فهرست مطالب

پژوهش های کاربردی زراعی - پیاپی 113 (زمستان 1395)
  • پیاپی 113 (زمستان 1395)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/11/18
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • الهیار فلاح*، لیلا باقری، علیرضا نبی پور صفحات 1-12
    تولید ارقام زراعی مناسب برای کاشت در اراضی شالیزاری، به بررسی ذخایر ژنتیکی و شناسایی مواد گیاهی برتر وابسته است. به منظور بررسی صفات زراعی و عملکرد در 133 موتانت نسل چهارم حاصل از پرتوتابی سه رقم طارم محلی، حسنی و عنبربو، نشاهای این موتانت ها به همراه والدین به صورت طرح بلوک های حجیم شده (آگمنتد) با 6 بلوک در مزرعه کاشته شدند. برای هر موتانت و شاهد، صفات تعداد روز تا 50% گلدهی، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد پنجه بارور، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد اندازه گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که موتاسیون باعث بروز تنوع معنی دار در تمام صفات مورد مطالعه شده است. تجزیه خوشه ایموتانت های حاصل از طارم محلی، حسنی و عنبربو، آن ها را به ترتیب به 5، 3 و 4 گروه تقسیم بندی کرد. بررسی میانگین صفات نشان داد که موتانت ها بطور میانگین نسبت به شاهدها زودرس تر بودند. همچنین، موتانت ها، نسبت به شاهد مربوطه بین 10 تا 30 درصد کاهش ارتفاع نشان دادند. هرچند از نظر صفت عملکرد تنوع معنی داری بین موتانت ها دیده شد، ولی در بیشتر موارد، عملکرد موتانت ها مشابه با شاهد بود. افزایش عملکرد موتانت های انتخابی نسبت به شاهد بین 10 تا 27 درصد بود. در نتیجه آزمایش اخیر، 8 لاین با عملکرد بیشتر نسبت به شاهدها و 12 لاین زودرس و پاکوتاه با عملکرد مشابه شاهد برای مطالعات بعدی انتخاب شدند.
    کلیدواژه ها
    کلیدواژگان: اجزای عملکرد، تجزیه خوشه ای، طرح حجیم شده، موتانت برنج
  • ولی الله رامئه * صفحات 13-24
    به منظور بررسی اثر تاخیر در کاشت برخصوصیات زراعی و میزان افت عملکرد دانه کلزا در مازندران، ده ژنوتیپ کلزا در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در دو آزمایش جداگانه شامل شرایط مطلوب (25 مهرماه) و کشت تاخیری(25 آبان ماه) طی دوسال زراعی 92-1390 در ایستگاه تحقیقات زراعی بایع کلا مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. در این مطالعه مراحل فنولوژیک، ارتفاع بوته، اجزای عملکرد و عملکرد دانه مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. ژنوتیپ های مورد بررسی از نظر کلیه صفات به استثناء وزن هزاردانه در تاریخ کاشت مطلوب دارای تفاوت ژنتیکی معنی داری بودند. تاخیر در کاشت منجر به کاهش معنی دار تمامی صفات مورد بررسی به استثناء وزن هزار دانه شد. در بین مراحل فنولوژیک، بیشترین و کمترین افت ناشی از تاخیر در کاشت به ترتیب مربوط به طول دوره گلدهی و تعداد روز تا رسیدگی بود. میزان افت تعداد خورجین در بوته و عملکرد دانه نیز به ترتیب برابر 23/0 و 38/0 بود. همبستگی مثبت و معنی دار عملکرد دانه با صفات تعداد روز تا شروع گلدهی و تعداد خورجین در بوته در هر دو تاریخ کاشت نشان دهنده آن است که تغییر در صفات مزبور نقش بارزی در عملکرد دانه خواهد داشت. در این بررسی ژنوتیپ های ظفر (G10)، Zabol-0 (G2) و Safi6 (G5) به ترتیب با عملکرد دانه 3/3142، 4/2979 و 3/2967 کیلوگرم در هکتار در شرایط کاشت مطلوب و همچنین 2/1890، 7/1905 و 7/1784 کیلوگرم در هکتار در شرایط کشت تاخیری از عملکرد دانه بالایی برخوردار بوده و در هر یک از دو تاریخ کاشت در گروه آماری یکسان قرار گرفتند.
