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پژوهش های ژئومورفولوژی کمی - سال هشتم شماره 1 (تابستان 1398)
  • سال هشتم شماره 1 (تابستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/05/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • مهرنوش قدیمی، ساسان زنگنه تبار* صفحات 1-15
    ویژگی های منطقه تغذیه در آبخوان های کارستی بر نوع تغذیه، جریان و میزان آسیب پذیری آبخوان از آلودگی موثر است. بنابراین، شناخت مناطق تغذیه در آبخوان های کارستی نقش کلیدی در شناخت ویژگی های هیدرودینامیکی و هیدروشیمیایی آبخوان ها و همچنین مدیریت و بهره برداری علمی و بهینه از آن ها دارد. آبخوان پرآو-بیستون به دلیل داشتن 15 چشمه دائمی و پرآب نقش مهمی در تامین آب شرب و کشاورزی نواحی اطراف خود دارد. در این پژوهش به منظور شناسایی مناطق مستعد تغذیه آبخوان پرآو-بیستون، از مدل KARSTLOP استفاده شده است. این مدل از 8 لایه فرایند کارست زایی (توسعه کارست)، شرایط جوی، رواناب، شیب، تکتونیک، سنگ شناسی، لایه پوشاننده و پوشش گیاهی تشکیل شده است. با اجرای مدل، نقشه نهایی میزان تغذیه آبخوان پرآو-بیستون به دست آمد. طبق نقشه نهایی، طبقه با میزان تغذیه 70 تا 80 درصد، بیشترین درصد (65 درصد) از مساحت منطقه مورد مطالعه را شامل می شود و مناطق با بیشترین میزان تغذیه(بالای 80 درصد)، منطبق بر راس کوه مرتفع پرآو و مناطق هموار راس سایر کوه های میانی بود. هم چنین در کل حدود 96 درصد از مساحت آبخوان پرآو-بیستون دارای پتانسیل تغذیه 60 درصد به بالا است که بیانگر بالا بودن میزان نفوذپذیری این آبخوان است این امر نشان می دهد که آبخوان مورد نظر در برابر انتشار آلودگی آسیب پذیر بوده و نیازمند برنامه های حفاظتی و مدیریتی است.
    کلیدواژگان: کارست، منابع آب، آبخوان پرآو-بیستون، تغذیه، مدل KARSTLOP
  • معصومه غلامی، علی احمدآبادی، عزت الله قنواتی* صفحات 16-33
    بررسی موجودی زمین لغزش ها، تیپولوژی و توزیع فضایی آنها ابزارهای ضروری برای تحدید نشانه های فضایی و زمانی زمین لغزش ها است. هدف تحقیق حاضر بررسی حساسیت زمین لغزش حوضه کن با استفاده از شاخص آنتروپی و الگوریتم ماشین های پشتیبان بردار است. معیارهای موثر در بروز زمین لغزش در این تحقیق شامل توپوگرافی، شیب، جهت شیب، کاربری اراضی، لیتولوژی، فاصله از گسل، فاصله از آبراهه و فاصله از جاده هستند. لایه های مکانی پارامترهای اثرگذار به پایگاه مکانی داده وارد شده و استاندارد سازی معیارها انجام شد. هر یک از پارامترها با توجه به میزان تاثیر بر وقوع مخاطره لغزش، طبق نظرات کارشناسی امتیازدهی و به صورت رستری به عنوان لایه های اصلی در پهنه بندی حساسیت لغزش با استفاده از شاخص آنتروپی بکار گرفته شده اند. ماتریس آنتروپی برای هر یک از عوامل محاسبه و سپس در محیط GIS نقشه پهنه بندی حساسیت لغزش منطقه، تهیه شده است. در الگوریتم پشتیبان بردار از تابع حلقوی استفاده شده بر اساس این الگوریتم هر یک از لایه های موثر در بروز زمین لغزش وزن دهی شده و سپس لایه ها هم پوشانی شده و نقشه حساسیت زمین لغزش بر اساس الگوریتم پشتیبان بردار تهیه شده است. جهت اعتبار سنجی مدل ها، با استفاده از 30 درصد نقاط لغزشی، منحنی ROC، ترسیم و مساحت زیر منحنی (AUC) محاسبه شده است. نتایج اعتبار سنجی نشان داده که الگوریتم ماشین های پشتیبان بردار ((SVM-SIGMOID (AUC = 0.91) در برآورد حساسیت زمین لغزش در منطقه مورد مطالعه نسبت به مدل شاخص آنتروپی (AUC= 0.86) از صحت بیشتر و قابلیت اعتماد بالاتری برخوردار است.
    کلیدواژگان: حساسیت زمین لغزش، حوضه کن، شاخص آنتروپی، الگوریتم ماشین پشتیبان بردار
  • بهزاد میلادی، امجد ملکی*، محمد احمدی صفحات 34-51
    مهار آب های زیر سطحی درون رسوبات دانه درشت آبرفتی بستر دره ها و مسیل ها یک راهکار مناسب در تامین و توسعه منابع آبی در مقیاس کوچک محسوب می شود. احداث بندهای زیرزمینی از جمله روش های مهم و مورد توجه مهار این آبها محسوب می شود. مکان یابی درست و سریع این نوع از بندها بر اساس معیارهای منتخب نقش مهمی در موفقیت مهار آب های زیرسطحی دارد. هدف از تحقیق حاضر شناسایی و تعیین مناطق مناسب احداث بندهای زیرزمینی در شمال غرب استان کرمانشاه می باشد. منطقه مذکور به علت واقع شدن در مسیر بادهای غربی دارای بارش نسبتا مناسب در فصول مرطوب سال می باشد. اما با فرا رسیدن فصل خشک و افزایش نیاز آبی، منطقه با کمبود آب مواجه می شود. این کمبود باعث سخت شدن شرایط زندگی برای ساکنین منطقه شده است. تاثیر معیارهای متعدد در مکان یابی محل احداث بندهای زیرزمینی باعث دشوار و پیچیده شدن فرایند مکان یابی می شود. در این تحقیق با توجه به شرایط محلی منطقه مورد مطالعه لایه ها و داده های موثر در تعیین محل بند زیرزمینی شامل مدل ارتفاعی رقومی با وضوح 5/12 متر، شیب 5-0 درصد، حریم عرضی و ارتفاعی آبراهه ها، کاربری اراضی(مسکونی و زراعی)، زمین شناسی با مقیاس1:100000، گسل ها، شیب لایه های زمین شناسی و ضخامت رسوبات آبرفتی تهیه و تولید شد. در ادامه با استفاده از روش سامانه پشتیبانی تصمیم(DSS)، تهیه پایگاه داده و استفاده از نرم افزار GIS با حذف مرحله به مرحله نقاط واقع در محل های نامناسب، 11 محل مناسب برای احداث بند زیرزمینی شناسایی شد.
