- سال شانزدهم شماره 1 (پیاپی 48، بهار و تابستان 1401)
- تاریخ انتشار: 1401/12/07
- تعداد عناوین: 10
در نگرش مولوی به حواس پنجگانه ظاهری آدمی، حس شنوایی جایگاهی ممتاز و برتر دارد؛ بنابراین مولوی با توجه به ساحت بیرونی انسان و با نگرش فیزیولوژیک، حس شنوایی را نخستین و مهمترین حس فعال انسان برای ادراک دنیای محسوسات میداند. این حس در پیوند با دل و درون آدمی، زمینه های تکامل حقیقی انسان را با شنیدن سخنان بزرگان فراهم میآورد. ازسوی دیگر با توجه به ساحت درونی انسان و با نگرش معرفت شناسانه، گوش باطنی را از مراتب وجودی و روحی آدمی میداند که دراثر رفع حجاب ها، موجب درک و فهم سخن و صدای جماد و نبات و عالم عرش و فرش میشود.روش
این مقاله به روش تحلیلی به واکاوی نگرش مولوی درباره حس شنوایی در ساختمان آفرینش آدمی میپردازد.یافته ها و نتایج
مولوی بر آن است که انسانها، ضمن بهرهگیری از حس شنوایی برای ارتباط با دنیای بیرون، باید تاحد امکان بکوشند تا مرتبه حس شنوایی ظاهری را به مرتبه شنوایی باطنی برسانند و آن را تکامل بخشند تا از صوت عالم بالا و ذوق و وجد روحانی حاصل از آن بهرهمند شوند؛ نیز ازپی آن به صدا و آواز حق برسند (گفت پیغمبر که آواز خدا/ میرسد در گوش من همچون صدا).کلیدواژگان: مولوی، عرفان، حس شنوایی، گوش ظاهری، گوش باطنی
تسبیح موجودات یکی از مباحث مهم و کلیدی مطرح در قرآن کریم و تفسیرهای شیعه و سنی، احادیث روایی و نیز بیشتر تالیفات عرفانی است. اهمیت این مسیله تاحدی است که در شعر و ادبیات فارسی نیز بازتاب وسیعی داشته است و بسیاری از شاعران مشهور ادب فارسی در آثار خود، بدان پرداخته اند؛ البته درباره چگونگی این تسبیح و شیوه استماع آن، در متون و منابع اسلامی، ادبی و عرفانی، اختلاف نظرهای فراوانی وجود دارد. نورالدین عبدالرحمن جامی از شاعران بزرگ قرن نهم و از پیروان دلبسته مکتب ابن عربی، تحت تاثیر آبشخورهای دینی و آموزه های ابن عربی و نیز به پیروی از شاعران پیشین کوشیده است تا با نگاهی متمایز، در آثار خود، به ویژه هفت اورنگ، به تبیین و تشریح این مسیله بپردازد.روش
در این پژوهش، سعی شده است با استفاده از روش توصیفی تحلیلی، ضمن بیان دیدگاه های مفسران، متکلمان و عارفان، این نگاه متفاوت نیز واکاوی شود.یافته ها و نتایج
جامی تسبیح موجودات را به دو گونه گفتاری و غیرگفتاری تقسیم کرده است؛ تسبیح گفتاری موجودات تنها با حس و خیال درک می شود و اصحاب کشف با کمک حواس و اصحاب عیان با یاری خیال و حواس باطنی می توانند این تسبیح را بشنوند؛ اما تسبیح غیرگفتاری یا حالی موجودات با گوش خرد اهل حس فهمیده می شود؛ زیرا تسبیح گفتاری برای ارباب حس یا اهل کشف و نظر فقط با عقل، قیاس و ذکر لفظ و کلام درک پذیر است. درواقع تفاوت برجسته جامی با پیشینیانش در تحلیل و تبیین معمای پر رمز و راز چگونگی تسبیح موجودات، گذشته از نوع و شیوه استدلال، همین تسبیح قالی موجودات با نیروی خیال است.کلیدواژگان: تسبیح، شعر عرفانی، هفت اورنگ، جامی
در دوره قاجار با گرایش افکار مردم و هنرمندان به ادبیات عرفانی، نقاشان با تاثیر از این فضا و با استفاده از نمادها (عناصر طبیعت)، به خلق تصاویر نابی از این مضامین پرداختند. مولانا نیز در انتقال اندیشه های ماورایی و عرفانی خود با کاربرد نمادین از عناصر طبیعت، پرنده را نمادی از روح و جان انسان (عاشق)، گل را نمادی از بهشت و خداوند (معشوق) و باغ را عالم ماوای روح برای رسیدن به یگانگی می داند. هدف از این پژوهش تحلیل رابطه معنایی عناصر طبیعت موجود در نقاشی گل و مرغ عصر قاجار با تصاویر خلق شده عرفانی از این عناصر در اندیشه و شعر مولاناست. پرسش اصلی پژوهش این است که «چه رابطه معنایی را می توان بین نقاشی گل و مرغ در دوره قاجار و عرفان مولوی جست وجو کرد».روش
این پژوهش به روش توصیفی تحلیلی براساس آثار گل و مرغ دوره قاجار و مطالعه تطبیقی با اشعار عرفانی مولانا انجام شده است.یافته ها و نتایج
همانگونه که مولانا به نماد پرنده از منظر تجلی روح، عاشق و سالک می نگرد و نماد گل سرخ را تمثیلی از تجلی عشق، بهشت پایدار، جلوه و مظهر خدا می شمرد، در دوره قاجار نیز عناصر نقاشی ایرانی (گل و مرغ) به صورت نمادین و سرشار از رمز و حضور معنا با همان مفاهیم موجود در اشعار مولانا به تصویر درآمده اند.کلیدواژگان: گل و مرغ، نگارگری دوره قاجار، عرفان مولانا
فصل معاد یکی از بخش های مهم مرصادالعباد است که با قرایت عرفانی یکی از آیات قرآن کریم آغاز می شود. نویسنده معاد را بازگشت نفوس انسانی به حضرت خداوندی می داند که با سفر صفوف چهارگانه ارواح و طی هفت مرحله اتفاق می افتد. نویسنده ساختار نظام مندی برای این سفر بیان کرده است؛ با توجه به این ساختار، پرسش پژوهشی مهم این است که آیا می توان آن را با مراحل سفر قهرمان کمبل تطبیق داد.روش
این پژوهش از نوع توصیفی کتابخانه ای است و روش تحلیل در آن بدینگونه است که ابتدا ساختار بخش منظور استخراج، و سپس با بخش های انطباق پذیر الگوی کمبل تحلیل و بررسی می شود.یافته ها و نتایج
بنابر یافته ها شرط شروع سیر استکمالی، جذبه الهی است. پس از شروع سفر، در بخش دوم، فرد مراحلی را می پیماید که کمبل آن را جاده آزمون ها می نامد. به عقیده نجم الدین رازی، در این بخش، فرد باید چهار مرحله نفس اماره، لوامه، ملهمه و مطمینه را طی کند تا به غایت سفر خویش برسد. فرد در پایان این سیر استکمالی، مقیم بهشت موعود، یعنی همان بارگاه صفات خداوندی می شود. نویسنده دو سرنوشت متفاوت برای سالکان تعیین کرده است. به عقیده وی اگر فرد، جزو سالکان باشد، پس از بازگشت، مامور به راهدانی و رهنمایی است. کسانی که به شیوه مجذوبان سلوک کرده باشند، پس از بازگشت، مسیولیتی در قبال دیگران بر عهده نخواهد داشت. در کهن الگوی سفر قهرمان کمبل نیز به این دو سرانجام اشاره شده است.کلیدواژگان: مرصاد العباد، نجم الدین رازی، سفر معاد، کهن الگوی سفر قهرمان، کمبل
مقاله حاضر به بررسی انگیزه ها و اهداف نویسندگان متون منثور عرفانی در تالیف آثارشان می پردازد. پرسش مرکزی این پژوهش آن است که چه انگیزه هایی باعث می شده است تا نویسندگان برجسته ترین آثار عرفانی منثور زبان فارسی به تالیف و تصنیف بپردازند.روش
پنجاه اثر عرفانی، از گونه های مختلف نگاشته های صوفیانه منثور فارسی، انتخاب و انگیزه یا انگیزه های تالیف آنها استخراج، تحلیل و طبقه بندی شده است. آنچه مستند این پژوهش است نوشته های مولفان آثار بررسی شده است. فضای حاکم بر جامعه مخاطبانی که اینگونه آثار در آنها تولید شده است، درحد گنجایش یک مقاله، توصیف و می شود؛ اما بدیهی است تحلیل تاریخی جامعه شناسانه موضوع، مجالی دست کم درحد یک کتاب می طلبد؛ بنابراین در این پژوهش فقط به نگاه و نظر مولفان آثار توجه و استناد شده است.یافته ها و نتایج
با در نظرگرفتن این نکته که برخی از مولفان این آثار، اهداف متعددی برای تالیف اثر خود ذکر کرده اند، انگیزه تالیف این متون را می توان در یازده دسته طبقه بندی و درصد تقریبی هرکدام را معین کرد. از میان این یازده دسته که در متن مقاله آورده شده است، تالیف اثر به درخواست دوستان و مریدان بیشترین بسامد را داشته است و تالیف به انگیزه بث الشکوی کمترین بسامد را دارد.کلیدواژگان: عرفان، تصوف، متون منثور عرفانی، نثر صوفیانه، انگیزه های تالیف
جریان شعری حجم در تاریخ شعر معاصر جریانی بیانیه محور بوده و از الگوها و ساختار های ویژه ای پیروی کرده است. خوانندگان شعر حجم نیز در طول زمان با خوانش نظریات یدالله رویایی از ظرفیت های متفاوت فلسفی، زبانی و زیبایی شناسانه آن آگاه شده اند؛ در این پژوهش به نقش عرفان در بوطیقای تصویر شعر یدالله رویایی پرداخته می شود.روش
پژوهش حاضر با محوریت بخشیدن به نقش عرفان در بوطیقای تصویر شعر رویایی، به سطوح متفاوتی از این تاثیرگذاری در بعد اخلاقی و مفاهیم عرفانی دست یافته است. در این راستا، به دلیل ظرفیت های لبریخته ها و هفتاد سنگ قبر، تحلیل و بررسی مجموعه این ویژگی ها بر این دو دفتر شعری انجام می شود.یافته ها و نتایج
بوطیقای تصویر در شعر یدالله رویایی مجموعه ای از ظرفیت ها و وجوه متفاوت است که الگوها و ساختارهای خود را از بیانیه های شعر حجم و نظریات یدالله رویایی می گیرد؛ وجوه متفاوتی مانند وجوه زبان شناسانه، پدیدارشناسانه، زیبایی شناسانه و عارفانه. دستیابی به وجوه مختلف یادشده مسیله ای است که در گذار از بیانیه شعر حجم و سیر تاریخی نظریات یدالله رویایی به وقوع می پیوندد. بررسی عرفان و نقش آن نیز در بوطیقای تصویر شعر رویایی در گذار از این مباحث و تمرکز بر بیانیه دوم حجم گرایی و حواشی شعر حجم امکان پذیر بوده است. عرفان با کنشی دوسویه در بعد اخلاقی، ریشه های تربیت ذهنی حجم، خوانش و نویسش را در تاثیرپذیری از پدیدارشناسی هوسرلی یافته و از آنجا به ساختمان حضور غیر و دیگری رسیده و در تاثیر مفاهیم عرفانی، به سروده هایی با تکانه های عاطفی، زبان عارفانه یا با بافت و ساختار شطحیات عینیت بخشیده است.کلیدواژگان: یدالله رویایی، بوطیقای تصویر، عرفان، زبان عرفان، شطحیات، پدیدارشناسی هوسرلی