    کلیدواژگان: تجزیه واریانس، کشت تاخیری، اجزای عملکرد، عملکرد دانه
  • رضا محمدی*، محمد آرمیون، بهزاد صادق زاده، صابر گلکاری، غلامرضا خلیل زاده، حسن احمدی، غلامرضا عابدی اصل، مسعود اسکندری تربقان صفحات 25-42
    هدف از این تحقیق ارزیابی پایداری عملکرد دانه و میزان سازگاری لاین های اصلاحی گندم دوروم حاصل از برنامه اصلاحی گندم دوروم در شرایط دیم بود. بر این اساس عملکرد دانه 25 ژنوتیپ گندم دوروم در 29 محیط دیم و آبیاری تکمیلی طی سه سال زراعی (1392-1389) در هفت ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم (سرارود، مراغه، قاملو، شیروان، ارومیه، اردبیل و ایلام) با استفاده از روش های آماری تک متغیره و چند متغیره مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج تجزیه واریانس عملکرد دانه نشان داد که اختلاف معنی داری بین اثر اصلی محیط و اثر متقابل ژنوتیپ x محیط در سطح احتمال 1% وجود دارد. بزرگی اثرات متقابل ژنوتیپ x محیط نسبت به اثر ژنوتیپ حدود 15 برابر بود که بیانگر وجود احتمالی گروه های مختلف محیطی برای ژنوتیپ های مورد بررسی می باشد. بر اساس آماره های پایداری لاین های اصلاحی G8، G2، G7، G11 و رقم ساجی دارای ترکیب مناسبی از پایداری و عملکرد بودند. تجزیه گرافیکی اثرات متقابل ژنوتیپ x محیط با استفاده از مدل GGE بای پلات نشان داد که محیط های سرد مراغه، اردبیل، قاملو، شیروان و ارومیه از محیط های معتدل سرارود و ایلام در شناسایی ژنوتیپ های با سازگاری خصوصی متفاوت می باشند. لاین های اصلاحی با عملکرد بالا، وزن هزار دانه و ارتفاع بوته متوسط و زودرسی دارای سازگاری بیشتری به محیط های معتدل سرد و معتدل گرم نسبت به محیط های سرد بودند. نتایج حاکی از امکان گزینش ژنوتیپ های با پایداری و عملکرد بالا نسبت به شاهدهای آزمایش بود که بیانگر بهبود ژنتیکی در برنامه های اصلاحی گندم دوروم برای شرایط متغیر محیطی دیم می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: گندم دوروم، اثرات متقابل ژنوتیپ x محیط، آماره های پایداری، GGE بای پلات، پایداری و سازگاری
  • ارزیابی مزرعه ای رفتار رشدی در ژنوتیپ های گندم
    سید حمیدرضا رمضانی*، حبیب الله قزوینی، محمدرضا جلال کمالی صفحات 43-59
    نیاز به بهاره سازی و پاسخ به فتوپریود در گندم بیشتر در محیط های کنترل شده تعیین می گردد. به طور کلی نتایج حاصل از تحقیقات غیر مزرعه ای کارایی زیادی در شرایط مزرعه ندارد. به همین منظور 104 ژنوتیپ گندم در دو شرایط طول روز طبیعی (حاصل از تغییر تاریخ کاشت) و پیش تیمار بهاره سازی به صورت مشاهده ای در مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. پیش تیمار بهاره سازی شامل قرارگیری بذور جوانه زده در دمای 4-2 درجه سانتی گراد به مدت 60 روز بود. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل تعداد برگ نهایی، تعداد روز تا ظهور سنبله، طول سنبله و تیپ رشدگیاه در مرحله گیاهچه ای بود. نتایج نشان داد که تیمار بهاره سازی اثر بسیار معنی داری در سطح یک درصد بر کلیه صفات داشت. درحالی که اثر تاریخ کاشت فقط بر تعداد روز تا گلدهی در سطح یک درصد بسیار معنی دار بود. گروه بندی ژنوتیپ های مورد مطالعه با استفاده از تجزیه کلاستر نشان داد که ژنوتیپ های گاسپارد، باران، C-86-5، زارع، رصد، سبلان، سرداری، میهن، سویسون، گاسکوژن، هما، سوین 220، امید، کریم، پیشگام، MV-17 وC-85-3 در گروه زمستانه، ژنوتیپ های بزوستایا، اوحدی، کرج 3، طبسی، نوید، ماهوتی، شهریار، اروم، C-86-6، زرین، توس، الوند، روشن، CD-85-8 و C-85-6 در گروه بینابین و بقیه ژنوتیپ ها در گروه بهاره قرار گرفتند. با توجه به این تقسیم بندی، ارقام زمستانه شامل 17 ژنوتیپ (حدود 5/16 درصد)، ارقام بینابین شامل 15 ژنوتیپ (حدود 5/14 درصد) و گروه بهاره (72 ژنوتیپ) حدود 69 درصد پوشش دادند. بر اساس این تقسیم بندی، ارقام اصلاح شده ی گندم ایران، به طور معمول از نوع تیپ رشد بهاره می باشند و نیاز بهاره سازی آن ها حداقل است.