    کلیدواژگان: بند زیرزمینی، مکان یابی، سامانه پشتیبانی تصمیم، شمال غرب استان کرمانشاه
  • مهران مقصودی*، ابراهیم مقیمی، مجتبی یمانی، ناصر رضایی، انور مرادی صفحات 52-69
    ژئومورفودایورسیتی بخشی از ژئودایورسیتی است که به ارزیابی ژئومورفولوژیکی یک قلمرو از نظر کمیت و تعداد انواع مختلف لندفرم ها به صورت بیرونی و درونی می پردازد. منطقه مورد مطالعه شامل میراث ژئومورفولوژیکی آتشفشان دماوند و پیرامون آن است. هدف اصلی مطالعه حاضر شناسایی و ارزیابی ژئومورفودایورسیتی به صورت کمی و تهیه نقشه های ژئومورفودایورسیتی منطقه مورد مطالعه است. داده های تحقیق حاضر شامل زمین شناسی، شبکه زهکشی، شیب، زبری ناهمواری و لندفرم ها است که با تکامل چشم انداز فیزیکی منطقه مورد مطالعه مرتبط هستند. ابزارهای تصاویر ماهواره ای لندست، نقشه های موضوعی، DEM 10 متر و غیره برای دستیابی به اهداف استفاده شده است. در این تحقیق برای ارزیابی از شاخص کمی ژئومورفودایورسیتی ملهلی و همکاران (2017) بهره گرفته شده و نتایج اعتبار سنجی شده است. نتایج شاخص ژئومورفودایورسیتی نشان داد که مناطق با ارزش ژئومورفودایورسیتی زیاد بین 20 الی 25 عمدتا در ضلع شرقی دماوند و در امتداد دره هراز قرار دارد. برعکس، مناطق دارای ژئومورفودایورسیتی کم با ارزش بین 5 الی 10 مربوط به شمال غرب دماوند در محل دشت سرداغ و مخروط آتشفشان دماوند است. علاوه بر این، دامنه ژئومورفودایورسیتی منطقه مورد مطالعه از محل دره ها با ارزش حداکثر 25 به سمت قله ها با ارزش حداقل 5 کاهش می یابد. نتایج اعتبار سنجی نیز نشان داد که همبستگی فضایی خوبی بین مقادیر شاخص ژئومورفودایورسیتی، تعداد انواع مختلف لندفرم ها و میانگین تعداد لندفرم ها وجود دارد. مناطق با ژئومورفودایورسیتی زیاد، با یک مجموعه غنی و منحصربه فرد از انواع مختلف لندفرم ها و فرایندهای ژئومورفولوژیکی، نیازمند توجه ویژه برای استفاده های ژئوتوریسمی، علمی-آموزشی، میراث ملی و جهانی و ژئوپارک هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: ژئومورفودایورسیتی، لندفرم، ارزیابی کمی، آتشفشان دماوند
  • موسی عابدینی*، احد رنجبری، داود مختاری صفحات 70-88
    در این تحقیق، حساسیت زمین لغزش با استفاده از دو مدل فرآیند تحلیل شبکه (ANP) و رگرسیون لجستیک (LR) در سامانه گسلی قوشاداغ پهنه بندی گردید و مناسب ترین مدل معرفی شد. جهت این مطالعه از تصویرOLI ماهواره لندست8 و سنتینل2a 2017 استفاده شد. 14 فاکتور موثر در وقوع زمین لغزش (شیب، جهت دامنه، کاربری زمین، فاصله از گسل و رودخانه و جاده، طبقات ارتفاعی، لیتولوژی، اقلیم، بارندگی، خاک، شاخص رطوبت توپوگرافیک (TWI)، شاخص طول شیب (LS)، شاخص قدرت آبراهه ای(SPI)) در محیط GIS آماده شد و در محیط نرم افزار Super Decision وزن هریک مشخص گردید و دوباره در ArcGIS نقشه های نهایی پهنه بندی به دست آمد. در وقوع زمین لغزش ها، عامل فاصله از گسل و بارش بیشترین و کاربری زمین کمترین نقش را داشته اند. وقوع حدود 2/62 و 1/71درصد لغزش ها در کلاس های خطر زیاد و خیلی زیاد به ترتیب در ANP و رگرسیون لجستیک، نشان دهنده دقت قابل قبول نقشه های پیش بینی شده برای زمین لغزش می باشد. نتایج ارزیابی صحت روش ها با شاخص ROC، نشان داد که درصد مساحت زیر منحنی (AUC) نقشه ها، به ترتیب در مدل رگرسیون لجستیک 52/85 درصد و در مدل تحلیل شبکه 35/81 درصد با میزان خطای استاندارد062/0 به دست آمدند که هردو نشانگر قدرت پیش بینی خیلی خوب همراه با برتری نسبی مدل رگرسیون لجستیک می باشد. نتایج مطالعه نشان دهنده آسیب پذیری بالای مناطق لرزه خیز از حرکات دامنه ای دارد و ضرورت شناسایی و پایش مخاطرات ژئومورفولوژیکی و مقایسه آنها در قبل و بعد از زلزله و اجرای عملیات محافظتی را بیشتر می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: فرآیند تحلیل شبکه ای، رگرسیون لجستیک، پهنه بندی خطر زمین لغزش، زلزله ارسباران (زلزله ورزقان-اهر)، گسل قوشاداغ
  • ابوالقاسم گورابی*، افسانه اهدائی، عارفه شعبانی عراقی صفحات 89-104
    تغییرات اقلیمی از بارز ترین ویژگی های دوره کواترنر به شمار می رود. لندفرم های سطح زمین در این دوره دستخوش تحولات و تغییرات فراوانی شده است، با توجه به شرایط اقلیمی گرم و خشک در ایران مرکزی و وجود آثار و لندفرم های یخچالی که نشان دهنده شرایط اقلیمی سرد و مرطوبتر گذشته است ما را برآن داشت تا با هدف بررسی شرایط اقلیمی گذشته با شرایط اقلیمی حال حاضر در این منطقه بپردازیم. روش این پژوهش روش مشاهده ای و تحلیل مبتنی بر عملیات میدانی و سنجش از دور است، بنابراین داده هایی از جمله نقشه های توپوگرافی، مدل رقومی ارتفاع 30، 10 متر، تصاویر گوگل ارث، داده های GPS عملیات میدانی و داده های آماری اقلیم منطقه استفاده شده است.روابط ریاضی، مدل های تجربی و نرم افزارهای آماری و نقشه کشی از عمده ترین ابزارهای مفهومی این پژوهش را تشکیل می دهند. نتایج حاکی از آنست که خط برف مرز گذشته که به روش رایت محاسبه شده در ارتفاع 2491 متر قرار داشته و حداکثر پیشروی مورن ها در دامنه های غربی_شمال غربی تا ارتفاع 1980 متری و در دامنه جنوبی تا ارتفاع 2218 متری ثبت گردیده است..در شرایط اقلیمی حال حاضرخط هم دمای صفر درجه در ارتفاع 5440 متر و خط هم دمای 5 درجه یعنی (خط تعادل آب و یخ) در ارتفاع 4780 متری است و هردو بالاتر از قله قرار میگیرد، ارتفاع خط برفمرز دوره گذشته نیز براساس معادله دمایی در حد دمای 22 درجه امروز قرار دارد که نشان می دهد شرایط ایجاد فرآیندهای یخچالی و به تبع آن ایجاد لندفرم های یخچالی در منطقه شیرکوه یزد وجود ندارد.