مجالس العشاق (تالیف 909 ق.) یکی از تذکره های مهم و کهن زبان فارسی است. تعدد دست نویس های آن، که به بیش از هشتاد نسخه می رسد، بیانگر ارزش و اهمیت آن نزد پیشینیان است. با این وصف، در میان معاصران بیشتر به سبب محتوای نامتعارف آن و انتساب عشق مجازی به اولیا و بزرگان عرفان نقدهایی بر آن نوشته شده است.روش
هدف ما در این مقاله ارایه نظریه عشق در مجالس العشاق با تمسک به رویکردی تحلیلی و متن محور و گوشه چشمی به متغیرهای برون متنی خواهد بود. در کانون ادبی عرفانی هرات قرن نهم، دو جریان مرتبط با عشق وجود داشته است؛ نخست، جریانی که ناظر بر انحراف جنسی و انحطاط اخلاقی است و غالبا در جهان بیرون از متن جریان داشته است و ما برای نامیدن آن از استعاره جریان سیاه عشق مجازی بهره می بریم و دیگر جریانی که عمدتا در جهان متن دیده می شود و ناظر بر عشق به زیبایی و صور جمال الهی است. ما برای نامیدن این جریان از استعاره عشق مجازی سفید بهره گرفتیم.یافته ها و نتایج
این تحقیق نشان می دهد نظریه عشقی مجالس العشاق، از نوع جمال شناسی الهی و عشق ورزی به آن جمال در آینه صور زیباست؛ اما مفصل بندی نادرست این جریان عشقی و آمیختن آن با انحراف های جنسی که در جهان خارج از متن متداول بوده، سبب شده است در ذهن پژوهشگران تصور نادرستی از این کتاب ارجمند شکل بگیرد. مسیله اصلی مقاله حاضر به چالش کشیدن همین ذهنیت های افراطی و تفریطی است.کلیدواژگان: مجالس العشاق، نظریه عشق، عشق الهی، جمال شناسی
مولانا برخی از اندیشه ها و تجارب عرفانی خود را تنها در گونه ادبی «مناجات» بیان می کند. وی افزون بر ایجاد نوعی فرم ویژه خلاقانه در مناجات، کارکرد برجسته آن را در انتقال مفاهیمی وضع می نهد که مقصود غایی داستان هایی در مثنوی با کاربرد آن حاصل می شود. هدف اصلی پژوهش عبارت است از: بررسی وجوه هنری این نوع ادبی در قالب زبان عرفانی؛ نقش بارز آن در بیان نکته های باطنی با شناخت روایت و تحلیل گفتمانی و نیز چگونگی بسط موضوعات متکثر در گذر تلفیق آنها در یک شبکه پیچیده منسجم و هماهنگ.روش
این پژوهش به شیوه توصیف و تحلیل داده ها و مبتنی بر مبانی نقد و نظریه، با توجه به یک حدیث و چهار داستان از دفتر پنجم مثنوی و در 69 بیت به انجام رسیده است.یافته ها و نتایج
در اشاره به برخی یافته ها می توان گفت خطاب های عاطفی مولانا در شکل مناجات، زبان ویژه ای، هم در شکل و هم در محتوای آن می آفریند که نگرش تاویلی او را در دریافت معانی خاصی به این شیوه نشان می دهد؛ نیز تاکید می کند که این شیوه بیان علاوه بر ایجاد توازن و انسجام در میان اجزای داستان و از لابه لای پیچیدگی های معانی ضمنی، بعضی دلالت های عمیق و گسترده متن را به گونه مشخص تری ظاهر می کند؛ این قابلیت خوانش های متعددی از موضوع ارایه می دهد و از این طریق بر عملکرد کیفی خواننده برای درک صحیح تر وی از پیام های آن تاثیری آشکار می گذارد؛ بدین ترتیب علاوه بر القای مفاهیم عمیق عاطفی به خواننده، برخی خلاهای انتقال و دریافت شناخت دقیق مضامین عرفانی هم جبران می شود.کلیدواژگان: مناجات های مولانا، دفتر پنجم مثنوی، زبان عرفانی، روایت شناسی، تحلیل گفتمان
صاین الدین علی معروف به ابن ترکه اصفهانی (770‐835 ق.) یکی از فلاسفه و عارفان متاثر از مکتب ابن عربی است؛ ازاین رو معنا، زبان و لفظ را نیز در چارچوب وحدت وجود تبیین کرده است. در این پژوهش درباره مفاهیم مرکزی نظریه وی بحث می شود.روش
نگارندگان در این پژوهش کوشیده اند از رهگذر آثار و رسایل چاپی و مخطوط ابن ترکه، به روشی توصیفی تحلیلی، تبیین های معناشناختی و مولفه های مترتب بر آن را استخراج کنند و مفاهیم مرکزی نظریه وی را به بحث بگذارند.یافته ها و نتایج
نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش نشان می دهد وحدت وجود برای ابن ترکه امکانی فراهم آورده است تا بتواند ابعاد ناسوتی و تجریدی زبان را در کنار هم و در یک وحدت دیالکتیکی، تبیین و برپایه آن، نظریه إشعار را طرح ریزی کند. إشعار در دیدگاه ابن ترکه غایت خلقت آدمی است. انسان در عالم هستی در جایگاه إشعار قرار دارد. إشعار در آثار ابن ترکه به معنی آگاهانیدن است. إشعارکننده درواقع حقایق عالم ظهور را کشف می کند و رموز آن را درمی یابد؛ زیرا همه هستی کلمهالله است و انسان در مقام إشعار، قرایت کننده و بیانگر این کلمات است. ابن ترکه درپی آمیختن ابعاد تنزیهی و تشبیهی هستی، زبان ملفوظ را نیز، که امتداد نفس الرحمن در عالم اصغر است، دارای دو وجه جمالی و جلالی می داند و در همین راستا وضع الفاظ را نیز با تبیینی دوساحتی بررسی می کند.کلیدواژگان: ابن ترکه، وحدت وجود، معنا، لفظ، وضع الفاظ، إشعار
عرفان شیعی رویکردی عمده در عرفان اسلامی است که در تبیین و تحلیل مفاهیم عرفانی، تفسیرهای ویژه خود را دارد. از آن میان، مبحث ولایت عرفانی در منظومه فکری عارفان شیعی جایگاهی بسزا دارد. کاشف دزفولی، عارف شیعی قرن دوازدهم، از عارفان گمنام و مجهول القدری است که صاحب ده ها کتاب و رساله عرفانی است؛ با این حال سلوک فکری او چنانکه باید شناخته نشده است. ولایت انسان کامل یکی از مباحث کلیدی در آثار اوست.روش
در این مقاله آرای کاشف دزفولی، به روش تحلیلی توصیفی و مبتنی بر سنت اول و دوم عرفانی تحلیل شده است.یافته ها و نتایج
کاشف، مفهوم ولایت را در بستر وحدت وجود تفسیر کرده است؛ وی انسان کامل را مظهر نور الهی و او را حقیقت عقل می نامد. برتری ولی بر نبی، ختم ولایت در مهدی موعود، تعداد اولیا و صفات آنان، از دیگر موضوعات مرتبط با ولایت درآثار اوست. برخی از استنادهای کاشف به ابن عربی و شباهت آرای او در مبحث ولایت به دیدگاه عارفانی مانند حمویه، نسفی و سید حیدر آملی نشان می دهد که عرفان کاشف دزفولی در تداوم عرفان شیعی سده های هفتم و هشتم است؛ به طوری که این شیوه عرفانی و به ویژه مبحث ولایت را ازطریق کاشف دزفولی تا قرن دوازدهم می توان پیگیری و نقطه گذاری کرد. از این نظر، بررسی آرای کاشف دزفولی اهمیت و جایگاه ویژه ای دارد.کلیدواژگان: ولایت، انسان کامل، عرفان شیعی، کاشف دزفولی
In Molavi’s attitude, the sense of hearing has a privilege and superior position compared to the other human senses. according to the external dimension of humanity and based on the physiological attitude, he apparently sees hearing sense as the first and most important active sense contributing to human perception of sensible words. Listening to the elders’ words provides true development in human beings. On the other hand, reading the texts written by humans with epistemological attitudes is considered to serve as an existential and psychological inner ear, which makes it possible to comprehend and receive heavenly words and revelation when the veils are removed. The present study analyzed Molavi’s attitude towards the position of ears in the creational framework of human beings, which has resulted in human’s use of sensory ears to communicate with the outside world. Ears must work as for as possible to help the hearing sense ultimately reach the level of inward hearing and deeply benefit from the sounds of sublime words, thus seeking to reach perfection.Introduction
One of the basic topics in the study and discussion of ancient Greek philosophers, Islamic scientists, and European sages is the discussion of the tools of human knowledge and perception of the outside world and their own emotional states. Different philosophical schools have addressed the quality and manner of this knowledge. Philosophers have always asked these questions: How are human perceptions found? Is the basis of these perceptions the five external senses, the internal five senses, or a sense beyond the external and internal senses? Is perception a material phenomenon that is formed through the external senses in the evolution of matter and reaching a certain stage? Or is it an abstract phenomenon and a type of existence that is achieved with internal senses different from matter? Philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Farabi, Avicenna, Descartes, John Locke, and others have expressed numerous diverse and sometimes conflicting opinions and statements that deserve to be examined in an independent study. In this regard, the present study aims to analyze Molavi’s attitude towards the position of the hearing sense in the creational framework of human beings.