    کلیدواژگان: تجزیه خوشه ای، تعداد برگ نهایی، تعداد روز تا ظهور سنبله، عادت رشدی
  • کاوه لیموچی، مهرداد یارنیا *، سید عطاءالله سیادت، ورهرام رشیدی، عبدالعلی گیلانی صفحات 60-71
    پژوهش حاضر به منظور بررسی تاثیر کاهش دور آبیاری به عنوان تنش خشکی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ارقام مختلف برنج بود. آزمایش به صورت کرت های یک بار خرد شده، در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی و سه تکرار به مدت دو سال زراعی (1393 و 1394) اجرا شد. سطوح رژیم آبیاری شامل 3 و 7 روز یک بار در کرت های اصلی و 12 ژنوتیپ برنج در کرت های فرعی قرار گرفتند. عملکرد دانه، درصد دانه های نیمه پر، پر و وزن هزار دانه، در شرایط مطلوب و تنش اندازه گیری شد. شاخص تحمل در شرایط مطلوب و تنش نیز برآورد شد. نتایج نشان داد که تحت شرایط تنش و مطلوب، میزان شاخص تحمل به تنش خشکی دانه پر، شاخص حساسیت به خشکی وزن دانه، شاخص تحمل به تنش و عملکرد دانه، شاخص خسارت خشکی، شاخص حساسیت به تنش، شاخص تحمل و میزان کاهش عملکرد ژنوتیپ های مورد مطالعه تفاوت بسیار معنی داری با یکدیگر داشتند. در بین شاخص های مورد استفاده شاخص تحمل به خشکی توانایی بهتری در شناسایی ژنوتیپ های برنج متحمل به خشکی داشت. بیشترین درصد افزایش عملکرد با افزایش خشکی مربوط به ژنوتیپ بسیار متحمل به خشکی وندانا بود ولی در سایر ژنوتیپ ها تنش خشکی تاثیر منفی بر عملکرد دانه داشت.
    کلیدواژگان: آبی، تحمل، تنش، حساسیت، شاخص
  • صفر نصرالله زاده، علی شیرخانی *، سعید زهتاب سلماسی، رجب چوکان صفحات 72-86
    این تحقیق باهدف مطالعه اثر ازتوباکتر و ورمی کمپوست به عنوان کودهای زیستی و همچنین کودهای شیمیایی (NPK) بر عملکرد دانه و ویژگی های برگ ذرت به مدت دو سال (1392و1393) در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی اسلام آباد غرب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمانشاه انجام شد. این تحقیق به صورت آزمایش اسپلیت پلات فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوکهای کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار بود. تیمار مصرف ازتوباکتر در بلوک های اصلی در دو سطح (مصرف و عدم مصرف) و کودهای شیمیایی در سه سطح (صفر، 50 درصد و 100 درصد مقدار توصیه شده بر اساس آزمون خاک) و ورمی کمپوست در چهار سطح (صفر، 2، 4 و 6 تن در هکتار) در کرت های فرعی قرار گرفتند.آزمایش در دو مکان آبیاری مطلوب و کم آبیاری نجام شد. نتایج نشان داد تیمارهای کودی در هردو شرایط آبیاری عملکرد دانه، شاخص سطح برگ و شاخص سبزینگی ذرت را به شکل معنی داری افزایش داده و همچنین با استفاده از شش تن در هکتار ورمی کمپوست، می توان تا 50 درصد مصرف کودهای شیمیایی را کاهش داد به نحوی که عملکرد دانه در تیمار مصرف توام 6 تن در هکتار ورمی کمپوست با 50 درصد کود شیمیایی به ترتیب 5/10 و 2/5 تن در هکتار در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و محدود بود، درحالی که عملکرد در تیمار مصرف 100 کود شیمیایی به ترتیب 1/10 و 8/4 تن در هکتار بود.
    کلیدواژگان: ازوتوباکتر، ذرت، کودهای شیمیایی، ورمی کمپوست و عملکرد
  • سیدمجتبی نوری حسینی، رضا خراسانی*، علیرضا آستارایی، پرویز رضوانی مقدم، حمیدرضا ذبیحی صفحات 87-104
    زیره سیاه گیاهی چند ساله، معطر و از خانواده چتریان است. بذرهای زیره سیاه با هدف دارویی و ادویه ای مورد استفاده قرار می-گیرد. به منظور بررسی تاثیر کودهای گاوی، ورمی کمپوست، شیمیایی و اسید هیومیک بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، ارتفاع بوته و فعالیت آنتی اکسیدان اسانس دانه زیره سیاه، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب کرت های خرد شده در زمان با طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی در 3 تکرار با 8 پلات اصلی شامل منابع آلی در4 سطح(کود گاوی، ورمی کمپوست، اسید هیومیک و شاهد) وکود شیمیایی در دو سطح (مصرف و عدم مصرف نیتروژن و فسفر) و دو پلات فرعی(سال اول و دوم) در سال های 95- 1393اجرا گردید. نتایج نشان داد تیمارهای آزمایش به طور معنی داری عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژی و فعالیت آنتی اکسیدان زیره سیاه را تحت تاثیر قرار دادند. مصرف اسید هومیک موجب بهبود عملکرد دانه و بیولوژیک، تعداد چتر در بوته و وزن هزار دانه نسبت به شاهد شد.کودگاوی از طریق افزایش تعداد چتر در بوته و تعداد چترک در چتر موجب بهبود عملکرد دانه و بیولوژیک شد. مصرف اسید هیومیک و کود دامی به ترتیب عملکرد دانه را از 35/16در تیمار شاهد به 89/29 و 81/25 گرم در متر مربع افزایش داد. کود دامی فعالیت آنتی اکسیدان را تا 60 درصد افزایش داد. مصرف کودهای شیمیایی نیتروژن و فسفر موجب بهبود عملکرد دانه و بیولوژیک، تعداد چتر در بوته، تعداد چترک در چتر و ارتفاع بوته شد. مصرف کودهای شیمیایی نیتروژن و فسفر فعالیت آنتی اکسیدان را تا 40 درصد افزایش داد.