    کلیدواژگان: فرآیندهای یخچالی، برفمرز، سیرک، کواترنر، شیرکوه یزد
  • فشین هنربخش*، علی نیازی، فشین سلطانی، پژمان طهماسبی صفحات 105-117
    تجزیه و تحلیل منطقه ای بار رسوب رودخانه ها بخصوص در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک و ارتباط آن به خصوصیات حوضه های آبخیز در برآورد میزان فرسایش و رسوب از اهمیت بسزایی برخوردار است. لذا هدف از مطالعه حاضر مدل‏سازی رابطه ی بین میزان بار رسوب معلق با ویژگی های هیدرولوژیکی و محیط حوضه سد دز است. برای این منظور از اطلاعات 16 ایستگاه رسوب سنجی برای توسعه مدل های برآورد رسوبات معلق استفاده شد. سپس مدل های توسعه یافته با اطلاعات 6 ایستگاه رسوب سنجی دیگر اعتبارسنجی شد. پانزده ویژگی مختلف فیزیوگرافی، اقلیمی، هیدرولوژیکی و زمین شناسی به عنوان پارامترهای ورودی در مدل‏سازی برآورد رسوبات معلق استفاده شد. از روش تجزیه به مولفه های اصلی (PCA) برای انتخاب مهمترین پارامترها استفاده شد. سپس ایستگاه ها بر اساس پارامترهای انتخاب شده و با استفاده از روش تجزیه و تحلیل خوشه‏ای به دو گروه همگن تقسیم شدند. در نهایت مدل ها با استفاده از روش رگرسیون چندمتغیره گام به گام توسعه یافتند. از معیارهایR2، درصد خطا (RE) و میانگین خطا (ME) برای ارزیابی مدل ها استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد چهار عامل دبی سالانه، متوسط بارندگی سالانه، ضریب هورتون و ارتفاع متوسط حوضه مهمترین پارمترها در برآورد رسوبات معلق بودند و مدل های رگرسیونی بر اساس این عوامل ایجاد شدند. نتایج ارزیابی مدل ها نشان داد که مدل توسعه یافته با استفاده از همه چهار عامل با 8% = RE،t ya-1 25375 = MEو 93/0 = R2 بهترین کارآیی و کمترین درصد خطای برآورد را داشت. نتایچ همچنین نشان داد که دبی سالانه تاثیرگذارترین پارامتر در مدل های برآورد رسوبات معلق بود.
    کلیدواژگان: بار معلق، رگرسیون، ضریب هورتون، فرسایش خاک
  • شهرام روستائی، داوود مختاری، خلیل ولیزاده کامران، لیلا خدائی قشلاق* صفحات 118-129
    چکیده در سالهای اخیر تهیه نقشه های کاربری اراضی از طریق طبقه بندی رقومی داده های سنجش از دور به عنوان جایگزینی مناسب برای تهیه این نوع نقشه ها مورد توجه قرار گرفته است، تهیه نقشه های کاربری اراضی از طریق طیقه بندی رقومی داده های سنجش از دور به روش های مورد استفاده در طبقه بندی، وضعیت پوشش زمین و شرایط محیطی منطقه مورد مطالعه بستگی دارد. نتایج حاصله در این زمینه بر حسب روش های طبقه بندی مورد استفاده، شرایط منطقه مورد مطالعه و داده های بکار گرفته شده متفاوت بوده است. در نتیجه در سال های اخیر با پیشرفت تکنولوژی پردازش کامپیوتری روش های جدیدی پیشنهاد شده است. بر اساس ویژگیهای پردازش تصویر، جهت استخراج اطلاعات از تصاویر ماهواره ای در این روش ها، آنها را می توان در دو گروه عمده تقسیم بندی نمود که عبارتند از: روش طبقه بندی مبتنی بر ارزش های عددی عناصر تصویری یا پیکسل (پیکسل پایه) و روش طبقه بندی مبتنی بر شی های تصویری  (شی گرا). هدف از این تحقیق، مقایسه روش های طبقه بندی پیکسل پایه (الگوریتم بیشترین شباهت) و شی پایه (ماشین بردار پشتیبان) برای تهیه نقشه کاربری اراضی با استفاده ازتصویرسنجنده HDR ماهواره ای SPOT5 و تصویر سنجنده OLI ماهواره Landsat8 در محدوده ی حوضه آبریز اهر چای از منطقه اهر تا ورزقان است.  بدین منظور نقشه کاربری اراضی منطقه اهر - ورزقان با هر دو روش در نرم افزار ENVI 5.3 طبقه بندی شده است. مقایسه نتایج مربوط به صحت کلی و ضریب کاپای طبقه بندی ها نشان می دهد که روش طبقه بندی شی گرا با افزایش دقت معادل 6/5 درصد صحت کلی و 04/0 درصد ضریب کاپا، در طبقه بندی تصاویر ماهواره ای از دقت بالاتری برخوردار است .
