0.592), booths and commercial stores (0.881), vegetation and green spaces (536/0), the presence of sports shops (516/0), travel agency services (0/510), staff specialization and performance (0.566), the overall level of prices (0.7766) and security (0.445) have the least power of structural explanation. Also, the results of their path coefficient showed that there is a causal relationship between variables of the research. The intensity of this relationship between the infrastructure variable and the variable of sport tourism development (0.446) is more than other variables. T-value was used to measure the relationship between the variables. The results show that there is a significant relationship between infrastructure factors and the variable of sport tourism development at the 95% and 99% confidence level. The amount of the T-value between the two variables of sports factors and sport tourism development is (1.85), which shows that at 90% confidence level, there is a significant relationship between the two The amount of T-value between environmental factors and sport tourism development is (4.40), which shows a significant relationship between the two at 95% and 99% confidence level. Also, T-value between managerial factors and development of sport tourism is (3.74) which show a significant relationship at a confidence level of 95% and 99%, respectively.   Conclusion The results obtained through the analysis of structural equations show that all indicatorsmeasuring the variables well explained the research structure and the indices related to the use of new technologies (0.809), the existence of clubs and provincial league (0.801), cultural programs and festivals, the native sporting events (0.818), the variety of products and activities (0.838), and the presence of local guidance and translator (0.814) had the most explanatory power in the structure. The path coefficients of the research variables indicate a direct causal relationship between the variables of research and the intensity of this relationship between the infrastructure variable and the variable of sport tourism development (0.446) is more than other variables. The fitting of measurement, structural and general models also confirms the conceptual model of research.
    Keywords: Keywords: Feasibility, Sports Tourism, Alvares Ski Resort, Ardabil.
  • Mehdi Alian*, Mohammad Taghi Razavian, Hassan Esmaeilzadeh, Zohre Fanni, Kheder Farajirad Pages 53-85
    The game theory an interdependent decision-making theory in which, decision-makers have conflicting preferences and the outcome of their decisions cannot be determined by one party or actor alone. The roots of this theory is derive from the decision theory (Samsura, Van der Krabben, & Van Deemen, 2010: 565). However, there is a clear distinction i.e. the decision theory usually analyses decision-making processes from the one player’s point of view, while the game theory emphasizes its analysis through the interaction among many players. Since the game theory focuses on situations in which interactions and interdependency play a role, it can be seen as an extension of the decision theory (Samsura et al., 2010: 564). In other words, the game theory, or the so-called ‘‘interactive decision theory’’, is derived from the decision theory (Tan, Liu, Zhou, Jiao, & Tang, 2015: 17). The term ‘game theory’ stems from the resemblance of collective decision-making situations to well-known parlor games like chess, poker, and monopoly (Aumann, 1989). Because of its focus on conflicting preferences, the game theory is often defined as a theory of conflict. Aumann has even referred it as ‘Interaction Decision Theory’, since this accurately describes the content and focus of the theory (Samsura et al., 2010: 656). The game theory is a powerful tool in understanding the relationships that are made and broken in the course of competition and cooperation. It has been widely used in the fields of natural and social sciences, especially in economics after the 1920s, with the groundbreaking work of Von Neumann and Morgenstern (1944), which is considered as ‘‘the classic work upon which the modern-day game theory is based’’(Von Neumann & Morgenstern, 2007: 14). The increased interest in the game theory among social scientists is partly due to the fact that it can solve social problems through finding out optimal solutions in a conflict situation (Tan et al., 2015: 17). Since then, the game theory has been profoundly influencing other fields in natural sciences, such as biology, physics, and computer science, as well as social sciences, including anthropology, psychology, sociology, politics, and philosophy. The increased attention to this theory especially in social sciences is based on the idea that it can provide solid micro-foundations for the study of collective decision-making processes and structures and social change (Samsura et al., 2010: 565). Urban planning and, in particular, metropolitan and urban management is also one of the branches of social sciences in which the proposed theory is capable of playing a vital role. As such, the present study seeks to answer the following questions: How is the narrative of the game between actors of urban management field producing and reproducing? What are the most likely possible outcomes and remedies of the current situation?   