فهرست مطالب

Crop Protection - Volume:8 Issue:1, 2019
  • Volume:8 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/11/23
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Mehran Rezaei , Saeid Moharramipour * Pages 1-10
    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is one of the most important pests in greenhouses and its damages are economically important. The overuse of chemical pesticides has caused resistance in green peach aphid to many common insecticides. Aphidius matricariae (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an effective biological control agent against aphid populations especially in greenhouse crops. Currently, use of safe and biocompatible botanical pesticides in combination with biological control agents is being recommended. In this study, contact toxicity of Dayabon (SL 10%), a new botanical pesticide, was investigated on different life stages of M. persicae at 1000 to 7000ppm. Also, the toxicity was studied on mummies and adult parasitoids at 2000 to 14000ppm. The estimated LC50 on first, second, third, fourth instar nymphs and adults were 3254, 3387, 4194, 3839 and 3508ppm, respectively. However, concentrations up to 5000ppm caused less than 50% mortality in parasitoid mummies. Moreover, the residues of Dayabon did not cause any mortality in A. matricariae adults. Based on the standard method of IOBC/WPRS Working Group for side-effects of pesticides on natural enemies of insects, the Dayabon is recognized as safe for A. matricariae while it has acceptable mortality on green peach aphid. Therefore, the integration of Dayabon with A. matricariae could be recommended in order to achieve better control of M. persicae in greenhouse products.
    Keywords: green peach aphid, insecticide, parasitoid, Dayabon, LC50
  • Abdoolnabi Bagheri *, Majeed Askari Seyahooei , Yaghoub Fathipour , Maryam Famil , Fatemeh Koohpayma , Akhtar Mohammadi, Rad , Shabnam Parichehreh Pages 11-19
    Health and environmental side effects of chemical insecticides and development of resistant population of Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to pesticides have resulted in increasing demands for non-chemical control approaches against this pest. In this research, the efficacy of two biological control agents were studied under field condition. Treatments consisted of releasing Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Trichogramma evanescence Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and combination of H. hebetor + T. evanescence (HABROBRACON-TRICO). The results revealed significant differences in the number of infested tomato fruits among treatments and harvesting times. The infested fruits was the lowest (2.68 ± 0.14%) in plots treated by HABROBRACON-TRICO. Moreover, the highest (3.36 ± 0.50%) and the lowest (2.88 ± 0.22%) damaged fruits was recorded in the second and fourth harvesting times, respectively. There was significant interaction between harvesting times and treatments. Regarding the tomato yield in treatments, findings revealed significant difference among treatments in both main harvesting times. However, there was no significant differences in total yield in treatments. It could be concluded that biological control agents can be used as a promising alternative for synthetic insecticides in control of H. armigera in tomato farms without significant crop losses.
    Keywords: Biological control, Cotton bollworm, Tomato field, Chemical application
  • Mehran Attarzadeh , Ali Rajabpour *, Mohammad Farkhari , Arash Rasekh Pages 21-31
    Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is an important cucumber pest especially in greenhouse. The efficacy of simultaneous release of generalist predator, Orius albidipennis Reuter (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) and a specialist parasitic wasp, Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), was evaluated in laboratory conditions against the pest. For this purpose, investigations were carried out on preference of the predator between parasitized and non-parasitized aphids. In addition, production of volatile infochemicals between the natural enemies (NEs) was studied by olfactometry trials. In another part of this research, systemic production of volatile synomone by the infested cucumber plants for attraction of each NE was examined by the olfactometry tests. Results revealed that O. albidipennis had no obvious preference to either the parasitized or non-parasitized aphids, while both NEs were significantly attracted to volatiles emitted from infested host plants. Our findings revealed that each of the NEs avoided odors which indicated the presence of another intraguild competitor. The documented facts from the entire study reveal that the NEs are good biocontrol agents against A. gossypii on cucumber, but their avoidance from each other makes simultaneous release of the predator and parasitic wasps unsuitable for biological control of this aphid.
    Keywords: predatory bug, parasitoid wasp, simultaneous release, infochemicals , aphid biocontrol
  • Azam Mikani * Pages 33-43
    Efficacy of quercetin on α-amylase, lipase and protease activities via crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) content of the midgut of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) was investigated. Fresh cabbage leaf discs were dipped in quercetin solution at different concentrations (100, 500 and 1000ppm) for 10 seconds. Third instar larvae of P. xylostella were fed on leaf dipped in quercetin solutions for 5 days. α-Amylase, lipase and protease activities were evaluated for 5 days. Quercetin significantly decreased lipase, protease and α-amylase activities in the midgut. The results of competitive ELISA showed that different concentration of quercetin had no effect on short neuropeptide F, tachykinin-4 and allatostatin content of the midgut, but it was shown that quercetin (500 and 1000ppm) decreased CCAP content of the midgut. Moreover, incubation of dissected midgut with CCAP increased α-amylase, lipase and protease activities. The injection of CCAP into the hemocoel clearly increased α-amylase, lipase and protease activities. Here, for the first time, it was confirmed that feeding on leaf dipped in quercetin, decreases CCAP content in the midgut of P. xylostella, that itself led to decrease of α-amylase, protease and lipase activities.