    کلیدواژگان: سنجش از دور، طبقه بندی پیکسل پایه، روش شی گرا، اهر - ورزقان
  • امیر صفاری*، امیر کرم، صمد شادقر، مهدی احمدی صفحات 130-146
    بخش وسیعی از دشت آبرفتی حوضه رودخانه مهران لامرد در جنوب استان فارس تحت تاثیر فرسایش خندقی قرار گرفته است. خندق ها در شرایط محیطی مختلف شکل های متفاوتی دارند و هر شکل خاص از خندق نیز گویای میزان تخریب و هدر رفت خاک می باشد، از اینرو هدف از این پژوهش بررسی ارتباط بین متغیر های موثر در فرسایش خندقی با مورفولوژی خندق ها در محدوده مورد مطالعه می باشد. جهت دستیابی به هدف فوق، این تحقیق مبتنی بر بررسی های متداول طرح های آبخیزداری، تهیه نقشه ها، جداول، ذخیره آمار و اطلاعات مربوطه در محیط GIS، مشخص نمودن اراضی تحت تاثیر فرسایش خندقی، تقسیم بندی خندق ها و سپس مورفولوژی آنها با استفاده از داده های سنجش ازدور همراه با عملیات میدانی، نمونه برداری رسوبات و تجزیه آزمایشگاهی نمونه ها بوده است. در این تحقیق 12 خندق معرف در 4 واحد کاری با خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی مشخص، انتخاب شدند. سپس 17 متغیر موثر برای هر نمونه خندق با بهره گیری از روش های آزمون تحلیل واریانس در نرم افزار SPSS تحلیل آماری صورت گرفته است. نتایج نشان می دهد که مورفولوژی، خصوصیات خاک و میزان تولید رسوب خندق های واقع در واحد های 1 و 2 (خندق های U شکل) با هم و خندق های مربوط به واحد های 3 و 4 (خندق های حد واسط U و V شکل) با هم شباهت دارند. نتایج نشان می دهد که تفاوت معناداری در سطح (01/0P <، 41/2= F) بین ویژگی های خاک در واحدهای مختلف وجود داد. خندق های U شکل با خندق های حد واسط U و V شکل از نظر ویژگی های گچ، EC، SAR، OC و TNV با هم متفاوت هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: فرسایش خندقی، مورفولوژی خندق، حوضه مهران لامرد، ویژگی های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک
  • محمدحسین رضائی مقدم*، اسدالله حجازی، عبدالله بهبودی صفحات 147-159
    فرسایش خندقی یکی از انواع پدیده های ژئومورفولوژیکی است. هر ساله خسارت های زیادی به اراضی کشاورزی، مرتعی و جاده ها وارد می کند. شناسایی علل و مدل سازی آن نقش مهمی در مدیریت حوضه های آبریز دارد. یکی از انواع فرسایش خندقی، فرسایش خندقی موقتی است. در حال حاضر مدل EGEM تنها مدلی است که می تواند این نوع فرسایش را ارزیابی کند. بدین جهت منطقه مورد مطالعه از سال 1387 بعد از بارندگی مورد مشاهده قرار گرفت. داده های لازم برای اجرای مدل EGEM جمع آوری شد. در تحلیل های کمی نیز از نرم افزارهای Excel و SPSS استفاده شد. با توجه به تحلیل های صورت گرفته  بین پارامترهای اندازه گیری شده و نتایج حاصل از مدل بالاترین ضریب همبستگی بین عمق، سطح مقطع ، حجم و پهنای تخمینی و اندازه گیری شده بترتیب با ضریب همبستگی 849/0، 845/0، 818/0 و 814/0 وجود دارد.- خندق های موقتی در در این منطقه بیشتر در زمینهای کشاورزی شکل می گیرند. شدت بارندگی، گسترش مسیرهای ارتباطی و آتش زدن پوشش گیاهی نقش مهمی در توسعه خندق های موقتی دارند. نسخه استاندارد مدل EGEM در حوضه آبریز لنبران قابل استفاده است. برای رسیدن به نتایج مطلوب این مدل باید در سایر نواحی اقلیمی ایران نیز به کار گرفته شود. در این حوضه مساحت حوضه، پهنا، طول و طول تمرکز خندق بیشترین نقش را در فرسایش خاک دارند. عمق و سطح مقطع خندق های موقتی کمترین تاثیر را در فرسایش دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: خندق موقتی، لنبران، اهر چای، فرسایش، مدل EGEM
  • وحید محمدنژاد، صیاد اصغری سراسکانرود*، هادی امامی صفحات 160-178
    در این تحقیق ، روش مبتنی بر پیکسل پایه و روش مبتنی بر شیءگرا در تهیه نقشه کاربری اراضی شهرستان مراغه با استفاده از تصاویر سنجنده ASTER در یک بازه زمانی 17 ساله، از سال 2000 تا 2017 و تاثیر تغییرات کاربری ها بر فرسایش، مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. برای مقایسه عملی نتایج، د ر هر د و روش از د اد ه های آموزشی یکسان برای طبقه بندی استفاد ه گرد ید ؛ سپس مهم ترین روش های ارزیابی صحت شامل د قت کلی و ضریب کاپای طبقه بندی استخراج شد و مشخص شد که نتیجه طبقه بندی به روش شیءگرا نسبت به روش حداکثرشباهت 3% نتایج بهتری ارائه می دهد. بعد از طبقه بندی و مقایسه نقشه های استخراج شده، اقدام به آشکارسازی تغییرات حادث شده در این بازه زمانی شد و مشخص شد که طبقات مرتع و بایر دارای روند کاهشی و طبقات باغات متراکم و آب دارای روند افزایشی می باشد. با توجه به نقشه های کاربری های حاصل از دو روش طبقه بندی حداکثرشباهت و شیءگرا و مقایسه و تطبیق دادن این نقشه ها با واقیت های زمینی، نتایج حاصل از روش طبقه بندی شیءگرا مورد تایید قرار گرفت. با توجه به نتایج حاصل از مطالعه با روش شیءگرا در طی بازه ی زمانی مورد مطالعه در شهرستان مراغه کاربری های باغات متراکم، باغات کم تراکم، مسکونی، کشاورزی، صنعتی و ارتباطی در روش شیءگرا دارای افزایش، و کاربری های زراعی، مرتع، دیم و بایر دارای کاهش مساحت بوده اند. که این امر بیانگر اهمیت کشاورزی و باغداری در این شهرستان می باشد. با توجه به نتایج پهنه بندی خطر فرسایش سال 2000 به ترتیب 08/9 و 88/15 درصد و با توجه پهنه بندی فرسایش 2017 به ترتیب 66/13و 76/29 درصد از مساحت شهرستان در دو طبقه بسیار پرخطر و پرخطر قرار دارند. هم چنین نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که در دوره یاد شده، ضمن افزایش کاربری باغات متراکم، باغات کم تراکم، مسکونی و صنعتی، تخریب و تبدیل شدن اراضی مرتعی و اراضی دیم در سطح قابل توجهی صورت گرفته است که نقش مهمی در افزایش آسیب پذیری منطقه مورد مطالعه در مقابل فرسایش خاک دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: آشکارسازی تغییرات، شیءگرا، حداکثرشباهت، شهرستان مراغه، نقشه کاربری اراضی