Review of the Literature:
Zarrinkoob (2004) believes that Molavi is one of the thinkers who is influenced by the Quranic teachings in dealing with the five external senses (especially the sense of hearing) and derives his opinions and thoughts “because of his involvement in the secrets and mysteries of the Quran from the source of revelation” (p. 16). He is also influenced by the opinions of earlier philosophers such as Avicenna on the subject of direct knowledge. Therefore, he finds a unique mystical attitude to the outer and inner spheres of man. Through this attitude, he considers the five external and internal senses from the illuminations and manifestations of God in the building of human creation, which, while understanding and receiving the forms of the material world and meaning, are the guide of man to the source of truth. In the attitude of Molavi, among the five senses of human appearance, the sense of hearing has a privilege and superior position to the other senses of humans. Molavi, according to the external dimension of humanity and with physiological attitude, sees the apparent ear as the first and most important active sense of human perception of sensible words, which provides the true development of human beings through listening to the words of the elders. On the other hand, the inner aspect of humans and epistemological attitudes of the inner ear are considered to be existential and psychological dimensions. Due to the removal of the veils, they make it possible to comprehend and receive the word of heaven and revelation. According to the conducted studies, there is no independent study entitled ‘analysis of hearing sense from Molavi's point of view’. Therefore, this study aims to fill this gap.Methodology
The present analytical study investigates the attitude of Molavi about the position of the hearing sense in human creation. The study uses library resources to answer the following research questions: Why is the sense of hearing superior and more important than other external human senses? What are the degrees of sense of hearing in Molavi's mysticism? What is the relationship between the sense of hearing and the human heart? In Molavi's attitude, what things become the veil of the sense of hearing? What are the factors affecting a better understanding of the sense of hearing?Results
The results of the study showed that Molavi is influenced by Quranic teachings as well as the opinions and words of the sages and philosophers before him. This shows the close relationship between Quranic and mystic sciences and natural sciences. In the Qur'an and Molavi's mysticism, the status and rank of the sense of hearing are superior and more important than other external human senses for the following reasons: 1) direct activity of the sense of hearing after birth, 2) perceiving the sense of hearing in the matter of learning and studying science from the outside world and transferring it to the inside world, 3) non-stop activity of the sense of hearing in all circumstances, and 4) stopping speech during the activity of the sense of hearing. Molavi has three scientific, educational, and mystical views about the place of the sense of hearing in the structure of human creation. From the scientific point of view, he is placed in the position of a physiologist and considers the sense of hearing as the first active human sense. From the educational perspective, like educational scientists, he considers the sense of hearing in interaction with the power of speech that is effective in creating social communication and healthy behavior. In the mystical view, inspired by the Quranic verses, he considers the inner ear to be one of the existential and spiritual levels of man. In light of God's revelations and manifestations, Molavi considers all creatures of the world, from inanimate objects to plants and from particles to galaxies, to have a level of hearing.Keywords: Molavi, mysticism, hearing sense, Inward Ear
The glorification of creatures is one of the important topics discussed in the Holy Qur'an, Shia and Sunni interpretations, narrative hadiths, and most mystical works. The importance of this issue is such that it has a wide reflection in Persian poetry and literature, and many famous poets of Persian literature have addressed it in their works. Of course, there are many differences in the opinions about the nature of this glorification (tasbih) and the way to listen to it in Islamic, literary, and mystical texts and sources. Nooruddin Abdul Rahman Jami was one of the great poets of the 9th century and one of the close followers of the school of Ibn Arabi. He was influenced by religious teachings, the teachings of Ibn Arabi, and following the example of the poets before him, and tried to explain the issue of glorification in his works, especially in Haft Orang. In the present study, an attempt has been made to analyze this view using the descriptive-analytical method, while expressing the views of commentators, theologians, and mystics. It can be said that he has divided the glorification of beings into verbal and non-verbal aspects. The glorification of beings can be understood only by senses and imagination, and the companions of discovery can hear this glorification with the help of the senses. But, non-verbal glorification is understandable by the inner ear of the senses. In fact, Jami’s prominent difference from his predecessors is in the analysis and explanation of the mysteries of how creatures glorify, apart from the type and method of reasoning of creatures with the power of imagination.Introduction
The glorification (tasbih) of creatures is one of the important topics in Islamic sources, which has also had a wide reflection in Persian poetry and literature. Of course, there are different opinions in Islamic, literary, and mystical texts and sources about the nature of glorification and how to listen to it. It is one of the most important and challenging religious, mystical, and literary topics because what and how to perform glorification and whether it is in the verbal language remain unknown. Jami is one of the poets and mystics who have had a special look at this category.
Jami Khatam, one of the great poets of Persian poetry in the Iraqi style, in addition to the variety of Persian poetry and prose formats, has also followed his predecessors in terms of content and theme. He is one of the most prolific writers and his works in both literary and mystical sections include Divan Poems, Haft Orang, Nafahat Elans, Naqd al-Nusus fi Sharrah Naqsh al-Fusus, Lawaih, Rayy al-Ma'at, Evidence of Prophethood, etc. (Afsahzad, 1999, p. 35; Danesh Pajoh & Mokhtarpour Ghahroudi, 2008, p. 12-45; Modaberi, 1990, p. 7-8; Safa, 1989, p. 347-348 ). In his works, especially in Haft Orang, he tried to answer the mysteries of the glorification of beings using his religious and mystical teachings, along with the thoughts of Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi.
In this regard, the present study aims to investigate the glorification of beings and their intelligence in Jami’s Haft Orang. The three research questions posed in the study are as follows:What is the nature and essence of the glorification of creatures and the way to listen to it in Islamic, literary, and mystical texts and sources?
What was the quality of the glorification of creatures, especially their verbal glorification in Jami's works? And what is his view on this matter?
In his works, especially Haft Orang, how has Jami responded to the mysteries of the glorification of creatures by using his religious and mystical aphorisms?
Review of the Literature:
A review of the literature reminds us that the issue of the glorification of creatures is one of the most challenging religious, mystical, and literary topics. However, there are some studies in this regard. For Example, Aram (2011) investigated cosmic consciousness and glorification in the Qur'anic and literary views. In another study, Mohammadi Sheikhi and Fereidunpour (2016) examined the generality of the true glorification of creatures in the epistemological geometry of religious thought. Moreover, Seraj and Mansouri (2017) provided a philosophical explanation of the issue of the glorification of beings from Mullah Sadra's point of view. They have established three arguments for the generality of the glorification of creatures in the universe based on their knowledge, awareness, and their own special language. The issue of glorification can be examined from different perspectives, including the interpretations of the Holy Quran, theologians, philosophers, and researchers of natural sciences, mystics, and mystical works. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there are few, if any, studies investigating the glorification of creatures in Jami’s works. Jami, following his contemporaries and poets before him and also influenced by the school of Ibn Arabi, considered all creatures, including plants, inanimate objects, and animals, without exception, to glorify God Almighty. According to Jami, only the Lord of Revelation understands the glorification. He did not consider the speech of inanimate objects, plants, and animals to be necessary for speech and says: Just as God Almighty is able to speak without words and expressions, He has granted such speech to all the creatures of existence, including inanimate objects, plants, and animals. Jami believes in both kinds of glorification (i.e. verbal and non-verbal) of beings, as he mentions them in Haft Orang.Methodology
In this descriptive-analytical research, an attempt has been made to analyze Jami's different views on the issue of the glorification of creatures and its types in Haft Orang, as well as the quality of this glorification from his point of view, while expressing the perspectives of commentators, theologians, and mystics.Results
The verbal glorification of beings is one of the most important issues that have been discussed in Islamic works, as well as authentic mystical and literary sources. Jami, one of the great poets of the 9th century, also paid special attention to this issue and in his Haft Orang by referring to the principle of "All things are incomparable and non-comparable". He considered all beings to be connected to the divine essence; there should be no similarity between God and creatures. Therefore, the necessity of attributing the creatures to the source of the absolute consciousness of existence, that is, the Almighty God, has led to the consciousness of the creatures. By knowing their consciousness, it can be concluded that they are perfect. Jami, in Haft Orang, influenced by the teachings of the school of Ibn Arabi, considers all possibilities in the system of existence to be glorified and masculine, and he believes that this glorification is realized in a real way and with the language of ‘Qal’. But not everyone is able to understand these conversations.
In analyzing and explaining the glorification of beings, Jami followed the examples of mystical poets before him and tried to depict the verbal glorification of beings after their creation in Haft Orang. But in order to distinguish his opinion from others, after dividing the glorification of beings into two verbal and non-verbal forms, he admitted that glorification without words or formation (presence) is acceptable by any common sense. Moreover, he divides verbal glorification into two categories. In the first category, only special people (discoverers of the nature of the universe) are able to understand this glorification through reasoning and analogy. In the second category, it is understandable through imagination and with the help of the inner senses. In other words, the only prominent difference in Jami’s view, despite his pure imitation in the analysis and explanation of the glorification of beings, is the glorification of beings with the power of imagination. Otherwise, one can easily trace the thoughts of Ibn Arabi and great poets such as Molavi, Attar, and Sana'i in Jami’s works.Keywords: Glorification, mystical poetry, Haft Orang, Jami
Investigating the Semantic relationship between the Flower and Bird (Gol-o Morgh) Elements in the Qajar Period Miniature with Rumi's MysticismPages 45-67
During the Qajar period, with the tendency of people and artists towards mystical literature, painters, by influencing this space and using symbols (elements of nature), created pure images of these themes. Rumi, in conveying his transcendental and mystical thoughts by using the symbolic elements of nature, considers the bird as a symbol of the human’s soul (lover), the flower as a symbol of heaven and God (beloved), and the garden as the sheltering world of the soul to achieve unity. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the semantic relationship between the elements of nature in the flower and bird paintings of the Qajar period with the mystical images created by these elements in the thought and poetry of Rumi. The main question of the research is: What is the semantic relationship between the flower and the bird’s paintings in the Qajar period and Rumi’s mysticism? This research is descriptive-analytical and has been done based on the flower and bird works of the Qajar period and a comparative study with Rumi's mystical poems. Therefore, as Rumi looks at the symbol of the bird from the perspective of the manifestation of the soul and lover and considers the symbol of the rose as an allegory of the manifestation of love, lasting paradise, and the manifestation of God, also, in the Qajar period, the elements of Iranian paintings (the flower and the bird) symbolically and full of secrets and the presence of meaning are depicted with the same concepts that are mentioned in Rumi's mystical poems.Introduction
The romantic relationship between the flower and the bird in these paintings is a mystic symbol of the relationship between humans and God, which is also manifested in the mystic thought and literature of Persian poetry and prose and is a symbol of the mystic’s love for the divine essence. The bird has appeared in the form of a nightingale that found his lost peace again in the arms of his beloved flower (God). The flower bush in the painting of flower and bird is a symbol of scenic trees, and aromatic and mesmerizing flowers of paradise, where birds (a symbol of believers) have reached peace among its branches and have enjoyed the infinite blessings of God.