    کلیدواژگان: گیاه دارویی، کود آلی، کود معدنی، فعالیت آنتی اکسیدان
  • مسعود اسکندری تربقان، سید حسین نعمتی *، علی تهرانی فر، لیلا سمیعی صفحات 105-117
    هدف از این تحقیق تجزیه اثرات متقابل ژنوتیپ و محیط بر عملکرد دانه 30 ژنوتیپ گلرنگ با استفاده از تجزیه مدل اثرات اصلی افزایشی و ضرب پذیر (AMMI) و نیز ارزیابی ژنوتیپ ها، محیط ها و اثرات متقابل آنها با استفاده از آماره های پایداری و اکووالانس ریک می باشد. آزمایش ها در دو ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی شیروان و سیساب طی سه سال زراعی 94-1391 اجرا شدند. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه امی نشان داد که اثرات اصلی ژنوتیپ، محیط، اثرات متقابل (GE) و چهار مولفه اول اثر متقابل معنی دار بودند. نمودار بای پلات قادر به تفکیک ژنوتیپ های پایدار و محیط های با قدرت تفکیک بالا از محیط های ضعیف بود. براساس نتایج تجزیه ای و پارامتر های پایداری مورد بررسی ژنوتیپ های 2 و 4 با میانگین عملکرد بالاتر از میانگین کل دارای پایداری مطلوب بودند در صورتی که ژنوتیپ های 20 و 21 با بیشترین تاثیر در اثر متقابل ناپایدارترین ژنوتیپ ها بودند.
    کلیدواژگان: اثرات متقابل ژنوتیپ × محیط، تجزیه امی، سازگاری
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  • Allahyar Fallah *, Leila Bagheri Pages 1-12
    Introduction
    Development of improved rice varieties for paddy fields relies on the assessment of genetic resources and the selection of the superior plant material (Kiani & Nematzadeh, 2013). One of the best methods for improving the high quality but low yielding rice local varieties, which are highly appreciated by customers, would be mutation breeding, as it changes only rather small parts of genome and there are high chances that the good quality of these varieties would remain unintact (Majad et al., 2003). Gamma irradiation has been reported to be highly successful in rice breeding (Wani & Anis, 2008).
    Material and
    Methods
    In order to study yield and agronomic traits in gamma-induced rice mutants, 133 M4 mutants from Tarom Mahalli, Hasani and Anbarboo local varieties, along with their parents, were planted under an augmented design with 6 blocks. Measurements were made on the number of days to flowering, plant height, number of panicles per hill, yield and yield components.
    Results and Discussion
    Results showed that mutation produced significant genetic diversity in mutants for all of the studied traits. Cluster analysis divided the mutants from Tarom Mahalli, Hasani and Anbarboo varieties into 5, 3 and 4 groups, respectively. On average, mutants were earlier than their respective parents and had a shorter plant height. Although most of the mutants had a yield similar to their parents, but the selected mutants had yields 10 to 27% higher than their respective check. The improvement in yield was attributed to the higher number of grains per panicle. Based on the results, eight lines with high yield, and 12 lines with same yield as checks but with early maturity and short plant stature, were selected.
    Wani & Anis (2008) reported that improvements in morphological traits such as number of grains per pod and number of pods were the main reasons for the higher performance of three gamma-induced pea mutant lines. Esfahani & Fotokian (2003) found a rice mutant line from Domsiah local variety which was 15 days earlier than the original variety. Zenalinajad et al. (2003), using cluster analysis based on morphological traits, divided their 100 rice genotypes into four groups.
    Conclusion
    Days to 50% flowering of Hasani and Tarom mahali were 95 days, while in Anbarboo variety it was 108 days. The yield of Hasani variety was lower than the other varieties. The range of plant height in the mutants was between 100-135 cm. Only one mutant of Anbarboo had163 grains per panicle, which it was significantly higher than the other Anbarboo mutants. The genetic gain of yield in mutants was between 11 to 17 percent over Anbarboo check. 20 Mutant liness were selected based on higher yield than checks and shorter growth duration, and most of them were from groups 3 and 4. They had lower height and more filled grains per panicles than check vareties.