Methodology The problem structuring methods, among new approaches to operations research, believe that the most important step in solving a problem is to identify it. As such, they try their best to investigate the problem by identifying various factors, revealing and hidden relationships between them, and avoiding simplicity and unrealization. Since the game theory is one of the most important of these methods, the present research applies it to introduce and describe the gaming in the field of metropolitan management. By completing the initial assumptions, analysis and determination of the stable status is done using the GMCR+ software.   Results and Discussion In the first step, people active in managing metropolitan areas are identified and categorized into four main groups: state-government institutions, public-government institutions, public institutions and private sector institutions. Thereafter, alternative metropolitan management actors are listed and finalized with initial reviews and their limitations. In real terms, all theoretical situations and conditions of games (i.e. 512 games) are not possible, and limitations make it to reduce the possible status. The final step in the field of game modeling is to determine priorities and possible preferences for each actor, for which, the prioritization of alternatives was used. The model analysis is based on the stability and balance of the actors. Based on the results of 24 statuses, 4 are equilibrium and 2 statuses are semi-stable.   Conclusion The results show that there are 24 statuses, 4 equilibrium statuses, and 2 semi-stable statuses among different mode of actions in the areas of metropolitan area management. Status 15 is considered as the most stable one. Based on Nash Equilibrium (R), General Metarationality (GMR), Symmetric Metarationality (SMR), Sequential Stability (SEQ), Limited-move Stability (LM), and Non- myopic Stability (NM) all actors are most beneficial. State-government actors with structural reforms, gradual changes and the necessity of reviewing laws and regulations, as well as recognizing the concept of metropolitan area with respect to political divisions of the country, can provide a structure and an effective state for managing metropolitan areas. Public-government actors can help improve the current state of affairs by facilitating and organizing structural reforms or setting up a regional metropolitan management council. This should be done by removing the weak horizontal interactions among stakeholders in metropolitan region and unhealthy competitions of cities and settlements located in the metropolitan region. People's institutions can also play an active role in managing metropolitan areas with their attempt to participate and influence the management. Furthermore, the principle of confidence as a link between social elements that makes social capital essential, and this can be achieved through decentralizing and distributing powers among all actors and stakeholders.
    Keywords: Keywords: Metropolitan Regions, Management, Urban Management Actors, Game Theory, Graph Model.aph model.
  • Khadijeh Bouzarjomehri*, Hassanali Jahantigh, Mehdi Masoumi Pages 83-112
    Introduction Organic products play an important role in the health of the people as well as in improving the livelihood of rural households. An example of this can be seen around Hamoon Lake in the Sistan region. Located in desert areas of Iran, this region, apart from drying lake water, has been witnessing serious crisis with major impact on agricultural and livelihood of the people. However, the locals, based on their limited knowledge, have been able to turn this dilemma into opportunity and have the best use of the lake's waterless land. Each year, a large area there is devoted to the organic production of melon, which is unique not only in Iran but perhaps in the world. However, these rural farmers seem to be confronting with limitation on the sale and marketing of their products. Accordingly, it is necessary to carry out an investigation into the identification of marketing restrictions for the organic product of the lake.   Materials and Methods The present study applies a descriptive-survey method to reach its target. Apart from library and documentary studies, a field research and surveys (through questionnaire and interviews) were done to collect the data. The statistical population consists of 12 villages with agricultural activities around Lake Hamoon. To analyze, one-sample T-test was done with SPSS software, Fuzzy Hierarchy Analysis (FAHP), Gray Grade Analytical Method (GRA). The FAHP SOLVER 2014 software was used to perform paired comparisons, hierarchy, and weights calculation in the fuzzy hierarchy process.   