  • منصور جعفذبگلو، ابراهیم مقیمی، مجتبی یمانی، محمد زمانزاده، حمید کامرانی دلیر* صفحات 179-198
    از دیدگاه ساختمانی گسلها شاخص فعالیتهای تکتونیکی و تحول لندفرمهای سطح زمین در یک منطقه می باشند. آثار و شواهد لندفرمی این تغییر و تحول در ناهنجاری پدیده های ژئومورفیک، به میراث باقیمانده اند. با تحلیل مدل های رقومی ارتفاعی (DEMs)، امکان کمی سازی اثرات فرایندهای تکتونیکی بر روی لندفرمهای تحول یافته، فراهم می گردد. روش تحقیق مبتنی بر روش های ژئومورفومتری و بهره گیری از قابلیت های تحلیلی نرم افزار TecDEM2.0 جهت تحلیل مورفوتکتونیکی حوضه های آبریز محدوده سامانه گسلی قم-زفره (QZFS) می باشد. محدوده مورد مطاله شامل حوضه های آبریز دامنه های کوه کرکس واقع در بخش میانی زون QZFS می باشد که اساسا این ناحیه به دلیل داشتن شرایط ناپایدار و تغییرات زیاد مورفوتکتونیکی برای مطالعه انتخاب گردیده است. هدف از این تحقیق ارائه یک مدل مورفومتریک جهت تعیین حوضه های آبریز حساس به فرایندهای مورفوتکتونیکی است. نقشه های مورفوتکتونیکی تهیه شده در نرم افزار TecDEM، اساسا بطور غیر مستقیم وضعیت هیدرودینامیکی و هیدروژئومورفولوژی حوضه های آبریز مورد مطالعه را بیان می کند. از متغیرهای اصلی مورد بررسی می توان به شاخص های انتگرال هیپسومتری(Hi)، شیب نرمال(Ksn) ، تقعر(q) و شاخص هک (SL) اشاره نمود. مولفه های موردبررسی در این تحقیق با استفاده از مدل رقومی ارتفاع (DEM)، استخراج و با استفاده از رتبه بندی آبراهه ای به روش استرالر(1975)، علاوه بر شناسایی میزان فعالیتهای تکتونیکی ناشی از گسلهای اصلی هر حوضه، میزان نسبی بالاآمدگی تکتونیکی حوضه ها نیز محاسبه و ارائه گردیده است. براساس نتایج تحقیق، پایین بودن مقادیر شاخص های تقعر از 2/0تا 89/0 و بالا بودن مقادیر شاخص حداکثر شیب 1/112 تا 57/192 درصد دلالت بر وجود فعالیت های تکتونیکی غیر همسان در بخشهای مختلف کوهستان کرکس است. همینطور نرخ بالاآمدگی تکتونیکی در برخی حوضه ها (در بخش شرقی) 5/2 و در برخی حوضه ها (در بخش غربی) 55/0 میلی متر در سال برآورد گردیده است. از طرفی، پس از بررسی های میدانی و شواهد مورفوتکتونیکی نظیر وجود دره های خطی و پرتگاه خط گسلی در حوضه  های: سرسخت، طامه و اوره، پشته های مسدودکننده در امتداد آبراهه های اوره و طامه، جابه جایی راس مخروط افکنه ها و آبراهه های موجود در بخش شرقی کوهستان کرکس ناشی از فعالیت گسل معکوس و امتدادلغز نطنز (از گسلهای اصلی و تاثیر گذار زون گسلی قم-زفره)، ارزیابی گردید. از نتایج دیگر این تحقیق ارزیابی مناسب قابلیت تحلیلی و محاسباتی نرم افزار TecDEM در اثبات فعالیت های تکتونیکی در منطقه موردمطالعه می باشد.   * نویسنده مسئول،  آدرس ایمیل: hkamrani@ut.ac.ir، شماره تماس: 09126588079 [1] - Tectonics Digital Elavation Model.
    کلیدواژگان: مورفوتکتونیک، زون گسلی قم-زفره، روش مورفومتری، الگوریتم TecDEM2.0
  • سیروس اسماعیلی*، محمد مهد خطیب، حمید نظری، ژان پیر بورگ، ابراهیم غلامی صفحات 199-216
    در این مقاله برای اولین بار در ایران، نوعی از ناپایداری شیبی در بخش همپوشان دو پاره گسلی گیلاتو-سیه چشمه-خوی که در یک ترکیب خم رهایی تشکیل حوضه کششی سیه چشمه را داده اند، تحت عنوان دگرریختی ثقلی ژرف شیب معرفی و مطالعه شده است. گسل گیلاتو-سیه چشمه-خوی، با سازوکار جنبشی راستالغز راست بر و با راستای شمال باختری-جنوب خاوری در بخش میانی پهنه برخوردی صفحه های قاره ای عربی-اوراسیا، در شمال باختری ایران واقع شده است. در این پژوهش، عوامل موثر بر این رخدادها و سایر ناپایداری های شیبی این منطقه و نیز ارتباط آنها با ساختارهای زایشی حوضه های کششی و تاثیر تغییرات آهنگ لغزش در امتداد گسل، بر روی ناپایداری های شیبی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. بدین منظور، از طریق سن سنجی رادیوکربن نمونه خاک دیواره آبراهه منحرف شده بر روی پاره گسلی سیه چشمه-خوی (بخش جنوب خاوری گسل گیلاتو-سیه چشمه-خوی) و همچنین با استناد به سن روانه های سنگ های بازالتی منطقه در مطالعات پیشین و تشخیص مقدار جابجایی متاثر از اثر عملکرد پاره گسلی گیلاتو-سیه چشمه (بخش شمال باختری گسل گیلاتو-سیه چشمه-خوی)، به ترتیب آهنگ لغزش 4.6±0.3 mm/yr و 1.65 ± 0.1 mm/yr برای این پاره های گسلی محاسبه شده است. این تغییر آهنگ لغزش در امتداد گسل، باعث فراخاست هر چه بیشتر بخش باختری حوضه کششی سیه چشمه نسبت به بخش خاوری آن و همچنین تشکیل افشانه های گسلی راندگی در پایانه شمال باختری پاره گسلی سیه چشمه-خوی شده است و در نتیجه، پدیده های دگرریختی ثقلی ژرف در شیب های ارتفاعات محصور کننده این حوضه کششی رخ داده است.