    Keywords: Yield components, Cluster analysis, Gamma ray, Induced mutation, Rice mutant, 50% Flowering
  • Valiollah Rameeh* Pages 13-24
    Introduction
    Determining suitable planting date has important role in conformation of plant growth stages with desirable environmental conditions which results in maximum yield. Planting date has a considerable effect on seed yield by influencing the yield components so that late planting decreases the most important traits i.e. days to flowering, duration of flowering, plant height and pods per plant which cause a remarkable reduction in seed yield. Sowing time is also one of the most important factors for maximizing rapeseed yield especially in those areas where temperature, day length, rainfall and humidity vary throughout the year (Kurmi & Kalta, 1992; Gan et al., 2004). Late planting of canola delayed flowering and reduced reflection of radiation during flowering which were important factors leading to the highest yields achieved by normal sowing (Coffelt & Adamsen, 2005).
    Material &
    Methods
    Ten rapeseed genotypes were studied based on randomized complete block design in two separate experiments at two planting dates including normal (16 Oct.) and late (15 Nov.) planting dates conditions during 2011-13 years at Baykola Agriculture Research Station. The data were recorded on ten randomly selected plants of each entry of each replication for including phonological stages, plant height, number of pods per plant, 1000-seed weight and grain yield. Seed yield (adjusted to kg ha-1) was recorded based on two middle rows of each plot. All statistical analyses were carried out using SAS software.
    Results and Discussion
    The genotypes had significant genetic difference for all the traits except 1000-seed weight. Among the phonological stages, the most and least reduction effects of late planting date were detected for duration of flowering and days to maturity, respectively. Significant mean squares of interaction effects of planting dates and genotypes were exhibited for phenological traits, plant height, pods per plant and seed yield, indicating the different trend variations of the mentioned traits of the genotypes in different planting dates. The percentage of losing of pods per plant and grain yield due to late planting, were 0.23 and 0.38, respectively. Significant positive correlation of grain yield with days to flowering and number of pods per plant in both planting dates indicated that any variation for these traits had considerable effects on grain yield. In this study, Zafar (G10), Zabol-0 (G2) and Safi6 (G5) with grain yield of 3142.3, 2979.4 and 2967.3 kg ha-1, respectively in normal planting date and also with 1890.2, 1905.7 and 1784.7 kg ha-1, respectively in late planting date had high mean values of grain yield and were classified the same statistical group in both planting dates conditions.
    Conclusion
    The results showed that the one-month delay in planting resulted in a significant decrease for all the traits except 1000-seed weight. Among yield components, pods per plant were correlated with grain yield in both planting dates condition and was considered as superior criterion for improving grain yield. Due to decrease of plant height and most yield components in late planting condition, grain yield was high significantly deceased and its mean values for normal and late planting were 2726 and 1599.3 kg ha-1, respectively.
    Acknowledgements: The author wish to thank Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Mazandaran and Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII) for providing genetic materials and facilities for conducting the experiment.
    Keywords: late planting date, yield components, seed yield
  • Reza Mohammadi *, Mohammad Armion, Behzad Sadeghzadeh, Saber Golkari, Gholam Reza Khalilzadeh, Hasan Ahmadi, Gholam Reza Abedi-Asl, Masoud Eskandari Torbaghan Pages 25-42
    Because of unpredictable conditions in Mediterranean environments, successful crop production requires improved adaptation and yield stability to mitigate major abiotic stresses such as drought and cold. Consequently, the objectives of genetic improvement should include obtaining genotypes with high potential yield and stability in unpredictable conditions. The main objective of this study was to evaluate grain yield stability and adaptability of 25 durum wheat genotypes grown at seven agricultural research stations (Kermanshah, Maragheh, Qamloo, Shirvan, Uromieh, Ardebil and Ilam) for three cropping seasons (2011-2013) using the univariate and multivariate statistical methods. The combined analysis of variance showed significantly differences among the main effects due to environment and genotype x environment (GE) interaction. GE interaction sum of square was 15 times larger than that for genotypes, suggests the possible existence of sub-environmental groups for the genotypes. Grouping of environments was not repeatable among the years. Many of the durum brreding lines exhibited a high combination of yield and stability across both drought and cold environments, comparable to check cultivars. Evaluation of genotypes based on phenotypic stability statistics showed that breeding lines G8, G2, G7 and G11 and Saji cultivar had the best level of combination of yield and stability performances. Graphic analysis of GE interaction using the GGE (G GE) biplot model indicated that the cold environments of Maragheh, Ardebil, Qamloo, Shirvan and Uromia differed from moderate cold and warm environments of Kermanshah and Ilam in identifying specific adapted genotypes. Breeding lines with high yield productivity, average 1000-kernel weight and plant height and earliness were more adapted to moderate than cold environments. In this study the genetic materials were evaluated under two limiting factors (cold and drought) of durum yield production in highland rainfed conditions of Iran. Because of lower mean yield in colder environments, there was clear discrimination between cold-tolerant (old varieties i.e., Zardak and Sardari) and cold-susceptible (i.e., breeding lines) genotypes. Clear discrimination was possible for drought because the trials were conducted under both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Positive increase in yield and yield stability of breeding lines compared to the check cultivars, indicating genetic improvement for both high yield and stability performances in durum wheat breeding program. Most breeding lines originating from the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) gene bank could be considered as a genetic resource for specific adaptation, and yield stability. However, durum breeding in the Mediterranean basin, particularly in Iran, has made little progress in cold regions and most progress was in warm and moderate cold regions, highlighting the difficulty to increase yield of durum wheat under cold conditions. The GGE biplot methodology, as has been shown to be very effective for analyzing GE interaction data, allowed a meaningful and useful summary of GE data and assisted in examining the natural relationships and variations in genotype performance among various testing environments. The finding that some test environments may be better than others for genotype evaluation suggests that the genotypes may be evaluated in fewer but more representative environments while still achieving the same or even better evaluation. Based on GGE biplot analysis, locations with high repeatability were Shirvan with high representativeness, Qamloo with average representativeness and Ilam with zero representativeness. Locations with low repeatability included Kermanshah and Uromieh with average representativeness and Ardabil and Maragheh with negative representativeness. These results verified high GE interaction in some locations (i.e., Ardabil and Maragheh ) compared to others (i.e., Shirvan, Qamloo and Ilam). In conclusion, current durum wheat selection may lead to yield stability and specific adaptation, which provides opportunities for this collection to be useful for genetic improvement of both drought and cold tolerance in durum.