Results and Discussion In Sistan, farmers have long been relying on their local knowledge for organic cultivation around Lake Hamoon. In this type of cultivation, they not only avoid using toxic materials, fertilizer, and even irrigation, but production costs are very low as well. In the process, the farmers dig   cultivating the dry bed of Hamoon (15 -50cm), then sow seeds in the bottom of the pit and feed them with muddy lake. Despite its numerous benefits, there are constraints for marketing and sales of this product. Accordingly, a research on identifying and prioritizing those constraints was essential. A range of indices and components related to the constraints were identified. Some of the marketing limitations of this product were found to be policy, infrastructure and technical. Based on the results of a single sample T test, there were policy barrier with an average (3.35%) as the most important factor followed by the infrastructural barrier (with an average 3.8%). The technical (with an average 2.60%) is considered to be the least important limitation of marketing. Bachelor's Questionnaire showed the similar results. Based on the analytic hierarchy, policy barrier with a coefficient of 0.51%, infrastructural barrier with a coefficient of 0.40%, and technical barrier with a coefficient of 0.9%, ranked first, second and third, respectively.   Conclusion The outcome of the study shows that factors such as the presence of intermediaries and brokers, gap between farm and market prices, lack of government support for organic production, lack of capital for product promotion, lack of storage facilities and product corruption, and failure to identify target livelihoods were the basic constraints on marketing of organic product from Lake Hamoon. It calls for the government and the authorities responsible for rural development and agriculture in the region, to address those constraints in order to expand and help farmers produce more organic melon.
    Keywords: Keywords: Marketing Limitations, Organic Products, Cultivation, Melon, Lake Hamoon.
  • Fateme Mohammadzade*, Mohammad Reza Ekhtesasi, Seyyed Zeialabedin Hosseini Pages 111-139
    Introduction Water is a limited natural resource but essential for human survival. Among the water resources, groundwater is considered valuable for a variety of human activities. In the watershed Bajestan plain, the exploitation of drinking water is mostly done by wells especially due to the depth of water level. The purpose of this study is to unfold the qualitative parameter of ground drinking water in the Bajestan Plain based on Standard Classifications by Schoeller and prepare drinking water quality maps and then adjust the groundwater quality in terms of parameters affecting the quality of drinking water. Also determining the most appropriate points based on locally available information is another attempt of the study.   Methodology In the present study, the measured parameters related to the Bajestan plain were obtained from the regional water company of Khorasan Razavi and the initial classification was carried out on them. Accordingly, 76 wells and the groundwater quality data were selected with a relatively complete statistic during the 2004-2011 periods. In order to evaluate the quality of drinking water, the parameters of sulfate, sodium, chloride, TDS and TH were extracted from the wells. Finally, qualitative changes to groundwater were investigated based on a 4-year period and appropriate points were noted down. In the next stage, the quality changes to drinking water were investigated in two 4-year periods and finally suitable drinking water areas were determined based on the passive defense technique and TDS.   Results and Discussion The results showed that the best interpolation method for water quality parameters was the Statistical Estimator (IDW). In the Bajestan plain, 26.5% of the region was in inappropriate class, 66% had an unpleasant quality and only 7% of the region had a moderate drinking quality located in the mountain range of the study area. At the end, suitable places for drinking were determined. In other words, these are water harvesting sites for agriculture but suggested that those wells be sealed and be used in case of drinking water emergencies.   Conclusion The extent of these classes indicates the low water quality in the region. As geological maps indicate, some places adjacent to the Cretaceous limestone, have moderate water quality while the plain area has inadequate quality water. Further, in the area adjacent to Playa, there is completely unpleasant quality of drinking water. According to reports from the Water Authority, drinking water provided to the region is mountainous and medium in quality. Also, the results of the qualitative timeliness of these resources indicate that the quality of groundwater resources is increasing with parameters reduction and hence; based on the amount of TDS allowed for drinking water, agricultural wells should be sealed and protected in some areas in order to be used in emergency.
    Keywords: Keywords: Drinking Water, Quality Parameters, Zoning, Schoeller, Passive Defense.