Rumi expresses his heavenly thoughts, moods, and inner experiences using elements of nature such as different kinds of flowers and birds in terms of symbols to create vivid, dynamic, and artistic images in the reader’s mind. Considering that many images of flowers and birds of the Qajar era are rooted in literary concepts and semantic symbols, painters have aesthetically embodied these two symbols in pictures full of code and meaning. The present research aims to analyze the semantic relationship of the elements of nature in the painting of flowers and birds of the Qajar era with mystical images created from these elements in the thought and poetry of Rumi. The main question of this paper is: “what semantic relationship can be found between the works of flowers and birds of the Qajar era and Rumi’s mysticism?”. According to the literature on the theme of the flower and bird, so far, the theme of the symbol in the paintings of the flower and bird of the Qajar period mixed with mystical literature has not been studied so that their semantic relationship can be discovered and expressed aesthetically.
Review of the Literature2.1 The Symbolic Relationship of Iranian Flower and Bird Painting with Mystical Literature (Rumi)
Bird features have a long history in Iranian art. In the ritual culture of Islam, birds that speak in human language have brilliant effects (Shahdadi, 2005, p. 78). The image of a flower and bird is first shown as the tree of life and bird in the paintings. The tree of life in the written texts and pictures of the Sassanid era in different forms of a bush or tree, from three thousand years BC to the first manifestations of birds in the bibliography of Iranian art, is called the Baghdad school, which found more natural manifestations in the paintings of the 8th century AH and continued until the periods of Tabriz schools in Shiraz, Herat, and Bukhara.
In the Isfahan school, birds that play a role in poems with story elements are shown as symbols of the human spirit (Machiani, 2002, pp. 18-24). An Iranian artist portrays the truth of the holy world with a mysterious expression using symbols such as flowers and birds to convey mystical concepts and meanings. His soul flies to the truth in the form of a bird and sits beside a beautiful flower that symbolizes the beauty of paradise. There, he engages in worship by singing. The Iranian flower and bird painting, in one aspect of its symbolism, is indicative of the poetic concept of a romantic relationship between the nightingale and the flower, in which the description and the story of separation and reunion, love, demands, and romantic lamentations of the nightingale, and on the other hand, depicts the coquetry, disdain, and the romantic charms of the flower. According to Rumi, a flower has received help from a friend’s flower garden; therefore, it is indestructible and has grace, perfection, and good qualities (Hosseinpour Chafi, 2006, p. 165). In Rumi’s opinion, all these descriptions are a symbol of a perfect human being who has reached the flower garden of the unseen world, so we can embrace him and reach the flower garden of truths:Taking the skirt of the flower and accompanying the flower, dancing together, we will reach the root and seedling of the flower (Abbasi, 1991).
In Divan Shams Tabrizi, the bird is a symbol of the soul or spirit, a mystic, and a seeker (Akhtaryar, 2013, p. 146). Some of Rumi’s interpretations of the symbol of the bird in his poems are related to concepts such as 1) the human soul and spirit, 2) the soul of a bird, 3) a mystic and a seeker, 4) perfect humans and inferior humans, 5) claimants of truth, and 6) a sign of human inner qualities.
The illustrated states in Gol-o Morgh’s [flower and bird] painting of the Qajar period and their symbolic relation with the mystical poems of Rumi are as follows:The Birds sitting on the flower branch;
Painters of the Qajar period always illustrated the birds on the flower stem sitting, motionless, and watching the rose.
While singing (seeking love, praise, moaning and wailing, separation from beloved)
The nightingale continuously sings and tries to raise pity and attract the attention of the beloved to reach and be unified with it.
While sleeping (mushahede [intuition])
The sleeping birds in Gol-o Morgh’s [flower and bird] painting indicate being in meditating [observation], leaving the material world, perceiving the divine mysteries, and in inner (moshahede [intuition]) and khamushi [silence].
While hunting insects and butterflies
It usually considers young disciples who have no mukashefe [intuition] and their ears are often busy with worldly speech and their intelligence and senses do not pay attention to the flower.
the bird on the rose branch;
In the works of the Qajar period, the rose is usually used to indicate the main position of Morgh [bird].
The branch of the Iris flower;
As the main flower, the iris is always placed at the center of the image from the point of growth up to the peak of Gol-o Morgh’s [flower and bird] painting, just like the tree of life which was very important and the rose is illustrated on a lower level than branch iris. In combination with other elements, the iris is the largest flower and is often illustrated with darker colors in order to be highlighted compared with other flowers.
The importance of Gol than Morgh [bird];
The flowers are illustrated larger at the top of the miniature with enchanting and attractive colors, while the bird (as the lover and embodiment of need) is illustrated with neutral colors (with the color of the human skin because it is the symbol of the human soul) at the bottom of the miniature smaller than normal and facing the flower.
Variety and number of flowers and birds in composition
The composition of illustration components is more active in Gol-o Morgh’s [flower and bird] painting of the Qajar period compared with previous periods. It is as if the miniaturist has depicted a piece of paradise or a large garden with more variety and more flowers and different types of birds.Methodology
This research has been done by the descriptive-analytical method and has qualitatively examined the data obtained from the samples of the flower and the bird of the Qajar period based on a comparative study with the mystical poems of Rumi.Results
The painting of a flower and bird is a poem of flowers. According to painters, the bird is a symbol of the human spirit. This world is an indicator of his cage and all his efforts to reach the heavenly world. The red flower is a symbol of the beloved, the essence of omnipotence, the allegory of heaven, and the perfect human being. In Persian poems, the flower is a symbol of affection and the nightingale is a symbol of demand, which is in search of the beloved and an eternal flower. In the paintings of Islamic art, there is a close relationship between images and mystical poetry.
During the Qajar era, with the spread of mystical stories and texts (such as the story of Sheikh Sanan written by Attar and Masnavi by Maulavi) and the tendency of people and artists toward these themes, the painters of flowers and birds emerged from the world of imagination and allegory of the mystical poet to discover these meanings and concepts. Influenced by this atmosphere, they created pure images. As a result, paintings full of meaning and mystery are observable on many everyday items such as pencil cases, mirror frames, covers of religious texts (Quran and prayer books), dishes, walls, and ceilings of buildings. In Rumi’s poetry, the garden of life joins the garden of nature and the images of this world are interpreted as the spiritual world. What he means by the garden is the caged soul, and the garden of this world is a ray of the garden of the heavenly and imaginal world. One of the most important symbolic meanings of the bird is the soul or spirit, which means that the soul is constantly trying to fly to the world of the heavens (the original home). This bird in love sings in the dream of gaining the love of the flower, so the red flower will appear and lead his soul to the world of meaning. In his opinion, a flower is the love symbol of the world (God) that guides man (bird, soul) to the essence of his existence. He believes that every part of nature is a manifestation of God’s presence and considers art to be an imitation of the imaginal world and the reminder of memories of heaven. Thus, the hypothesis stated at the beginning of the paper is acceptable.Keywords: The Flower, Bird, the Miniature of the Qajar Period, Rumi's Mysticism
The resurrection season is one of the important parts of Razi’s Mersad al-Ebad which begins with the mystical reading of one of the verses of the Holy Quran. The author considers resurrection as the return of human souls to God which happens with the journey of quadruple processions of souls in seven stages. According to the systematic structure that the author has for this journey, the present study aims to answer two research questions: 1) Does Razi follow a certain pattern in explaining his worldview about the resurrection? 2) Can the stages in Mersad al-Ebad be matched with the stages of Campbell’s hero’s journey? According to the findings of the study, the condition for the beginning of perfection is divine attraction. After starting the journey, in the second part, a person goes through the stages that Campbell calls the road of tests. In this part, as Najmuddin Razi believes, a person must go through four stages of Nafs Ammareh, Lawwameh, Molhameh, and Motmaenneh. At the end of this perfection process, the person becomes a resident of the promised paradise, i.e. the court of God’s attributes. The author has determined two different fates for the seeker. In his opinion, if a person is one of the seekers, after returning, he is responsible for guidance. Those who have behaved in the manner of those who are fascinated, after returning, will not be responsible for others. In the journey, these two ends are also mentioned.Introduction
The common symbolic theme in many myths, legends, and mystical books is the story of man's journey into himself, the result of which is the achievement of spiritual growth, perfection, and psychological integrity. The importance of this issue has caused many researchers, including Joseph Campbell, to investigate the pattern of this symbolic journey. "One myth" is one of the most famous and widely used theories in the field of myth criticism, which was proposed by him in 1949 in the book ‘The Hero with a Thousand Faces’. Jung examined in detail the archetype of the hero's journey and by examining a large number of legends and stories of the world, he showed that this archetype reveals itself in a new form at any time and place to guide man to his inner journey and self-knowledge. Since the main subject of mystical texts and writings is the journey of a person to know the truth of her existence and achieve perfection, the archetype of the hero's journey can be found openly or secretly in many of them. The meaning of religion is that some of the works such as Mantegh al-Tayr by Attar Nishabury, Altavahhom Harith al-Masabi, and many of Masnavi’s stories clearly have this pattern, and sometimes hidden manifestations of it can be found in some works such as Mersad al-Ebad by Razi. Mersad al-Ebad is one of the masterpieces of mystical Persian prose texts. In this work, the author has raised a discussion under the title of resurrection, which can be found in the structure of the hero's journey by studying it closely. More importantly, the author has an interpretative and symbolic view of resurrection and in explaining it, he used symbolic numbers such as four and seven and defined stages for it. According to this hypothesis, the present study aims to investigate the author's approach to the issue of resurrection based on the archetype of the hero's journey. The two research questions are: 1) Does Razi follow a certain pattern in explaining his worldview about the resurrection? 2) Do the stages of resurrection in Mursad al-Abad match the ancient stages of Campbell’s hero's journey?