    Keywords: Plutella xylostella, Quercetin, Crustacean cardioactive peptide, ?-Amylase, Protease
  • Fereshteh Amirmohammedi , Alireza Bandani *, Bagher Amirheidari , Qodratollah Sabahi Pages 45-55
    During the last decade, plant and microbial-derived metabolites have received growing attention as potential tools for pest management in agriculture. Pederin (C25H45NO9) is a vesicant toxin produced by Pseudomonas-like bacterial symbionts of rove beetles within the genus Paederus (Col: Staphylinidae). In this study, the toxicity of pederin to two stored product pests, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lep: Pyralidae) and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Col: Tenebrionidae) was evaluated using laboratory bioassays. Probit analysis estimated the median lethal concentrations of pederin as 1311.96 and 596.36ppm for E. kuehniella fourth larval instar and T. confusum adults, respectively. We also measured the activity of two major digestive enzymes (amylases and proteases) as well as three major detoxifying enzymes (P450s monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferases, and carboxyl esterases) in insects treated orally with pederin. Feeding on pederin resulted in significant decrease in the activity of amylolytic, proteolytic, and carboxyl esterase enzymes, but significant increase in the activity of P450s and glutathione S-transferases. Results of this study may highlight pederin as a novel source of pesticides with unique mode of action for use in pest management programs.
    Keywords: Digestive Enzyme, Detoxifying Enzyme, Natural Products, Paederus fuscipes, pederin, toxin
  • Saeid Javadi Khederi , Mehdi Khoobdel *, Mohammad Khanjani , Asghar Hosseininia , Behzad Sadeghi Sorkhe Dizaji , Sayed Masoud Hosseini , Hosein Sobati Pages 57-67
    The whitefly, Aleuroclava jasmini Takahashi (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an important pest on paper mulberry Brousson etiapapyrifera (L.) Vent. (Moraceae) plants in the green space of Tehran, Iran. Considering the importance of essential oils in the integrated management program of pests, the present survey were carried out to assess the insecticidal effects of essential oils extracted from garden thyme, Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), and neem seed, Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae) on mortality of immature stages of A. jasmini including eggs, first-instar nymphs, and pupae, and adult repellency. Three doses of the above mentioned essential oils consisting of 0.125%, 0.25% and 0.5% (v/v), were tested in contact toxicity assays. Separately, various essential oils (0.5%), as well as Tween-20 (0.5%) were applied as treated and control for adult repellency. Responses differed according to the type and concentration of oils, as well as growth stage of A. jasmini. The highest mortality was detected with increasing concentration of assayed essential oils. The results showed that younger nymphs were more sensitive to treatments than other growth stages. Essential oil derived from T. vulgaris was the most effective, decreasing the survival rate of eggs, nymphs and pupae 64%, 76% and 50%, respectively, as compared with controls. In free-choice assays, the mean numbers of eggs laid on 0.5% A. indica and T. vulgaris oil-treated plants were 80.98% and 58.57% lower than on control plants, respectively. In conclusion, extracted oils from T. vulgaris and A. indica represented the highest contact toxicity, and repellency to A. jasmini respectively. Finally, the assayed essential oils show promise for inclusion in integrated A. jasmini management programs in green space of Tehran, Iran.
    Keywords: insecticide, repellency, essential oil, paper mulberry, whitefly
  • Seddigheh Fatemy *, Mohammad Reza Moosavi Pages 69-80
    The nematotoxic potential of water extracts and green manures prepared from three plant species, daikon Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus L., purslane Portulaca oleracea L. and chinaberry Melia azedarach L., on Globodera rostochiensis was examined in vitro and in microplots. Significant alteration in J2 (second stage juvenile) activity and their hatching from eggs was observed with different exposure times by all plant species; more than 99% of the J2s were inactivated after 72h and the same degree of inhibition in hatching of the eggs occurred after exposure to the plant extracts. In microplots, the numbers of newly formed cysts and final nematode multiplication rates were reduced in unsterilized soil at 1, 3 and 5% (w:w) rates of amendment with fresh plant materials, and the infestation rates of potato plants did not differ significantly from those in soil treated with metham sodium 37%. The rate of emergence of J2 from cyst inocula declined by 36% in soil treated with chinaberry and purslane and by 71% in soil treated with daikon. The reduced availability of J2 in soil must be one of the reasons for decrease in nematode multiplication rates of 65% and 86% where soil was amended with chinaberry/purslane and daikon, respectively. In terms of plant growth improvement and nematode control, daikon amendment outperformed other treatments, including metham sodium.