    کلیدواژگان: دگرریختی ثقلی ژرف شیب، گسل گیلاتو-سیه چشمه-خوی، حوضه کششی سیه چشمه، آهنگ لغزش، ناپایداری شیبی
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  • Mehrnoosh Ghadimi, Sasan Zangenehtabar * Pages 1-15
    Underground water is one of the most important global natural resources for communities as well as for agricultural and industrial activities. Considering the unique weather conditions in Iran, lack of rainfall, distribution and timing of inadequate space, shortage of water resources in terms of quality and quantity and the widespread expansion of Karst Formation throughout the country, the study of water resources of karst is very important. The main characteristics of feeding area in the karstic aquifers impact on the type of feeding, flow and the vulnerability of aquifers. Therefore, identification of the feeding areas in karstic aquifers plays a key role in assessment of the hydrodynamic and hydrochemical properties of aquifers, as well as their scientific and optimal management and utilization. Karstic water resources are the most important water supplies in the Kermanshah province. The Paraw-Bisetun aquifer is located within the carbonate rocks domain of the high Zagros mountains. Due to its high altitude and precipitation, it is susceptible to karst conditions, as witnessed by its particular geomorphology and the developed karst features such as sinkholes, uvalas, and caves. The karstic aquifer of Paraw-Bisetun has 15 important springs, supplying water for drinking and agriculture in the neighboring area. In this research, the KARSTLOP model was used to model the locations of feeding areas of the Paraw-Bisetun aquifier. The KARSTLOP model abbreviated to the first letters of the eight layers K: karstification process (Karst development), A: Weather conditions, R: Runoff, S: Slope, T: Tectonic, L: Geology, O: Covering layer and P: Vegetation. This model can be implemented in the Arc GIS software environment and the individual judgment of the researcher is involved in the selection of analytical parameters and definition of evaluation criteria and algorithm. To determine the source of water karsticity of the springs fed from the Paraw-Bisetun aquifer, to perform hydrological and hydrochemical calculations related to them, and to prepare their Piper diagrams, the RockWare Aq.Qa and the PHREEQC software were used to calculate the saturation ratio. The Fill Sink method was used to extract the sinkhole from a 10 meter DEM of the study area and field observations were performed to identify the surface karst geomorphology, to record the position of landforms and to verify the accuracy of the results of the Fill Sink method. Investigation of the hydrochemical characteristics of the outlet springs of the Paraw-Bisetun aquifer indicates the calcific facies and the carbonate type of these springs, relevant to their karstic origin. Also, the molar ratio determination indicates that low durability of water in the aquifer and reflects the presence of limestone in the feeding area of the springs. According to the final map of the KARSTLOP model, the percentage of feeding aquifer is between 44.2 and 88.7%, of which 70-80% of the area with the highest area is 65% of the area, corresponding to its central regions spanning from north-west to south-east. Subsequently, the 60-70 percent floor, with an area of 24 percent, is in line with the margins of the aquifer. The floor with a nutritional level of more than 80 percent is located in the upper high point and parts of the plain areas of the other mountains of the region, which is in accordance with the rock outcrop of the Bisetun carbonate formation with the highest density of faults. In general, it can be deduced that the aquifer of Paraw-Bisetun has a high nutritional potential due to carbonate rocks outcrop and without soil cover in most of the regions, so that about 96% of the aquifer area has a 60% higher nutritional potential. The high percentage of nutrition of the aquifer and the distribution of spatial areas of the feeding area, which indicates the dominance of centralized penetration by the sinkholes and vertical caves in the highlands, suggests that for the discussion of contamination and its prevention, it requires conservation and management plans. The high percentage of nutrition of the aquifer and the distribution of spatial areas of the feeding area, which indicates the dominance of centralized penetration by the sinkholes and vertical caves in the highlands, suggests that for the discussion of contamination and its prevention, it requires conservation and management plans. The high percentage of nutrition of the aquifer and the distribution of spatial areas of the feeding area, which indicates the dominance of centralized penetration by the sinkholes and vertical caves in the highlands, suggests that for the discussion of contamination and its prevention, it requires conservation and management plans. The high percentage of nutrition of the aquifer and the distribution of spatial areas of the feeding area, which indicates the dominance of centralized penetration by the sinkholes and vertical caves in the highlands, suggests that for the discussion of contamination and its prevention, it requires conservation and management plans.
    Keywords: karst, Water resources, Paraw-Bisetun aquifer, Recharge, KARSTLOP model
  • Masoumeh Gholami, Ezzatollah Ghanavati *, Ali Ahmadabadi Pages 16-33
    Landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) is a proper method to predicting landslide hazard risk in order to reducing its consequences. We prepared the LSM mapping of Kan basin by used of index of Entropy model and SVM-S. The validation of the produced maps is evaluated by used of the area under the curve ROC. Study area The study area is located on the north west of Tehran Province, between 35°46′ and 35°58′ N latitude and 51°10′ to 51°23′ E longitude. The area of the basin is 204.385 km2 (Figure. 2 (a)). Material and methods In the present study we used of 8 parameters consisting the distance from river, distance from fault, distance from road, land use, rainfall, aspect, slope, elevation, and lithology. Distance from the road was computed from the road at the interval 200 m using ArcGIS software (Fig.2f). The distance from road and distance from fault was calculated in same way (Figure. 2 d, h). The land use map has reclassified to 5 class (Figure.2g). The lithology parameter has been obtained by the reclassification of the geological map of Tehran at the scale of 1:100000 (Figure.2h). The digital elevation model (DEM) was extracted from the 1:50000 scale topographic maps. The parameters of slope degree (whit 5 classes), aspect layer were produced by used of the digital elevation model. (Figure.2c & d). The topography layer was reclassified into 5 class (Fig.2a). the introduced layers were used in this study according to the type of the models to produce of LSM maps. Entropy index Entropy is a measurement of the instability, imbalance, and uncertainty of a system (yang et al, 2010). The equations used to calculate the information coefficient dj representing the weight value for the parameter as a whole, are given as follows: pij=xij/(∑_(i=1)^m▒xij ) (1) (2) Ej= -k+∑_(i=1)^m▒pij ln⁡(pij) K=〖c(lnm)〗^(-1) (3) ((4 dj = EJ – 1 After calculating the total weight (wj) using Equation 5, the landslide risk of the case study is evaluated: (5) Hi = ∑_(i=1)^m▒xij In equation 5, H is the coefficient of landslide risk, wj is the final weigh of all the factors and Xij is the weight of each factor (zongji et al, 2010). The final landslide susceptibility map was prepared by the summation of weighted products of the secondarily parametric maps. H = (S×0/54) + (Df × 0/74) + (E × 0/082) + (Dr × 0/51) + (Dri × 0/51) + (A × 0/066) + (lu × 0/16) + (Lt × 0/0064) Support Vector Machine SVM algorithm as one of the most popular methods for solving regression problems has had significant results in landslide sensitivity zoning. consider a set of linear separable training vectors Xi (i = 1, 2, . . ., n). The training vectors consist of two classes, which are denoted as Yi = ±1. The goal of SVM is to search an n-dimensional hyperplane differentiating the two classes by their maximum gap. Mathematically, it can be expressed as: 1⁄2=∥w^2∥ (6) Y_i=((W.X_i )+)≥1 (7) A Lagrangian formulation is introduced to solve the problem (equation 8). Thus, the goal is now to minimize the Lagrangian L with to W and b and maximize with respect to λi. For this reason, we used of following equation: L=1/2∥w^2∥-∑_(i=1)^n▒Y^i ((W.X_i )+b)-1) (8) four types of SVM is existed: linear, polynomial, radial basis function (RBF) and sigmoid. The mathematical representation of each kernel (linear, polynomial, radial basis function, and sigmoid) is listed below, respectively: K (X_j 〖.X〗_i )= X_j^i.X_j K (X_j 〖.X〗_i )=(γ∙ X_j^i+r) ._ γ>0 K (X_j 〖.X〗_i )=e^(-γ〖(X_i-X_j)〗^2 ) ._ γ>0 tanh (γ .X_i^T. X_j+r) γ, d, and r are user-controlled parameters, as their correct definition significantly increases the accuracy of the SVM solution. In the present research we used of Sigmoid function. To measure the validation of the models, we used of a relative ROC by comparing the existing landslide location with the two landslide susceptibility maps. The success rate curves were obtained by used of the 70% training dataset (29 landslide locations). ROC curve (AUC) represents the quality of the probabilistic model (it is ability to predict the occurrence or nonoccurrence of an event). Result and discussion The area of the low, moderate, and high classes based on the SVM model were found to be 109.485 km2, 38.7 km2, and 56.2 km2, respectively, whereas based on landslide susceptibility map by used of index of entropy, the 118.175 of the study area has low susceptibility risk, and the moderate, and high susceptibility zones have the 41.2 km2, 45.02 km2 of the study area, respectively (Fig. 3). Based on the entropy model, the 8 numbers of the landslides points located on the high-risk zone and the 8 numbers of the landslide points located on the moderate risk zone and low risk zone have 10 of the landslide points. Based on the LSM map produced by the SVM-S model, the 13 numbers of the landslide points located on the high risk zone and the 5 number of the landslide point located on the moderate-risk zone. The ROC plot assessment reveals that the AUC in the susceptibility map based on the index of entropy model was 0.86 and the AUC in the susceptibility map based on the Logistic Regression model was 0.91 (Fig. 5). Conclusion The high-risk zone on the LSM map produced by the SVM model is located in the north east and the west and south of the basin and based on the LSM map produced by the Entropy model is located in the north east and the south of the basin. The LSM map has produced in a regional scale, so further study need be carried out at the site-specific level to determine the exact extent site of the slope instability. Keywords: LSM, Index of Entropy model, Kan basin, Support Vector Machine, Sigmoid function, SVM-SIGMOID.