Review of the Literature:
Mystical studies have made it possible for researchers to investigate and analyze many of these works with a semiotic and archetypal approach and reveal some of their hidden layers with their symbolic content and symbolic and mysterious language. The attractiveness of this type of analysis and the pleasure of discovering the hidden layers of the text has caused the emergence of relatively significant studies with this approach in the field of mystical literature. In some of these studies, the archetype of the hero has been completely investigated in one work. Among them, we can mention ‘Analysis of a fictional story based on Jung's psychological views’ (Esmaili & Bahrami Rahnama, 2017), ‘Deciphering the process of individuality in Attar's Divine Book by relying on Jung's archetypes (Ahmadi & Haghighi, 2019). Some articles have also examined some of the archetypes in mystical works and writings; for example, ‘Comparison of Jung's Archetypes with Abu Sa'id's Mystical Way’ (Aegean & Arab, 2016), ‘criticism and analysis of the archetype of the shadow with respect to the concept of self in mysticism’ (Rozhatian, Mir Bagheri Fard, & Mani, 2013), ‘examination of the ancient pattern of shadow and its adaptation to the soul in Attar's masnavis’ (Qashqaei, 2013), ‘the course of the conceptual evolution of the word self in al-Tayr logic based on individuality’ (Gholampour Ahangarkalai, Tavossi, & Ojag Alizadeh, 2018), ‘the use of archetypes of color in spiritual masnavi based on Jung's theory’ Asadi, Eshghi, & Amir Ahmadi, 2018). In addition to the mentioned studies, many other ones have been written in this field, and mentioning all of them will make the article long. According to this review, the analysis of the topic of resurrection in Mursad al-Abad based on the old model of the hero's journey, both because of the choice of topic and the type of approach, is new and contains different content.Methodology
The archetype criticism has defined two types of self-care for the hero. In the first type, the focus is only on the universal world and the hero faces any kind of danger in the battle and shows heroic deeds. In the second type, the hero, at the same time performing his bravery and heroism, undergoes internal change and transformation, and after going through symbolic stages, he achieves spiritual maturity and spiritual perfection. Cambell's emphasis is on the analysis of the archetype of the hero, focusing on the second self-work, that is, spiritual transformation. According to him, the hero begins his journey from the everyday environment until an inner call reaches him and after that, he must step into a mysterious world that is full of unusual events. Campbell has assigned three stages to this self-care: departure (separation), arrival, and return. Departure includes calling the call, rejecting or accepting it, seeking help from the beyond, crossing the first threshold, and going to the whale's palate. The journey also includes the road of tests, the meeting with God, the temptress, reconciliation and unity with the Father, the Gods, and the final blessing. The return also includes stages such as refusal to return, magical escape, rescue from outside, crossing the threshold of return, master of two worlds, and free in life (cf. Campbell, 2004, p. 59-250). In this study, among the above-mentioned steps, we examine the cases that can be adapted to the Maad chapter of Mersad al-Ebad.Results
In the Resurrection season of Mersad al-Ebad, Razi divides the spirits into four stages (rows). The first phase is the souls of prophets and special saints who are in a position of immediacy and ‘Matmaennegy’. The second row is ‘Molhamegy’. The residents of ‘Lavamgy’ are in the third row, and in the fourth row are the souls of disbelievers and hypocrites who live in ‘Amargy’. According to the author, all souls in their symbolic resurrection should start their journey from the level of Amargi. This movement has a narrative infrastructure in which the triple stages of departure, appreciation, and return of Campbell's model can be clearly found. In the stage of departure, the call is the main and preliminary condition for the beginning of the journey that Razi considers to be dependent on divine attraction, which if it does not happen, a person cannot enter the path of self-knowledge. After sending the invitation, depending on whether the person accepts or rejects it, it may be placed in the category of Ashqiya or Soada. In the Tashraf stage, which is the most detailed part of the archetype of the hero's journey, Razi defines and explains the four main stages, which are, respectively: Amaregy, Lawwemgy, Molhamegy, and Ammaregy. According to him, all four spirits must go through these four stages on their way to perfection and return (resurrection). According to Razi, the passing of the soul from Amaregy, Lawwemgy, Molhamegy, and Ammaregy takes place in seven stages. These Haftkhans, respectively, include: passing through the qualities of earth, water, air, fire, the heavens and heavenly bodies, the kingdom of stars and stars, and finally the heart. Passing through this Haftkhan places a person in the highest rank and known position. After going through this difficult path, one enters the promised paradise. After that, the stage of return takes place, and in this return, if a person is one of those who are fascinated, he does not have a mission to guide, but if he is in the group of seekers, he will be a guide to others on the path of knowledge.Keywords: Mersad al-Ebad, Najmuddin Razi, Resurrection Journey, the Archetype of the Heero’s Journey, Campbell
The present study examines the motives and purpose of the authors of mystical texts in writing their works. In this regard, fifty mystical books from different types of mystical writings of Persian prose have been selected and the motives for their authorship have been analyzed. Some of the authors of these works have mentioned several purposes for writing their works. Thus, he motives for writing these texts were determined in order of frequency and were classified into eleven cases and the approximate percentage of each was determined as 1)Writing at the request of friends and disciples (19%), 2) Writing without mentioning a specific reason or motive (17%), 3) Writing with the motive of preserving the sayings of elders (11%), 4) Writing in reaction against claimants and corruption of the sect (9%), 5) Writing for the purpose of public education in the Persian language (8%), 6) Writing with the intention of presenting to the elders (8%), 7) Writing of the work with the intention of leaving a souvenir (7%), 8) Writing in order to answers to questions (5%), 9) Writing with the intention of expansion Previous Short Works (3%), 10) Writing by Occult Inspiration (3%), and 11), and Writing motivated to express grief (2%).Keywords: mysticism, Sufism, mystical prose texts, Sufi prose, motivation to write
Spacement poetry is a manifest-based movement in the history of contemporary poetry in Iran that follows specific patterns and structures. By reading Yadollah Royaee's ideas, the readers of spacement poetry become aware of its different philosophical, linguistic, and aesthetic capacities. Accordingly, the poetic of the image in Royaee's poetry is a complex of different capacities and aspects which takes its patterns and structures from spacement poetry. The aspects include lingual, phenomenological, aesthetic, and mystic, but achieving them is a problem that takes place through the manifest of spacement poetry and the historical development of Yadollah Royaee's opinions. Mysticism and its role in Royaee's poetry are also possible through these subjects as well as through concentration on the second manifest of spacement and the margins of this type of poetry. For this reason, the present study has achieved different levels of mysticism in ethics and mystical concepts by concentrating on the role of mysticism in this area. In other words, mysticism has found its roots in educating the spacement mind, reading, and writing with a mutual action in ethical aspects and then reached the structure of presence of the other, and objected the effects of mystical concepts through poems with emotional impulses, mystical language, and the context and the structure of 'Shathiyat'. In this regard, the authors focused on "Labrikhteha" and "Haftad Sange Ghabr", which are elaborated on in the study.Introduction
Poetic of the image in Yadollah Royaee's poetry is a mixture of various functions which have found their structure in stylistic patterns and features of this poet and also in mind education of spacement. This education is an abstract of patterns, spacement poetry manifests, and Royaee's ideas and have objected to different lingual, aesthetic, phenomenological, and mystical capacities through the effect of poetic of the image in Royaee's poem. Mysticism and its role in Royaee's poetry, as the pioneer of spacement poetry, have been achieved by concentrating on the poet’s ideas and going through the first manifest of spacement and focusing on the second one, which was a completion of different aspects of that manifest. Therefore, by focusing on the role of mysticism, the current research has studied its action in two aspects of ethics in mental education of spacement and of the mystic in patterns and stylistic features of Royaee's poem. In other words, this mystical role has a mutual action affected by Husserl's phenomenology from the ethical aspect and by the texture, atmosphere, and structure of the mystics Shathiyat. It is worth mentioning that the writers focused on "Labrikhteha" and "Haftad Sange Ghabr".
Review of the Literature:
In studying the role of mysticism in the poetics of the image in Yadollah Royaee's poem, the reader of spacement poetry faces a kind of philosophy-mysticism and finds its most important aspects in the effect of theory subjects of spacement poetry from Husserl's phenomenology, the language of Shathiyat, and the deep concepts of mysticism.
Here, the subject of Husserl's phenomenology connects with the ethical dimension. The feature of conscious experiences of humans finds its roots through Berentano in the Middle Ages back to Aristotle. In fact, by discussing ethics in his discussions, Husserl followed some subjects that reach the age of intellectualism of Europe through Kant and Heum and was accompanied by Plato and Aristotle (Smith, 2015). Yadollah Royaee has also mentioned this subject (ethics) in the second manifest of spacement and explained a mysticism rooted in ethics, then he reached Husserl's phenomenology. Ethics, passing ethics, clearance, and avoidance are repeatedly mentioned in the second manifest. Ethics is mixed with mental education of spacement. Moreover, "education of reading" is an important issue in which Royaee mentions the transference of the face and presents such an equation: "reading- transference of the face- studying" (Royaee, 2018, p. 180). It can be stated that spacement poets somehow practice spacement ethics that take them to avoidance, which means "clearness and avoidance" that itself reaches the structure of "the presence of the other" in Husserl's ideas. In fact, my connection with the world in Husserl's phenomenology represents in the spacement poetry stream via concepts like outside-being of me, outside-being of the world, transference of the face, spacement ethics, clearance, and avoidance. The laic mysticism issue which is also mentioned in the manifest somehow finds its roots in the philosophical effects of Husserl's phenomenology. Accordingly, concepts like doubt, rejection, and other are mentioned in the manifest, which all are rooted in the philosophical thinking of spacement poetry.
The effect of mystic concepts of the form and the structure of Shathiyat on the development of ideas in spacement poetry has been discussed and is clearly presented in "Labrikhteha" and somehow in "Haftad Sange Ghabr". That is why the poems of "Labrikhteha" are outstanding for their aesthetic form, mystical content, and the usage of mystic symbols, like the circle, spinning, other and so on, which are completely related to philosophical and aesthetic structure and the content of Shathiyat.
For example, in the following piece of the poem, the concepts of I and other are clearly outstanding:Whenever I am, comes from you
when all of me comes from all of you
I go away from what is me
and then it is something
runs to me.
(Royaee, 2008, p. 461)
Or in the following piece of the poem, the sudden emotional strike or impulse has shortly happened, which clearly shows the effect of the structure of Shathiyat:A tree with crazy branches
and the echo leaves
on the body of the mountain
The article of the protection of flowers in the garden (Royaee, 2008, p. 520).Methodology
The current study is based on a library study in which the authors refer to philosophical and literary books and take notes from them and analyze the information.Results
The current study studied the role of mysticism in the poetics of the image in Yadollah Royaee. It is concluded that mysticism had a mutual action in that poetry: one refers to the ethical dimension in mental education of spacement, reading, and writing and finds its roots in the effect from Husserl's phenomenology and the structure of the presence of the other. It should be noticed that this dimension of the role of mysticism cannot be achieved unless by passing through the first manifest of spacement poetry, the historical ideas of Yadollah Royaee, and the concentration on the second manifest of spacement poetry and its margins. The other action in texture and structure and the language of poem pieces finds its roots in the effect of mystical Shathiyat and objects the creation of some places with emotional impulses and a language affected by Shathiyat. Also, for the mystical and ethical capacities of "Labrikhteha" and "Hafted Sange Ghabr", the author has concentrated on these two poetic collections.Keywords: Yadollah Royaee, Poetic of Image, mysticism, Mysticism Language, Shathiyat, Husserl's phenomenology
Majalis al-Ushshaq written in 909 AH is one of the most important and ancient Tazkeras in Persian language. The multiplicity of manuscripts, which reach more than 80 copies, shows its value and importance for the present men of letters and the predecessors. Nevertheless, it has been criticized by our contemporaries mostly because of its unusual content and attribution of carnal love to the saints and the great mystics and poets of Persian literature. Thus, researchers have published articles that have led to its rejection and denial.