    Keywords: Globodera rostochiensis, potato, decline rate, fecundity, natural nematicide
  • Emmanuel Okrikata *, Emmanuel Oludele Ogunwolu , Monday Unwabunne Ukwela Pages 81-101
    The efficiency of neem based insecticides have been assessed by many studies however, there is scanty information on the cost:benefit ratio of their use vis-a-viz synthetics, particularly, in watermelon production. In this study, thirty-six 5 m long x 8 m wide plots were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design in 4 replications of weekly spray of; 0.5% Cyper-diforce® (CD); 1, 3 and 5% Neem Oil Emulsion (NOE); 0.25% CD + 1, 3 and 5% NOE; 1% soap solution and, Control (unsprayed plots). Arthropods were sampled on 5 m length of row using Suction Sampler and Yellow Sticky Board. Severity of leaf damage and aphid colony size was also assessed. At harvest, marketable fruits were weighed and used to compute cost-benefit ratio. The prevalent pests were five species of leaf-beetles, Aphis gossypii Glover, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). The beneficials included; Apis mellifera L., Cardiochiles niger Szépligeti and Cheilomenes sulphurea (Olivier). The 0.5% CD was ineffective against Aphids but 3 and 5% NOE were. Overall, insecticide treatments reduced infestation by 2.9-95.3%. Though, combination of 0.25% CD with NOE treatments suppressed pest infestation relative to sole neem oil treatments, leaf injury and yields were statistically comparable. Sole NOE treatments were observed not to significantly suppress populations of beneficials when compared to 0.25% CD or their combinations. 0.25% CD + 5% NOE consistently gave the highest yield/season (39192-44642 kgha-1). Monetary benefits exceeded US$3724 ha-1. The insignificant differences in yield among the insecticide treatments showcased neem’s potential in managing watermelon pests. The ineffectiveness of Cyper-diforce® against A. gossypii suggests resistance development.
    Keywords: Arthropods, Cost-benefit analysis, Cyper-diforce®, Neem oil emulsion
  • Hakimeh Shayestehmehr , Roghaiyeh Karimzadeh * Pages 103-115
    Understanding the spatial dynamics of insect distributions provides useful information about their ecological requirements and can also be used in site-specific pest management programs. Interactions between prey and predator are spatially and temporally dynamic and can be affected by several factors. In this study, geostatistics was used to characterize the spatial variability of spotted alfalfa aphid, Therioaphis maculata Buckton and coccinellid lady beetles in alfalfa fields. Global positioning and geographic information systems were used for spatial sampling and mapping the distribution pattern of these insects. This study was conducted in three alfalfa fields with areas of 7.3, 3.1 and 0.5 ha and two growing seasons, 2013 and 2014. The 0.5 ha field was divided into 10 × 10m grids and 3.1 and 7.3 ha fields were divided into 30 × 30m grids. Weekly sampling began when height of alfalfa plants reached about 15cm and was continued until the cuttings of alfalfa hay. For sampling, 40 and 10 stems were chosen randomly in 30 × 30m and 10 × 10m grids, respectively and shaken into a white pan three times. Aphids and coccinellids fallen in the pan were counted and recorded. Semivariance analysis indicated that distribution of T. maculata and coccinellids was aggregated in the fields. Comparison of the distribution maps of aphid and lady beetles indicated that there was an overlap between the maps, but they did not coincide completely. This study revealed that relationship between spotted alfalfa aphid and lady beetles was spatially dynamic. These results can be used in biological control and site-specific management programs of T. maculata.
    Keywords: GIS, distribution map, kriging, prey-predator interactions
  • Helen Alipanah * Pages 117-122
    The genus Eidophasia Stephens, 1840 and E. messingiella (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1840) are newly reported for the fauna of Iran. They were identified based on three and one specimens collected in Kordestan and Tehran Provinces, respectively. Taxonomic characterization of the species, as well as figures of the adult female, collecting data map, and both male and female genitalia are briefly described and illustrated.
    Keywords: Eidophasia messingiella, distribution, new record, Iran
  • Saeideh Mosapour , Seyed Massoud Madjdzadeh , Mohsen Mehrparvar * Pages 123-129
    During the study of aphid fauna of Kerman province, Iran, an aphid species, Chaetosiphella longirostris Wieczorek, 2008 (Hem.: Aphididae: Chaitophorinae), was collected on Stipa arabica Trin. & Rupr. (Poaceae), which is reported here for the first time from Iran. This is the second aphid species reported on Stipa in Iran. Since there were some morphological differences between the original description of C. longirostris and Iranian population, here we made a diagnostic comparison. The biometric data of the Iranian population of C. longirostris is given and compared with the original description.
    Keywords: Aphid, fauna, taxonomy, Iran, morphological differences, new record
  • Nasrin Shahbazvar , Reza Hosseini *, Shahab Manzari , George Japoshvili Pages 131-134
    In the present study, which is based on the material collected from Southern part of Caspian Sea, Iran during 2013- 2016, one parasitoid species of the genus Coccobius Ratzeburg was identified as Coccobius pistacicolus (Yasnosh, 1968) (Hym: Aphelinidae). This species, which is reported for the first time from Iran, was collected in Rasht, Guilan province, and reared from Lepidosaphes pallida (Maskell) (Hem.: Diaspididae) on Ficus carica (Moraceae). Diagnostic characters of C. pistacicolus are provided.
    Keywords: Aphelinidae, Coccobius pistacicolus, Guilan province, Lepidosaphes pallida, Iran