    Keywords: Durum wheat, GE interaction, phenotypic stability statistics, GGE biplot, stability, adaptability
  • Field-based evaluation of growth habits in wheat genotypes
    Seyyed Hamidreza Ramezani * Pages 43-59
    Introduction
    The cold resistance in wheat cultivars that been controlled with compatibility procedure to environment such as vernalization requirement and photoperiod reaction, has been factors for success in cold regions. Vernalization requirement and photoperiod response of bread wheat cultivars are often determined using controlled environments. However, use of controlled conditions may reduce the applicability of results for predicting field performance as well as increase the cost of evaluations. Thus, knowledge of phenotypic diversity the genetic factors influencing growth and flowering patterns in breeding new varieties is essential in certain environments.
    Material and
    Methods
    98 lines and cultivars of commercial Iranian bread wheat were studied in the field of Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of South Khorasan, Birjand, Iran. These genotypes were evaluated under field conditions using two natural photoperiod regimes (from different transplanting dates) and vernalization pre-treatments (1) that carried out in observation experiment with three replications in spring 2014. Pre-treatment was included the placement of germinated seeds at 2-4°C for 60 days. Characteristics consist of final leaf number (FLN)(3), days to heading, spike length and growth type in seedling. Clustering of these genotypes was performed (based on Between Group Linkage methods and Square Euclidean Distance measurement with SAS software).
    Results and Disscusion: The results showed a significant difference on all traits in vernalization treatment. Instead of, planting date was not significantly affect on traits exception the number of days to flowering. Based on cluster analysis, genotypes like as Gaspard, Baran, C-86-5, Zarea, Rasad, Sabalan, Sardari, Mihan, Soisons, Gaskogen, Homa, Sween 220, Omid, Karim, Pishgam, MV-17 and C-85-3 belong to winter group. Genotypes such as Bezostaya, Ohadi, Karaj3, Tabasi, Navid, Mahooti, Shahriar, Orom, C-86-6, Zarin, Toos, Alvand, Rooshan, C-85-D8 and C-85-6 classified as facultative group. these results similar to Ramazani et al., 2015 b. The others were spring. In this way, the most Iranian cultivars of bread wheat were spring habit type (69%) with least vernalization requirement, about 16.5% were winter and about 14.5% were facultative.
    Conclusion
    Based on this research, it can be concluded that Iranian bread wheat genotypes are normally belong to spring type and their vernalization requirement is minimal. Winter genotypes included 17 genotypes (about 16.5%), interspecific cultivars including 15 genotypes (about 14.5%) and spring group with 72 genotypes, covering about 69% of genotypes.
    Keywords: Cluster analysis, Days to heading, Final leaf number, Growth type, Triticum aestivum L
  • K. Limouchi, M. Yarnia * Pages 60-71
    Introduction
    Increased drought to maintain the water potential in plant causes a reduction in grain yield (Majd et al., 2009). The severe decrease in the available water for the multi-days irrigation regimes lead to the negative impacts on the plant and will reduce vegetative growth, particularly in seedling stage (Salehifar et al., 2014). The supplemental irrigation can present a manageable alternative to reduce the negative aspects of the terminal drought (end of season) at the reproductive stage (Nehbandani et al., 2016). The current research is aimed to study impacts of different irrigation regimes on growth steps of indices of grain yield of aerobic rice genotypes in order to identify physiological response to resistance mechanism or to be sensitive to low water and waterlogging by studying changes in the mentioned traits and positive role that is played t increase grain yield as well as to provide functional traits to breed rice genotypes.
    Materials And Methods
    An experiment was carried out to study of irrigation regimes on rice genotypes grain yield of The north of Khuzestan province in a split-plot arrangement using randomized complete block design with three replication in 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons at Shavoor Agricultural Research Station, Dependent in Research Center of Agricultural and Natural Resources of Khuzestan. For exposing rice genotypes to Four different irrigation regimes (3 and 7 days), and 12 genotypes were randomized in sub-plots.