The textual analysis of this work, as well as research and contemplation in the contextual groundwork of its creation of the work, in the literary-mystical center of Herat in the 9th century led us to find two branches related to love at that time. There were two streams that we labeled as the black and white streams in this article by using the metaphor of colors, The black current showed sexual perversions and moral degeneration and the white current revealed love of beauties and the different forms of divine beauty in all levels of creation.
Our research showed that the theory of love related to Majalis al-Ushshaq was a kind of divine aesthetics and falling in love with that beauty in the mirror of beautiful faces, but the incorrect articulation of this white love current and its incorporation into the opposite discourse, namely common sexual perversions, which the work itself might have been written to oppose it, by researchers have led to form a negative view of the work and as a result its gradual rejection from the history of Persian literature.Keywords: Majalis Al-Ushshaq, Love Theory, Divine love, Aesthetics, sodomy
In some of Mathnavi’s stories, Mowlana expresses some of his mystical thoughts and experiences in the literary form of a ‘Hymn’. In addition to creating a special creative form in prayers, he establishes prominent functions in conveying concepts. The ultimate purpose of stories in Mathnavi is achieved through the use of the functions. The artistic aspects of this type of literature in the form of mystical language, its prominent role in expressing esoteric points, and how to expand multiple topics and integrate them into a coherent complex network, are the main goals of the present study. Based on the way of describing and analyzing data and the basics of criticism and theory, one “hadith” and 4 stories from the fifth book of Mathnavi in 81 verses were reviewed. Referring to some findings, it can be said that Rumi's emotional addresses in the form of hymns create a special language in their form and content. This way of expression, in addition to creating balance and coherence among the components of the story and due to the complexities of implicit meanings, reveals the deep and broad implications of the text. It provides multiple readings of the subject and has a clear effect on the reader's qualitative performance by using narrative knowledge and discourse analysis. It is more accurate than text messages. Such a quality causes some gaps that should be filled in the transmission and reception of accurate knowledge of mystical themes. 1.Introduction
In the collection of Persian literature, a kind of prayer with emotional elements is found in religious, literary, and mystical texts and a special form of it called “Monajat” (Hymn) is considered one of the important literary genres. Many examples of this type can be seen in famous mystical works, which imply multiple meanings. Moreover, the role of its types is not limited to having "emotional elements" (Shamisa, 2017, p. 242). Rather, its semantic meaning, both in the field of emotion and thought, is far beyond the kind of explanations that are generally mentioned in the works of researchers. Therefore, examining the aesthetic reason of this literary genre finds special importance in artistic analysis because it arranges the word in its form and presents the meaning at a sublime level.
In Mathnavi, the types of hymn can be seen in terms of accurate and effective communication of form and meaning along with the scope of Mowlana’s reflections and emotions. Mowlana works very skillfully in terms of the use of hymn in Mathnavi so that whatever word is naturally required, he includes it in his speech based on the purposes and goals of his speech and interprets his expression through it. A hybrid Mathnavi is influenced by "the activism and creativity of the Sufi mind and language in reading the Qur'an" (Akbari & Partners, 2020, p. 118). For a better understanding of the mystical meaning, it is necessary to pay attention to the concepts and themes arising from it. Due to the dynamic form of the work and the strengthening of the persuasive feature of the Mathnavi language, its role in the main process of the story becomes prominent. In the present study, we have selected all the hymns of the fifth book of Mathnavi and analyzed their explanatory function in terms of form and meaning, based on the proposition of mystical language in the context of fiction and based on its discourse analysis in the form of a special narrative.
"Hymn" in religious, literary, and mystical texts, as a special literary genre, has numerous examples. It arouses the reader’s emotions with the pathos of a strong feeling like a kind of burning and melting caused by the language and its expression. Mathnavi’s hymns show examples of the word in its broad concepts more prominently, and at the same time, present an emotional, intimate, and impressive expression. Hymn, as a kind of precise artistic insight based on esoteric revelations, makes the points and subtleties of the concepts resulting from the conflict between the unseen world and the world of nature (Shafi'i Kodkani, 2014, p. 27) deep in Mowlana’s speech.
Determining the function of hymns is important in the evaluation of Mathnavi stories from the point of view of explaining their artistic foundations. The processing and quality of the narration of the story and the analysis of the dialogues of the main characters of the story are carefully examined and further, the analysis of the topics is done on this basis.
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Researchers have analyzed the current issue from Mowlana’s point of view and with theoretical approaches. Their research often refers to the examination of types of hymns and not supplications - nor emotional and intellectual analysis and their role in the interpretation of story themes. In addition to books such as Monajat in Persian Literature (Yasipour, 2003) and Monajat and romantic whispers (Sadeghi Ardestani, 2004), which have been written in a general way, there are references in the interpretation of the mystical hymn (Refer to Shafi'i Kodkani, 2014, pp. 20-26). In the study ‘Hymn in Molavi's thought’ (Elmi, 2009), the hymn is considered a relationship between man and God and one of the important issues in monotheistic religions. Ghanbari and Makibadi (2013) in the study of examining the basics of prayer from the perspective of Mowlana with emphasis on Mathnavi examine the basic assumptions about the hymn. Mahmoudi and Wali Mohammadabadi (2015) in a study on "Prayer from the point of view of Ibn Arabi and Mowlana" believe that a significant part of the surviving mystical works is about prayer. Lavzheh (2022) in a study on "Hymn – Stories in Mathnavi" examines the role of supplications in the interpretation of Mathnavi stories and believes that Mowlana explains the symbolic, abstract, and implicit concepts of the story through the use of supplications to explain the content and understanding of the reader.
About the review of the author, no specific and analytical research has been done about the function of hymns as a literary genre in explaining stories from the fifth book of Mathnavi, except for the recent article that examines the entire Mathnavi. The reason for examining this issue in the fifth book is that, compared to other books of Mathnavi, the largest number of hymn verses can be seen in it, the meanings of which are combined with a distinct, coherent, and harmonious structure with the concepts of the researched text. Hymns show remarkable diversity and multiplicity in Mowlana’s imagery. This is evident in words and terms such as hidden and obvious existence, obedience and stability, and many other concepts, which we will mention some of the most important ones in the following. From the beginning of the fifth book, the series of discussions begin with the Sufi "existence" and ends with the mystical "Reference", and this shows the symbolic meaning of Mowlana’s attitudes in this book. These concepts, which are among the deep and complex themes considered by Mowlana, are also relevant in the hymns of this book with the utmost prominence. This issue demands that the present topic be studied more carefully in its detail and on a case-by-case basis.Methodology
In this study, by analyzing the concepts and based on the principles of criticism and theory, we ask how it is possible to understand the many themes of hymns in the understanding of the content of Mathnavi stories through studying the language of Mowlavi's mysticism. We also ask how Mowlana innovates in the field of narration and expansion of mystical concepts by analyzing the types of discourse in hymns and their context-oriented mood.Results
Mowlana transforms hymns in the field of mystical speech based on the broad capabilities of his language by using the form and content of his stories in terms of story-telling techniques. Moreover, by using the literary form of hymns, he creates the peak of Sufi poetry, which is the result of mystical experience and inner intuition, in the processing of the form and in the explanation of the content, as well as in the interpretation of the concepts and difficult and complex mystical themes. Each story develops a main theme through the expression of many mystical concepts and terms in the form of a privileged narrative. The stories connect with each other in a circular movement and become complementary to the themes. Therefore, the hymn in any story has no prior plan and is based on artistic needs. It is a kind of connecting link of all the "discourses, themes, and issues" that were analyzed in the “Hadith” and the four stories of the fifth book.
The concepts of Mowlana’s words in the examined hymns can be deduced through terms such as the wine of love (B./306), the answer to prayer and its teaching (B./ 309, 4162 and 4163), knowledge (B./ 306), leadership of the soul and guidance of souls (B./ 784), obedience and stability (B./ 1197), jealousy (B./ 1200), drunkenness (B./ 3307), slip and sin (B./ 3307), mystery (B./ 3309), the secret of God's existence (B./ 3310), obvious gifts (B./ 3310), hidden and manifest existence (B./ 3312), acquisition and expansion (B./ 3313), language and wisdom (B./ 3314), everlasting glory (B./ 3316), image and life (B./ 3319), generosity (B./ 4090), kindness (B./ 4092) ), forgiveness and forgiveness (B./ 4093, 4110, 4111 and so on), neglect and arrogance (B./ 4095), divorce and separation (B./ 4114), connection (B./ 4117) ), tolerance and anger (B./ 4153), ignorance and knowledge (B./ 4157), forgetfulness (B./ 4157), intercession (B./ 4160), return to God (B./ 4181). They are among the most profound and practical mystical concepts in the interpretation of the themes of the fifth book of Mathnavi. Meanwhile, the theme of "God's forgiveness" has a significant frequency, which is in accordance with the content of Mathnavi Hymns. Through the orderly and coherent texture of hymns, Mowlana brings his received meanings closer to the discourse context of the audience.
The hymns of Mathnavi form an important part of the story in the process of understanding and deducing concepts (in the arena of Sufi epistemology) and explaining the details of the mystic world of Mowlana. Their integration with the experiences of the vast field of Sufism elevates the themes of the story in a mystical system, the result of which is the movement of the text from the complexities caused by metaphors and symbols towards precise and plural statements of meaning. Therefore, the meanings of Mathnavi stories do not seem repetitive. Mowlana’s mental creativity and the diversity of his expression styles in the realm of mystical language combine a group of new mystical ideas in a stable composition called the "Hymn". Hymns are formed through thinking in Quranic structures, moral teachings and the mystical foundations of Islamic culture, and Mowlana’s creative power in the field narrative. Some of the concepts of hymns have aimed at enriching the poetic images of Mathnavi, some have shaped the interpretation of the content of the stories, and some others have developed the allegorical and symbolic aspects of the themes from the path of mystical interpretation. Other forms of hymns have broadened the scope of Mowlana’s thoughts.Keywords: Mowlana’s Hymns, the Fifth Book of Mathnavi, mystical language, Narratology, Discourse Analysis
Sain al-Din Ali known as Ebn-e Torkeh Isfahani (770-835 AH) is one of the philosophers and mystics influenced by the school of Ibn Arabi. Therefore, he has explained the meaning, language, and words in the framework of the unity of existence. In the present descriptive-analytical study, the authors have tried to extract semantic explanations and the related components from Ebn-e Torkeh's printed works, letters, and manuscripts and discuss the central concepts of his theory. The results of the study show that the unity of existence has provided a possibility for Ebn-e Torkeh to be able to explain the worldly and abstract dimensions of language together in a dialectical unity, and based on that, to plan the theory of Ish'ar. According to Ebn-e Torkeh, Ish'ar is the goal of human creation. Man is in the place of Ish'ar in the universe. Ish'ar is used in the works of Ebn-e Torkeh to mean to inform. One who does the Ish'ar actually discovers the truths of the universe and learns its secrets. Because all of existence is the word of God and man is the reciter and impersonator of these words. Ebn-e Torkeh seeks to combine the analogical and metaphorical dimensions of the universe, and considers verbal language, which is the extension of Nafs al-Rahman in the Microcosm, to have two aspects of beauty and glory. In this regard, he examines the situation of words with a two-dimensional explanation.Introduction
Sain al-Din Ibn Torke Esfahani is one of the mystics and philosophers influenced by Ibn Arabi’s school of thought. In addition to the commentary he wrote on Ibn Arabi's Fusus al-Hekam, he has shown this influence in his various works. The view of existential unity as well as the streaks of literalism is evident in his works; therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to this point in the examination of Ebn Torkeh's view on meaning.