  • Smaeil Daviran*, Sima Ghayebloo Pages 137-169
    Introduction These days, more than half of our planet's population lives in cities. Since the last century, the urbanization has grown rapidly, with an annual growth rate of 3.5% (Pacion, 2009). The predictions show a 60% increase by 2030 (Khan, 2007: 2). This rapid growth, however, has encountered many cities with problems in recent decades and stoked urgency for improving the environment quality in different dimensions. Public spaces which are providing services, welfare and recreational facilities have a significant effect on environment quality and the promotion of urban sustainability level. One of the main sections of these public spaces is parks. They are one of the key elements of sustainable urban development, which is also called natural tranquil atmosphere. These spaces play an important role in reducing the stress of citizens, improving their mental health and providing a favorable environment for breathing (Balram, 2005: 148). The safety quality of parks is very important because of its significant impact on different dimensions of living quality and social sustainability. In fact, these provide spaces for sports and recreation activities for children and adults. Therefore, upgrading their security is really crucial. Some criteria which determine the safety level of urban parks are the safety of sports facilities and floor surfaces and the status of lighting system, emergency facilities, security and space visibility. All these criteria have their own different sub-criterion.  Methodology The research method used here is descriptive-analytical one. All samples on district and zonal functions of parks are gathered from 7 parks with a total area of ​​more than 2 hectares spread across Rasht city (see Fig. 1). This study considers 9 criteria and 30 sub-criteria based on the results of theoretical studies and those used in other studies, which show explicitly the safety state of the parks. All criteria and sub-criteria are arranged based on the Likert spectrum questionnaire as well as face-to-face interviews. The data are analyzed by statistical analysis of mean, variance and mean difference (T-test) using SPSS software. Fig1: The location of parks in Rasht city Results and Discussion The analysis of results indicates that the City Park in Rasht, with an average desirability equal to 3.90, is the best one whereas some such as Mellat, Sabzeh Meidan and Tohid with the average desirability equal to 2.90 are the worst with regard to the safety quality criteria. The comparative studies of parks with playing spaces for children and sport spaces for adults indicate that the City Park and Sabzeh Meidan parks are the highest desirable and the lowest desirable ones, respectively. The results also show that Daneshjoo and Shahr Parks with averages of 4.2 and 1 have the highest and the lowest desirability considering the safety criteria for children. Regarding the safety state of facilities, the value of desirability for Sabzeh Meidan and City Park and for Mellat and Keshavarz parks are obtained 4.25 and 3, respectively. The safety state of playing facilities in Daneshjoo and Sabzeh Meidan are obtained equal to 4.6 and 1, respectively. Considering the safety state of floor surfaces, Daneshjoo and Sabzeh Meidan parks and Keshavarz Park have the average desirability values equal to 5 and 2, respectively. Analyzing the status of lighting system showed that Giyah Shenasi Park has the highest quality value equal to 4 and Mellat Park with the value of 2.5 has the lowest quality value. Regarding emergency facilities, Sabzeh Meidan Park and Giyah Shenasi Park have the desirability values of 4.67 and 1.7, respectively. Giyah Shenasi and Mellat parks regarding the security level have the values of 4 and 1, respectively. Finally, the highest and lowest values of desirability for Tohid and Giyah Shenasi parks are obtained 5 and 2, respectively (see Table 1).         