    Results and Discussion
    The purpose of present research to study the effect of irrigation round reduction as a drought tension on grain field traits, the present of full and completely full grains, 1000-kernel weight and at last their output involving the percent of full grains in tension conditions, the index of tolerance to tension of recent traits, the percent of full grains in desirable conditions, the percent of full grains in tension conditions, 1000-kernel weight in tension conditions, the index of sensitivity to grain weight drought, grain yield in desirable conditions, grain yield in tension conditions, the index of tolerance to tension of recent trait, the index of drought loss, SSI, tolerance index, the index of drought tension tolerance, the amount of tolerance yield reduction with irrigation and genotype as split-plot as random blocks. In terms of grain yield except stable genotype of vendana having the highest index of tolerance to drought of yield, we observed reduction of grain yield in other genotypes.
    Conclusion
    The findings of this experiment showed that the genotypes had the lowest resistance to the drought had the most sensitive indicator to the drought as well as the lowest tolerance index to the drought which ultimately leads to reduce the yield of the genotypes, but the genotypes that were more resistant to the drought had the highest tolerance to the drought stress. They could adapt themselves to the stressful situations and keep or increase their grain yield. In this regard, the Vandana aerobic genotypes not only did not decline in its yield under the drought stress, but also had the increase of 390.6 kg per hectare, which can be very suitable for planting in the drought conditions. It can be used the best indices of the Vandana genotypes in the short or long-term program to modify the production of the varieties with a greater compatibility.
    Keywords: index tolerance, sensitivity, tension, watery
  • Safar Nasrolahzadeh, Ali Shirkhani *, Saied Zehtab Salmasi, Rajab Choukan Pages 72-86
    Introduction
    In 2015 with about five million tons of corn, Iran was world’s fifth largest corn importer. Maize is one of the main crops for poultry and livestock feed in Iran. The average of area in Kermanshah province in recent years has been more than 45,000 hectares. But in 2015 this amount has decreased by 30 thousand hectares, 15580 hectares, which is the main reason for water scarcity in the region. On the other hand application of chemical fertilizers in conventional agriculture severe environmental problems, increased production costs and negative effects on biological cycles causes. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of biofertilizers and chemical fertilizers on yield and yield components of Maize under normal and deficit irrigation condition in western Iran region and looking for the best biological treatments could be applied to the maize to get a high yield in addition to keep our environment clean and safe.
    Materials And Methods
    Field experiments were conducted for two years (2014 – 2015) at the agricultural research farm, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre in Kermanshah, Iran. In this research, effects of vermicompost and Azotobacter as a boifertilizers and chemical fertilizers on yield and yield components of Maize under normal and deficit irrigation was investigated in two sites. Sites included normal irrigation and deficient irrigation (65% optimum water requirement) and each site was conducted as the factorial split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications and three factors. Treatments included Azotobacter in the main plots (non-inoculation and inoculation), vermicompost (consuming 0, 2, 4 and 6 ton/ha) and chemical fertilizers included N,P,K (100%, 50% and 0% recommendation based on soil test) in the sub plots. Irrigation treatments (deficit and adequate irrigation) in the middle phase of growth stage (approximately V6) began. Statistical analysis included analysis of variance to compare mean by least significant difference (LSD) by SAS statistical software and graphs were performed by EXCEL.
    Results and Discussion
    Results showed that, the grain yield of maize, LAI, leaf chlorophyll contents and NDVI were significantly influenced by irrigation levels, but Azotobacter no significant effect on this traits. Grain yield, LAI, leaf chlorophyll contents and NDVI were decreased by deficient irrigation. Vermicompost and chemical fertilizer increased these traits in normal and deficit irrigation. Vermicompost at 2, 4 and 6 ton/ha consistently and significantly increased grain yield in both irrigation condition. There was no significant difference on grain yield between 6 ton/ha application of vermicompost in linked together 50% of advised chemical fertilizers, and 100% of recommended fertilizer, hence it is possible to reduce chemical fertilizers application up to 50%. Similarly Laekemariam and Gidago (2012) recommended applying integrated of compost at 5 ton ha-1 along with chemical fertilizer to obtain better yield of maize. Kemal and Abera (2015) reported Application of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer along with vermicompost at 6 ton/ha to maize not only enhanced productivity of maize but also improved soil fertility in terms of higher available N, P, K and organic carbon content over the control and recommended N, P and K.
    Conclusions
    Although the vermicompost and Azotobacter were not able to provide all the nutritional requirements for Maize but the results indicated that the use of 6 ton/ha vermicompost and Azotobacter in soil, 50% of the maize fertilizer supplied and that means a 50% reduction in the consumption of chemical fertilizers and less pollution of the soil and the environment. On the other hand, the results showed that under deficient irrigation vermicompost and Azotobacter increased grain yield. As a general conclusion these results suggested that integrating bio fertilizer with 50 percent of recommended NPK fertilizers are appropriate for sustainable maize production in normal and deficient irrigation.