Meaning is one of the concepts that has been discussed in the tradition of Islamic mysticism and has evolved under a central discourse. In the beginning, the theory of meaning had an abstract aspect, and with the emergence of Ibn Arabi, the practical aspect of language was also explained along with its abstract dimension. In other words, the mysticism of existential unity and its dialectical nature has provided a capacity to find an argumentative explanation for the practical aspects of language and meaning and issues related to them. In the view of the mystics of the first mystical tradition, it is God who created the meanings, and the words of human contracts have been degraded several times from their true meanings. Kamal al-Din Hossein Khwarazmi says in his commentary on Masnavi: If the words that were created in the rank of God's oneness do not descend from their position several times, the understanding of any creation will not reach the surroundings of its articles. This results in putting the meaning first over the form. In this way, the truths from the field of discovery and intuition enter the field of acquisition science and are expressed with language.
The spoken language can also tell many of those intuitive facts. In the field of science, the interpretation of mystical facts is not a true interpretation. Because only a reflection of mystical experiences has made its way into the field of science, and basically, mystical experience is inexplicable. Such a perception has always been of interest among scholars.
In interpreting these mystical experiences, human intellect and thought distance themselves from their pure abstraction. This distance is actually the distance of the material world. In other words, those meanings find a new form in the degradation of their identity, which is a reflection of single worlds and, at the same time, is also contaminated by the reflections of external factors. In the definition of this meaning, Mustamli Bukhari believes that this science of thoughts, observations, and revelations is dedicated to being called the science of pointing. So, something appeared in his head, which means the phenomenon of truth, not the phenomenon of non-righteousness. And it is like this that no matter what they express in the language, it is not the exact expression of the truth; Rather, the meaning of the phrase is right (n.d, p. 1135).
The discussion of meaning in the tradition of Islamic mysticism will be incomplete without paying attention to the category of interpretation and its components, so it is necessary to emphasize two points:1) In mystical interpretation, attention is paid to the source of meaning. The literal meaning of interpretation also conveys the same point. Henry Carbon (2008) considers the ultimate goal of mystical interpretation to return the text to its "true and original" meaning. The meaning of this contrast is that the ‘text’ is degraded from an inner meaning and the work of the interpreter is to reach again the inner and original meaning of the text. The words are outwardly disguised and the interpreter must penetrate into their innermost being. In these interpretations, it should be noted that the main meaning of the text is not the same as the figurative meaning of the science of rhetoric; rather, according to his interpretation, the interpretation of the apparent text is returned to its true original meaning, in which the analogies of the apparent text are its codes.
2) Another component is the balance of the Macrocosm and the Microcosm and the equivalent relationship between them. The basis of this idea is the belief in the existence of a kind of correspondence and equivalence between the classes of the world. Generalizing this correspondence and equivalence to the relationship between the parts of the world also makes each phenomenon understood as a representative of something else. Based on this, tanzil and taweel also express the back-and-forth course of meanings in these worlds. Every meaning in the higher world (inner) becomes a phenomenon (text) in the lower world (appearance) as a result of the reduction, and the interpreter tries to discover the inner or truth by interpreting that phenomenon.
In addition, in the continuation of the tradition of Islamic mysticism, the discussion of the spirit of meaning has also been taken care of. This discussion, which has been raised among the commentators and in an effort to understand similar verses, emphasizes the point that words have been established for the souls of meanings. This view indicates a special view of language. In modern linguistics, it is a well-known opinion that each word carries only the meaning in which it appears. For example, when someone uses the word "pen" because the word "pen" is used for a specific meaning, the audience understands the same specific meaning, and it is not possible to choose another meaning from this word without analogy. In contrast to this approach, the mystics, by establishing a rule called the use of words for the spirits of meanings, aim to say that the words are not used for external and objective objects. For example, the pen is not an external object, wood, or colored ink that writes. Rather, the word pen is used for everything he writes. In Jawaharlal Qur'an, Ghazali proposed the theory of the spirit of meaning with an argumentative expression and argues that nothing exists in the realm of martyrdom unless its example exists in the spiritual realm. This view has gradually spread to the commentators of the Qur'an. Interpretations that have an interpretive approach are influenced by this view.
In the present study, after explaining the nature and essence of meaning in the tradition of existential unity mysticism, by analyzing the concepts related to the theory of meaning in Islamic mysticism, we have tried to measure the relationship between the existential unity attitude and its perspective on meaning by examining the works of Ebn Torkeh, while showing the intertwining of his perspective. In other words, the study aims to explain innovative ideas about meaning with the tools of ontology and epistemology of existential unity.
Review of the Literature:
In the mysticism of existential unity, several issues related to meaning have been considered. The first is the discussion of how to put words and the relationship of meaning with God. The next issue is the two-dimensionality of language and the explanation of meaning in its context.
Some mystics of existential unity, such as Shabestari, under the influence of Ibn Arabi, have paid attention to both the material and abstract realms of language. Two-dimensional attention to the nature of language makes both the practical nature of language not to be neglected and its deep origins to be explained. In the mysticism of existential unity, the ontology of meaning is taken into consideration and the question is answered whether meaning is an objective matter outside the mind or is equivalent to the mental concept of the word. Mystics consider the concept of mind to be different from meaning and believe that meaning is something determined beyond the mind. In mysticism, the existential unity of the whole world is the manifestation and degradation of the truth of the world, and every phenomenon, including language, must be examined in relation to the truth of existence. If we consider the meaning to be subjective, the relationship between the mind and the word will be disconnected and the mind and the word will not be affected. But in mysticism, the existential unity of meaning is not an incidental matter; rather, it is a matter of length and in connection with the truth of existence. In this view of existential unity, the meaning is the scientific form that God has given to the interior of a phenomenon.
In Ibn Arabi's view, the signification of a word is not separate from the signification of letters, whether spoken letters or written letters (both external and internal letters). Also, the meaning of linguistic words, whether written or spoken, is not separate from the meaning of existential words (phenomena). Ibn Arabi's view on the meaning of words originated from his theological view. In other words, Ibn Arabi's point of view originates from the sum of God's nature and attributes in that they are on the one hand the mediator and link between the nature of God and the world, and on the other hand the mediator and link between the nature of God and man. In this view, the duality of essence and attributes, as well as the duality of step and occurrence, which is caused by the difference of opinion about the linguistic meanings (inherent or conventional meaning of words), is eliminated. According to this view, the phenomena of existence are the words of God. And because they appear objectively, they are connected with occurrence. And since the human language is the outward representation of the word of God, the conventionality of the signification in the human language will only be a matter of credibility. if the meaning of human language is like this, the meaning of divine words, which is actually the innermost part of human language, will not be based on convention. In the view of existential unity, existence has many levels which are called plurality in manifestations. But a unity connects these multitudes, which is its soul. And what exists in the abundance of the universe is the existence of God (Ibn Arabi, n.d, p. 38-39). This view also extends to Shabestri's Gulshan Raz. Shabestari's point of view also has innovations in explaining the meaning and implication of words (Shabestri, 2004, pp. 13, 75).Methodology
The aim of the present study is to analyze Ebn Torkeh's semantic and linguistic explanations in accordance with his epistemology and ontology of existential unity with a descriptive-analytical method. In this regard, all the works of Ebn Torkeh have been examined and an attempt has been made to explain Ebn Torkeh's semantics under his ontology and epistemology. From the ontological components, the balance of the Microcosm and the largest world, expression, and emergence, and from the epistemological components, inspiration and fantasy, perception of meaning, meaning, and silence have been mentioned. Also, the components of poetry and consciousness, gestural expression, the placement of words and the two-dimensional nature of the language indicated the compatibility of the two sides of Ebn Torkeh's ontology and epistemology.Results
By examining the works of Ebn Torkeh and the ontological and epistemological analysis of his works, we come to the conclusion that Ebn Torkeh is firstly influenced by Ibn Arabi and Shabastri and in some cases he repeated their same point of view. The view of existential unity on the existence and truth of the world and its generalization to the world of human existence, in other words, establishing a balance between the greater world and the Microcosm within the framework of the view of existential unity, is the most important approach of Ebn Torkeh in his explanation of meaning. In this view, the universe is multidimensional and all the multitudes are the words of Allah, whose true meaning has been scientifically determined in the unseen identity, and words are one of these multitudes and are at the end of the arc of descent. In his opinion, the meaning is related to the real and main subject of the words. And he examines the words like the manifestation of God in three forms and on three levels.
In Ebn Torkeh's epistemology, the role of imagination is its discovery of occult meanings. The discovery of the Macrocosm has a questioning nature that Khatam-ul-Rasul is at the highest level or the level of total revelation. Man is in a position of awareness in the universe. The reciter actually discovers the truths of the universe and learns its secrets; Because all existence is the word of God and man is the reciter of these words.
Ebn Torkeh, following the fusion of similarity and metaphorical aspects of being, considers the language of Malfuz, which is the extension of Nafs al-Rahman in the lower world, to have two aspects of beauty and glory. The glorified form is related to the common sense of the words and the glorified state is related to the true meaning of the words. According to the first method, the position of Ish'ar is two-fold in the view of Ebn Torkeh, which means that having reached this position, he has made his perceptive powers capable of receiving the lower meanings and he can also find the jewel of the lower letters. The first aspect is related to the order of spirits and the world of the unmarried, and the second aspect is related to the Book of Allah and understanding the meanings of the words contained in it.