Table 1: Status of criteria studied in the parks criteria       Park The location of playing or sport spaces (Q1) The safety states of spaces (Q2) The safety state of park facilities (Q3) The safety state of playing or sport facilities (Q4) The safety state of floor surface (Q5) Lighting system status Q6 The status of emergency facilities Q7 The state of security (Q8) The status of space visibility Q9 Mean Daneshjoo 3.75 4.20 3.75 4.60 5.00 2.75 3.00 2.00 2.67 3.70 Sabzeh Meydan 1.00 1.00 4.25 1.00 5.00 3.75 4.67 1.00 3.33 2.90 Mellat 3.00 4.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 2.50 3.00 1.00 2.33 2.90 Keshavarz 3.50 3.80 3.00 3.60 2.00 2.75 3.33 1.67 3.67 3.00 Shahr 5.00 4.20 4.25 4.40 5.00 3.75 4.67 1.00 3.00 3.90 Tohid 2.00 2.00 3.50 2.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 5.00 2.90 Giyah Shenasi 4.25 3.6 4 4 3.5 4 1.7 4.1 2.00 3.32 Mean 3.21 3.26 3.68 3.23 3.93 3.21 3.33 1.96 3.14 3.23   T-test is applied to compare the means (averages) of different criteria. Considering 95% confidence interval, the results show that the obtained significance levels of all criteria except the security one (i.e. Q8) are higher than the test value which is equal to 3. Furthermore, the tendency towards relative desirability of safety is observed in the studied parks (see Table 2).         Table 2. Estimation of the difference in mean of criteria in the statistical T-test Criteria   Test value: 3 T   d   Significant   Average difference 95% confidence interval l u Q1 .418 6 .002 .2143 -.3056 .7341 Q2 .543 6 .002 .2571 -.2227 .7370 Q3 3.359 6 .015 .6786 .4738 .8833 Q4 .457 6 .000 .2286 -.2784 .7356 Q5 2.100 6 .021 .9286 .4804 1.3767 Q6 .941 6 .003 .2143 -.0165 .4451 Q7 .856 6 .000 .3386 -.0623 .7395 Q8 -2.294 6 .042 -1.0329 -1.4890 -.5767 Q9 .379 6 .000 .1429 -.2393 .5250   Conclusion The analysis of the park locations based on the mean of all safety criteria in the form of the acceptable standard level indicates that the absolute difference between the mean of each park and the acceptable standard level is insignificant (see Figure 2). Furthermore, the results of the locations of the parks show that the urban parks of Rasht have a value which is slightly higher than acceptable standard level regarding the safety criterion. This implies that the necessity of planning to increase the safety criteria values of parks is inevitable because the growth of urban dimensions and increased need to parking spaces, depreciation of parks equipment will decrease the present value of safety criteria.    Figure 2: Difference between the acceptable standard level and mean of each park based on the total criteria   According to the analysis, it can be concluded that: • Park spaces in Rasht city are different in terms of the quality of safety criteria and do not have the same level of safety.• The total mean difference of all criteria in the parks of Rasht based on the T-test is 3.23 which are near to acceptable standard value (i.e. 3). It indicates that considering a 95% confidence level, all parks have a minimum level of safety. • Although the safety quality of the park spaces in Rasht is close to the acceptable standard level, it is far from the desirable standard. • The state of security in all parks is unacceptable and it is below the standard level. • The mean value of all criteria in semi-central, and northern parks of the city (i.e. Mellat, Tohid, Keshavarz and Sabzeh Meidan parks) compared to southern parks is low (see Fig. 2). • The acceptable standard level of all criteria, mean value of criteria and difference between criteria show that the mean value of criteria in the parks are different. • Regarding the safety quality, the difference between urban parks of Rasht and the acceptable standard level which is equal to 4.4 indicates that the parks are not in a suitable condition. Therefore, based on the above points, the hypothesis that the safety quality level of urban parks is different and the level is close to the acceptable standard but far from the appropriate standard value.
    Keywords: Keywords: Quality, Assessment, Safety, Parks, Rasht City.