    Keywords: Landslide Susceptibility Map (LSM), Index of Entropy model, Kan basin, Support vector machine (SVM)
  • Behzad Miladi, Amjad Maleki *, Mohammad Ahmadi Pages 34-51
    Introduction One of the proper methods for utilizing water resources is the use of subsurface water in coarse gravel sediments by the construction of underground dams. Underground dam is a structure that blocks flow of subsurface water in alluvial deposits, which makes it easy to store water in porous layers and make the use of this water easier. Locating the site of underground dams requires extensive studies. The importance of locating due to impact of many criteria and factors such as hydrological and meteorological criteria, general geology, stratigraphic layering and permeability, topography, groundwater status and socio-economic factors. It takes a lot of time and money to study these factors using traditional methods. River grade, shape of the valley, volume of river runoff received, subsurface water quantity, depth of the bedrock to the surface of the earth, the high volume of alluvium in determining the location of the underground base are very important Locations with faults, spring and wells are inappropriate areas. The purpose of this research is identify suitable sites for construction of underground dams in the North-west of Kermanshah province as a region with appropriate rainfall in the wet season and abundant water requirement in dry season. In this research, with using decision support system (DSS) method, according to the factors and conditions in the study area, removal of step by step inappropriate places has been done. At the end, among appropriate sites, the suitable sites was determined. In this study, the thickness of sedimentary layers has been calculated using satellite images and trigonometric relationships with the least cost and credible accuracy. Using the drawing of altitudes and surface elevations buffer for streams, valleys with a standard width were identified. Methodology In the first stage of  this study, the digital elevation model (DEM) layer with 12M pixel size for study area was provide. Using it, areas with 0 to 5% slope classes were extracted and other areas were deleted. Using DEM and ARC INFO software, a layer of streams was created and overlaid with the slope layer. Streams with 0 to 5% bed slope were extracted. This new layer overlaid with the fault layer and the streams with fault in their beds were removed. It is economical to construct an underground dam in the local area of ​​the streams, with a maximum width and depth of the valley not more than 15 meters. For greater accuracy, a 60-meters surface buffer (30meters from the center of the stream to each side) was determined in the ARC GIS environment for the streams. Using ARC INFO software, a 15-meters altitude buffer was also drawn up for the streams. These two buffer were overlaid and the interleaved sites were extracted as appropriate valleys. For match the extraction points with the actual situation in the area, using the information layer of the villages, topographic maps and Google Earth software extraction points from the overlying surface of the elevation and surface were examined. In order to identify the sediment surface of the streams and their bedrock, extraction point sites overlaid with a 1: 1000000 geological layer of area and locations in inappropriate geological formations were removed for non-permeability. At the last stage, thickness of the sediments that were considered almost suitable at the field visit stage was calculated using the trigonometric relationships. Results and discussion Based on the initial result of overlaying of altitude and surface privacy (as an innovative operation), 257 locations were identified for the construction underground dams. Since this point of the sites is initial, based on local conditions, were examined. Using the topographic map of 1: 50000 area and villages of the region, points were evaluated. The point of a location located more than 500 meters from residential areas and agricultural lands was removed from the final map. Determination of the distance between the underground dams and residential areas depends on the topographic conditions. Forzieri et al. (2008) considered up to 15 km distance in Mali and Haji Azizi et al. (1390) 5 km distance from residential areas. At the end of this stage, number of suitable locations dropped from 257 to 33. With overlaying of the layers of the appropriate points with geological map, from a total of 33 points, 5 points were eliminated due to presence of dissolved formations (limestone) and the lack of coarse grained sediment for water storage. At the field visit, total of 33 locations were evaluated and verified. In terms of proper valley width to construct underground dams, the accuracy of the whole point of the area was confirmed. Regarding the suitability of seasonal flows for the construction underground dams, in the field survey and survey of hydrometric station data in the region, 10 other points due to being in permanent rivers were eliminated from the total points. Alluvium thickness has a direct and large impact on the volume of water stored in the reservoir (Mohebi e Tafreshi et al., 2014). According to studies, the thickness of 5 to 20 meters of sediment is suitable for construction underground in the study area. So, calculating the thickness of the sediment, 6 other site points were removed due to the unsuitable thickness of the sediments. Conclusion Based on the results of this study, 11 suitable spot locations were determined. By constructing underground dams in these areas, it is possible to store sub-surface water from the rain that goes unused, and in dehydrated seasons for drinking, agricultural irrigation, and the creation of new agricultural lands Used. In field studies, at the foot some of slopes, there were a lot of gravel. If, in one place, all conditions for the construction underground dam without adequate thicknesses are provided, it is possible to carry these deposits to the desired location to provide a suitable reservoir for storing water in that location.