Ebn Torkeh considers verbal forms to be a continuation of the emergence of existential expressive forms (ayan shabiteh). And Malfouz's language and, in his words, verbal forms have an inherent meaning, but in the passage of centuries and the development of customs, inherent meaning and the subject of the original letter have been forgotten.Keywords: Ebn-e Torkeh, the unity of existence, Meaning, word, Creating Words, Ish'ar
The Governance (Velayat) of the Perfect Human in the Treatises of Kashif Dezfuli and Its Position in Shiite MysticismPages 183-204
Shiite mysticism is a major approach in Islamic mysticism that has its own interpretations in explaining and analyzing mystical concepts. Among them, the issue of mystical governance has a significant place in the intellectual system of Shiite mysticism. Kashif Dezfuli (18th century A.D.), a Shiite mystic, is an unfamed mystic who owns dozens of mystical books and treatises. However, his intellectual conduct is not as well-known as one might expect. The governance of the perfect man is one of the key issues in his works. In the present study, Kashif Dezfuli's opinions have been analyzed using an analytical-descriptive method based on the first and second mystical traditions. Kashif interprets the concept of mystical governance in the context of the unity of existence, calling the perfect man the manifestation of divine light and calling him the truth of reason. The superiority of the governance (velayat) over the Prophecy, the end of the guardianship with Promised Mahdi, the number of saints, and their attributes are other issues related to the province in his works. Some of Kashif's citations to Ibn Arabi and the similarity of his views on the issue of mystical governance to the views of gnostics such as Hamuwayi, Nasafi, and Sayyed Heydar Amoli show that Kashif Dezfuli's mysticism is a continuation of Shiite mysticism in the 13th and 14th centuries A.D., and his unique way of viewing the issue can be followed and spotted through Kashif Dezfuli up to the 18th century. From this point of view, examining the views of Kashif Dezfuli has a special importance and position.Introduction
After the period of formation and maturity, Islamic mysticism gradually attended to the basic terms and concepts of Sufism more. In the 13th century A.D., the interpretation and justification of mystical terms gained more depth and scope to the extent that, in mystical studies, the 13th century is considered to be the starting point of the movement of theoretical mysticism. According to the conventional division and reading of the history of mysticism, the mystical tradition after the seventh century or the second mystical tradition has a different approach from the first tradition. The first tradition is based on practical mysticism and the second one is based on theoretical mysticism. However, this judgment deserves more precision: “(a) although the 7th century of Hijri is the turning point of this evolution, (b) a clear-cut boundary in terms of time for these two mystical traditions may not be drawn, (c) it cannot be said that the first tradition did not continue after the second century, and (d) the second tradition did not appear before the seventh century” (Mirbaghri Fard, 2011, p. 73). Critiques of this division believe that Islamic mysticism is based on two practical and theoretical powers, and Islamic mysticism has never been devoid of these two powers. Nevertheless, to what extent and depth each mystical drinker has paid attention to each of these two faculties, he has had a different conduct and approach (ibid. p. 84).
‘Governance’ is one of the fundamental topics of Muslim beliefs, especially among Shiites. It has a special place in Islamic mysticism, and many Shia and Sunni thinkers and mystics such as Hakim Tirmidhi, Ibn Arabi, Saad al-Din Hamouye, Aziz al-Din Nasfi, Seyyed Haider Amoli during the history of Islamic thought have written about it. Although this topic has been open since the first centuries of Islamic mysticism and in the words of the mystics of the first mystical tradition, in other mystical books such as Risalah al-Qashiriyyah and Kashf al-Mahjub, ‘guardian’ and ‘guardianship’ have also been mentioned. In the following centuries, especially in the 13th century A.D., the issue of ‘guardianship’ was noticed as outside the rites of Sufis and practical mysticism, and more attention was paid to its nature and place. It can be inferred that in passing from the first tradition to the second tradition, in addition to changes in the goal, approach, and method, we are faced with a kind of metamorphosis in the field of topics and concepts. Thus, along with the concepts that do not change in the second period, some new concepts and terms were invented. On the other hand, a group of concepts with different semantic loads appear in the second period; this group of concepts and terms share words with each other, but the semantic load has changed a little (Mirbagheri Fard, 2015, pp. 18-19). Topics such as the perfect human being, guardianship, the connection between guardianship and prophecy, the termination of the guardianship, and the number of holy persons can be considered the most important topics that were discussed by mystics and mystic researchers from new viewpoints in this period. The commonalities between the discussion of mystical guardianship and the religious principles of the Shiite School led to the expansion of these discussions and the creation of various works and treatises, and many people interested in the Shiite School attempted to interpret and justify the mystical categories based on their own thought system. Among them, Seyed Sadruddin Kashif Dezfouli is one of the prolific mystics and theologians but unfamed and underappreciated in the field of Shiite mysticism, who has attempted to expand, explain, and interpret mystical subjects based on the Shiite worldview by creating numerous works. Among the various topics raised in the works of Kashif Dezfuli, the topic of ‘mystic governance’ is of special importance since it is examined from the perspective of a Shiite mystic view. Kashif, in connection with the category of guardianship, brought up the issue of the perfect human being and explained the dimensions of these two categories by presenting special interpretations. The present study seeks to answer two research questions: 1) how is the mystical thought of Kashif Dezfuli similar to the mystical views of the followers of the second mystical tradition on the subject of mystical guardianship and the perfect human being? 2) What are his main opinions on this field? Clearly enough, the purpose of the research is not to compare Kashif's views with the mystics prior to his age, but rather to determine the position of Kashif Dezfuli in the trajectory of Shia mysticism and the topic of guardianship, which has been followed more seriously since the 13th century. Therefore, in the presentation of the viewpoints of the mystics of the opinion in the discussion of governance and Shiite mysticism, it will suffice to analyze their opinions in a comprehensive and general way.
Review of the Literature :
Nasir Baghban and Hekmatfar (2019) have published fifteen handwritten letters belonging to Seyyed Sadruddin Kashif in a book titled Kashif's Letters. The book has an introduction, pictures, announcements, verses, hadiths, poems and Arabic sentences and proverbs. Latifpour (2017), in his Kashif Asrar, compiled the life, personality, and works of Seyyed Sadruddin Kashif Dezfuli along with pictures of people and places and related documents, extracts of the poems, and prose works of this Shiite mystic. In a book called Dorr Maknoon, Pezeshki (2004) corrected one of Kashif Dezfuli's works of poetry written in the form of Masnavi and is mystic love in the style of ten letters. Pezeshki (2006) in a book entitled Marat al-Ghaib along with Haq al-Haqhi Le-Arbab al-Tariq has examined two works of Kashif Dezfuli's manuscripts. In this work, a brief description of Kashif's life story, the introduction of his works, the Persian text of Marat al-Ghaib, Kashif's text of Haq al-Haqiqah in Arabic are included along with a dictionary and various indices. Along with introducing various Sadat families living in Dezful, Imam-Ahwazi (2002) in a book titled Khaandan-e Sadat-e Gooshe, has a detailed description of the Sadat-e Gooshe, especially the lives, works and thoughts of Seyyed Sadruddin Kashif Dezfuli. In an article titled ‘Works and Thoughts of Sadr al-Din Kashif’, Hosseini Qaim Maqami (1996) investigated the late Kashif's departure to Kermanshah in the early 1200s Hijri Qamari (c. 1785-1795) and how he was accused of Sufism and how he defended himself. There are many works about the perfect human being and governance. Few works, if any, were found investigating this issue in the works and thoughts of Kashif Dezfuli. In the above-mentioned studies, Kashif's name was mentioned to refer to his life.Research Methodology
The present research investigates the concept of governance and its place in Kashif Dezfuli's treatises in an analytical-descriptive way and by referring to his works and other publications. Considering the importance of the first and second mystical traditions in the history of Islamic mysticism, the place and position of Kashif Dezfuli's opinions will be analyzed and emphasized with this historical background. Up to now, more than 15 treatises by Kashif Dezfuli have been published, and the present analysis is based on these treatises.
The guardianship of the perfect human being is one of the main and fundamental topics in the mysticism of Kashif Dezfuli. Kashif, in explaining and defining the concept of governance, with a view based on the unity of existence, considers governance to be the central point of the circle of existence and believes that the perfect human being is the other side of Muhammad's light or intellect. Kashif explicitly emphasizes the superiority of the position of governorship over the position of prophethood and believes that the position of guardian is superior to the position of prophet. In the interpretation of the burden of trust, Kashif believes that this trust is the ‘comprehensiveness’ that Allah has deposited in the perfect human being. In the division of the governance into public and special, the special one is considered to be the twelve Imams (AS) after the Prophet (PBUH), and the righteous servants after the Imams are considered to be the general guardians. He considers the position of the plural and the status of the special, as well as the attribute of being popular and mixing among the ranks and attributes of God's saints.
Kashif considers the number of holy persons to be twelve and the end of the governance is the twelfth Imam, the Promised Mahdi (AS). According to the above explanations, and comparing the views of Kashif with the mystics before him, it can be concluded that Kashif has considered the works of these mystics in many of his statements in the area of the guardianship of the perfect human being. In addition to the hidden similarities between the views of Kashif and the aforementioned mystics, there are some obvious similarities that prove that Kashif did not avoid studying the works of these mystics. Among them, the interpretation of the existential unity of the discoverer of the state of the perfect human being is similar to the interpretation of Hamuyeh and Nasfi, especially since all three of them pay attention to the connection between the perfect human being and the first creation (reason, pen, Mohammadi light, ...) (c.f., Table, section of the guardianship of the perfect human being). The superiority of guardianship over prophethood is the opinion of Ibn Arabi, Saad al-Din Hamouyeh, and Seyyed Haydar. Kashif, like Seyyed Heydar Amoli, interpreted the hadith attributed to Imam Ali (PBUH) as the superiority of guardianship over prophethood, and his words that the perfect human being is the intermediary between the unseen and martyrdom are completely similar to the words of Nasfi on the perfect human.
The burden of trust, which he interprets as ‘totality’, is very similar to the words of Ibn Arabi, who considers trust to be a form of God. The fact that a human being who carries the divine image has comprehensiveness, means that he has all the divine attributes and is his image. Using terms such as ‘khas al-khas’ and ‘jam al-jam’, which have a history in Nasafi and Seyyed Haider, as well as the similarity of his views on the number of holy persons and the end of the governance with the opinions of the aforementioned mystics, shows that Kashif had an opinion on their works. The sum of these similarities and his reference to the words and poems of Ibn Arabi, Sheikh Mahmoud Shabastri, Saad al-Din Hamouyeh, and Seyyed Haydar Amoli in his treatises, brings the trajectory of Shiite mysticism from the 13th and 14th century to the 18th century. In this way, Shiite mysticism can be traced to the Qajar period through the discovery of Dezfuli’s thoughts. The main achievement of this research is to prove the continuity of the governance thinking of prominent mystics of this field through the works and treatises of Kashif Dezfuli until the twelfth century. Considering this importance, it can be said that Kashif Dezfuli's opinions have a remarkable place in the history of Shiite mysticism, and this emphasizes the importance of further studying his works.Keywords: governance, the perfect human, Shiite mysticism, Kashif Dezfuli