  • Yaghoob Zanganeh*, Niloofar Honarmandi Alamdari, Mahdi Zanganeh Pages 165-190
    Introduction One of the concepts considered as a development indicator in recent decades is to increase the level of public awareness about all themes, including individual rights and laws. Urban rights are a set of rules and regulations that determine the quality of relations, rights, and duties of citizens against each other, society and institutions of urban management. Awareness of these rights can be regarded as the core of social and political participation and basis of civil society. Accordingly, active participation of citizens in community affairs is considered as a part of the rights and duties of citizenship. Today, citizenship is part of the social and civil rights of any person who impels the organizations and the public to support him, in respect of obedience and observance of the laws and obligations. Although the concepts of citizenship rights in the developed Western countries have an extensive history, however, during the process of globalization, this concept has entered into developing countries, including Iran, and has attracted the attention of researchers, social activists, planners and urban managers. The first step in dealing with the issue of urban rights and active citizenship is to measure the citizens' awareness of their rights. Accordingly, in this study, citizens' awareness of urban rights in two affluent (5th municipal area of Mashhad) and non-affluent areas (1st municipal area of Mashhad with emphasis on Sadjad district), as well as the relationship between the awareness of urban rights and their active participation were investigated and analyzed. Methodology Considering that present study is seeking to assess a relationship between the level of urban rights and citizenship awareness, this study is considered as a solidarity research in terms of its nature, and it is considered as a descriptive-analytical study in terms of the method applied. The required data are collected through documentary and survey methods. The statistical population of this research includes residents of two districts of 1st and 5th municipalities of Mashhad, which involves the age group of 25 to 70 years. The reason for choosing this age range is that people usually marry at the age of 25 after graduation and military service (in the case of men) and enter the work and activity field, consequently, deal with urban management institutions. The research unit in this study is individual and the sample size was determined using the 384 Cochran formula. Data were collected through questionnaires using descriptive and inferential statistical tests such as correlation test, mean comparison, and chi-square, and were analyzed using SPSS software. Results and Discussion The results of this research show that the awareness level of residents of municipal district 1 regarding the urban rights is fair with an average of 3.124 and in district 5 with an average of 2.517 is lower than average as well as the difference in mean in two regions is significant. The significant difference in the level of awareness of urban rights in the two districts can be explained so that the district 1 is considered as one of the affluent and prosperous areas of Mashhad, and in contrast to the district 5 is considered as a non-affluent and impoverished area. It is normal that more income, better use of more educational facilities, the use of more advanced media outlets (Internet, newspaper, books, etc.), provide the higher occupational conditions and interaction with well-informed people, possibility of more domestic and foreign travels, which all contribute to raising the level of awareness of urban rights. There is also a significant positive relationship between income level and awareness which is another result of this study, confirms this claim. Other results of the research show that there is a significant positive relationship between the citizens’ awareness of urban rights and their active participation in urban management institutions. That is, the higher the level of citizens' awareness of citizenship rights is, their active participation in urban management. Furthermore, the results indicate that there is a significant positive relationship between residents' awareness of citizenship rights and their gender variables, their income, and educational level. This means that the men are more aware of urban rights and laws than women. People with higher levels of income and education have also had a greater awareness of citizenship rights. There was no significant relationship between the age and duration of respondents' residence in Mashhad and their knowledge of urban rights. Conclusion The results of most studies conducted in Iran on the participation of citizens indicate their high level of willingness to participate in community affairs and urban management, however, in practice, the active participation of people in the administration of city affairs is less. Perhaps one of the missing circles in this regard is less attention to citizens' awareness of their rights and duties towards citizens, urban managers, and the use of urban spaces. Citizens who do not understand their rights and duties to the community cannot be expected to participate actively in city affairs. There is a significant positive relationship between the awareness level of the rights and the laws of the city and the active participation of citizens in this research according to the theoretical issues and research background in relation to the issue of citizenship rights and participation. Members of a community are encouraged to participate in real, informed, and effective participation in different aspects of social life, in case, they are aware of their rights and obligations on the one hand and the scope of duties and responsibilities of the managers of the institutions and executive agencies on the other. Such awareness also encourages them to claim their rights and increases their sense of responsibility towards respecting the rights of others as well as the rules of the institutions of the community. Therefore, awareness of citizenship rights can be considered as the core of social and political participation of a community. The lack of a meaningful relationship between the age and dwelling duration of residents with the level of awareness of citizenship rights in this research reflects the fact that in Iranian cities, even in metropolitan areas such as Mashhad, there is no appropriate social and institutional context for active citizenship participation and informing and training on urban and citizenship rights. Hence, to create and to improve such a field, more effort of managers, planners, and educational institutions is required.
    Keywords: Keywords: Mashhad, Urban Rights, Citizenship Rights, Active Citizenship.