    Keywords: Maize - Azotobacter- Drought stress, Chemical fertilizers, Vermicompost
  • Sayed Mojtaba Nourihoseini, Reza Khorassani *, Alireza Astaraei, Parviz Rezvani Moghadam, Hamidreza Zabihi Pages 87-104
    Introduction
    Black zira (Bunium persicumBoiss.) is a perennial and aromatic plant from Apiaceae family. Black zira seeds are used in culinary and traditional medicine practices. Black zira has high economic value due to its use in pharmaceutical and food industries. In recent years, black zira cultivation is getting more popular among farmers (Askarzade et al.,2005). Nutrient management and application of organic and chemical fertilizers play an important role in increasing quality and quantity of black zira production. There are few studies which show the importance of nutrients management in Black zira (Bunium persicum Boiss.). Many recent studies have focused on caraway (Carumcarvi L.) (Gomaa and Youssef, 2008) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum) (Saeed Nejhad and Rezvani Moghaddam, 2010(. In the current study, the effect of cattle manure, vermicompost, humicacid and chemical fertilizers (nitrogen and phosphorus) was studied on yield, yield components and antioxidant activity of black zira.
    Materials And Methods
    The experiment was conducted in the Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Khorasan Razavi, Mashhad, Iran in 2013-2015. The experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design arranged in a split plot in time with three replicates, consisting of eight main plots [organic sources (cattle manure (10 t. ha-1), vermicompost (5 t. ha-1), humic acid (2.5 kg.ha-1Humax) and control) × chemical fertilizer (N (50 kg.ha-1) P (40 kg.ha-1P2O5) and without NP)] and two sub-plots (first and second year).In this experiment the 3-4 g bulbs were used as seed. In the end of each year, seed yield, biological yield, plant height, umbel number per plant, umblet number per umbel, 1000-seed weight and antioxidant activity were determined. The obtained data were analyzed in a factorial split plot design in time by using SAS, and means were compared by Duncan’s Multiple Range test at 5% probability level.
    Results And Discussion
    The results showed that all morphological characteristics, seed yield, yield components and antioxidant activity were affected significantly by studied treatments (p≤0.01). The humic acid application improved seed and biological yield, umbel number per plant and 1000-seed weight compared with control treatment. Humic acid increased seed yield from 16.35 to 29.89 g m-2. Cattle manure improved umbel number per plant, umblet per umbel, seed and biological yield. Seed yield increased by cattle manure application by 57% compared with control treatment. Humic acid and cattle manure improved seed antioxidant activity. Cattle manure increased antioxidant activity by 60% compared with control treatment. The application of NP improved seed and biological yield, umbel number per plant, umblet numberper umbel and plant height. Nitrogen and phosphorus treatment increased seed yield from 19.74 to 26.57 g.m-2. The application of NP had no significant effect on 1000-seed weight. The application of NP also increased antioxidant activity by 40% compared with control treatment.
    Conclusion
    Based on the results cattle manure plus NP treatment is recommended to gain the highest seed yield and antioxidant activity in black zira.
    Keywords: Medicinal plant, Organic Fertilizer, Mineral Fertilizer, Humic substances, radical scavenging activityy
  • Masoud Eskandari Torbaghan, Seyyed Hossein Nemati *, Ali Tehranifar, Leila Samiei Pages 105-117
    Title: Stability analysis of seed yield in safflower genotypes
    Introduction
    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is an annual plant and has been used for dye, food coloring, medicine, vegetable, hay, birdseed, edible oil and both fresh-cut and dried flowers. Spatial variability is inherent in all field experiments. The relative performance of lines varies with environment, and this genotype × environment (G×E) interaction hampers selection of lines for cultivation over a wide region. The objectives of this study were to analyze genotype by environment (GE) interactions on the seed yield of 30 safflower genotypes by the additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) model and to evaluate genotype (G), environment (E) and GE interactions using statistics parameter i.e. AMMI stability value (ASV) and ecovalence (W2i).
    Materials And Methods
    Thirty safflower genotypes were evaluated over a three year period (2012-15) across two research stations in Iran and there were 6 growing environments in total. The individual trials were conducted using a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. The experiments were planted in autumn of each year. Each genotypes was sown in plots (9 m2) of 6 rows, 5-m long with spacing of 30-cm between rows. Normal agronomic operations like weed and pest control were done. Each plot was harvested leaving 30 cm on both ends of the rows in order to exclude border effects. Simple analyses of variance in all environments were done for seed yield, separately. Combined analysis of variance was performed assuming genotype effect as fixed, environment effect as random factor.
    Results And Discussion
    The results of combined analysis of variance showed that there were highly significant differences (P
    Conclusion
    In this study, according to the AMMI model, the G2 and G4 were the genotypes with the best adaptation and superior in all environments.
    Acknowledgements: I would like to thank E. Neyestani and other members of the Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Khorasan Shomali for their kind advices. The collaborations of A. Hakimi, A. Saburi and M. Hakimi at Shirvan agricultural research station are greatly acknowledged.
    Keywords: Adaptability, GE interaction, AMMI analysis, Carthamus tinctorius