    Keywords: underground dams, Locating, Decision support system, north-west of Kermanshah province
  • Mehran Maghsoudi *, Ebrahim Moghimi, Mojtaba Yamani, Nasser Rezaei, Anvar Moradi Pages 52-69
    Geomorphodiversity Investigation of Damavand volcano and its surroundings based on the GmI Index Extended Abstract Introduction Geomorphodiversity defined as “the critical and specific assessment of the geomorphological features of a territory, by comparing them in an extrinsic and in intrinsic way, taking into account the scale of investigation, the purpose of the research and the level of scientific quality”. Area with high geomorphodiversity can provide a wide range of services, including provisioning (food products), regulating (erosion regulation) and supporting (land and water as a platform for human activities). The geomorphodiversity of Damavand volcano and its surroundings require special attention to identification, management and conservation, prevent degradation and construction in vulnerable areas. Promoted recognition of Geomorphodiversity can provide useful information about the management of geomorphological heritage and how to better protect them against destructive human activities and environmental hazards. Also, the preparation of Geomorphodiversity maps, the identification of areas with high potential for regional development and geotourism, provide comprehensive information for designers, planners and responsible organizations in these areas and create solutions for the environmental complexities of the study area; therefore The main objective of the present study is identification and quantitative assessment of geomorphodiversity and the preparation of geomorphodiversity maps of the study area. Methodology Damavand volcano was inscribed as Iran's first natural property in the national heritage list at the Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization on July 3, 2008. The data of this research include geology, drainage network, slope, roughness and landforms, which are related to the evolution of the physical landscape of the study area. Landsat satellite imagery, thematic maps, DEM10 meter, etc. are used to achieve the goals. In this study, geomorphodiversity quantitative index has been used for analyzing the results and the results has been validated by comparing with geomorphology map and field control. Geomorphodiversity index (GMI) is presented by Melelli et al. (2017). The value of geomorphodiversity is calculated from the sum of five factors including geological diversity, drainage network density diversity, roughness diversity, slope position index diversity, landform category diversity. All of them are grids of different terrain parameters. Results and discussion In the geomorphodiversity of the study area, the V1 class is 1.05%, V2, 25.84%, V3, 37.17%, V4, 22.14% and V5, 4.84% of the total area of the region. Distribution of geomorphodiversity of the study area is mainly related to the topography condition; the lowest value of the geomorphodiversity (V1) is related to the Damavand volcano cone, especially the lava plain in the northwest. The highest value of geomorphodiversity (V5) extends along the valley of Haraz, where different types of geomorphological processes are meeting, such as fluvial, glacial, hillslope, igneous, tectonic and etc. In other words, increasing the value of geomorphodiversity along the Haraz valley can be interpreted as a result of the frequency of the geomorphological processes presence. Validation results also showed that there is a good correlation between the geomorphodiversity index value, the number of different types of landforms and the average number of landforms. The most extensive area with the lowest value of geomorphodiversity is located in the northwest of Damavand and in the Sardagh plain. Along the Haraz valley, which has the highest geomorphodiversity, there are different types of landforms, including river terraces, lake terraces, landslide, talus, basaltic prisms, deep valleys, travertine landforms, high channel density and so on. In general, in the study area, the high value of geomorphodiversity is mainly located at the meeting place of Damavand volcanic lava with rivers. Conclusion The geomorphodiversity of Damavand volcano and its surroundings are one of the most important fortunes in the region. Geomorphological landforms have been maximized in these areas and offer a unique geomorphological complex. The geomorphological landforms density in these areas are maximized and provide a unique geomorphological collection. Areas with high geomorphodiversity are rich and unique collection of different types of landforms and geomorphological processes that require special attention for geotourism, scientific-educational, national and world heritage, geopark, and so on. In addition, the determination of areas with high geomorphodiversity is another way to promoting geomorphological heritage; In other words, geomorphodiversity are the backbone for identifying and assessing geomorphological heritage for various purposes of geotourism, national and world heritage, geopark, conservation of geomorphological heritage. To ensure that the values of these areas can be preserved for current and future generations, managing and conserving them is very important. Nevertheless, studies of geomorphodiversity are at an early stage and need more help and reflection by geomorphologists in collaboration with other researchers in the Earth sciences. Keywords; Geomorphodiversity, Landform, Geomorphological heritage, Quantitative assessment, Damavand volcano
    Keywords: Geomorphodiversity, Landform, quantitative assessment, Damavand volcano
  • Mousa Abedini *, Ahad Ranjbari, Davoud Mokhtari Pages 70-88
    Extended Abstract Introduction Earthquakes and landslides are the most harmful natural disasters that have synchronization and time and space correlation with each other. This study was carried out in seismic zone affected by Arasbaran earthquake (Qaradagh), in which there were a lot of casualties and destruction. On 11 August 2012, the Varzeghan twin Earthquakes [Mw 6.4 and 6.2] struck Varzeghan, Ahar and Heris region in NW of Iran. It killed more than 306 people and a large number of people were injured and has caused increment in slope instability, and transformation of geomorphic processes into risk factors. Methodology In this research, landslide susceptibility was zonated by using two models of analytic network process (ANP) and logistic regression in Qoshadagh fault system and an appropriate model was introduced. Our analysis of geohazards distribution allowed evaluation of geomorphic, climate- hydrologic, human-land use and morphologic controls on earthquake-induced-land sliding, process mechanisms, and hazard process chains, particularly where they affected local populations. For this study, both the Sentinel-2A MSI and Landsat-8 OLI data (2017) were used. Fourteen effective factors of landslide (Lithology, Land use, Fault, DEM, Climate, Aspect, TWI, SPI, Slope, Road, River, Rain, LS & Soil) were generated in ArcGIS, and then weight of each factor was determined in Super Decisions software, and final zonation maps were regained from ArcGIS afterward. Results and discussion After preparing the standard maps and options, the network analysis method (ANP) and logistic regression were used to investigate the susceptibility of land slides. In order to implement the network analysis process, the related criteria layers were developed in ArcGIS software. Then, in the SuperDisign software environment, the main model of the network analysis process was designed based on completed questionnaires by the experts. Then, a logistic regression model was used to analyze the spatial relationship between the land slide event and the effective factors in this event. The maps related to the factors affecting the land slides of the study area, which are independent variables in the land slide event, were introduced into Idrisi-Selva software and processed for logistic regression modeling. Landslide distribution layers in the area were also converted to the binary map 0 and 1 by the Calculator Image function. This means that the slip pixels on the map are shown with the number 1 (slipping) of non-slip pixels with 0 (no slip). Finally, after entering the data into the logistic regression model, the coefficients of the model are extracted using the effective parameters in the Idrisi-Selva software. Distance from the fault and precipitation factors had the most, and Land Use Factor had the least effect on landslide occurrences. Occurrence of 62.2% and 71.1% of landslides in high and very high risk classes in ANP and logistic regression, respectively, indicated an acceptable accuracy for landslide prediction maps. Validation results of methods with ROC index showed that AUC of the maps in model was 85.52%, and in analytic network model it was 81.35%, with a standard error of 0.06; while both represented a very good predictive capability Conclusion The purpose of the present study was to study the ability of this model in comparison to other methods, in addition to modeling the sensitivity of Earthquake-Induced-Landslides using the network analysis method (ANP). Therefore, effective factors in the field of scaling were identified and in the Super Decision software environment, the weight of each factor was determined. Then, the weights received in ArcGIS software environment were converted to the final map of the zoning of the landslide. Accordingly, among the fourteen effective factors in the occurrence of landslides in the area, the distance from the fault has the most effective factor in the two models (ANP) and (LR) and has the highest coefficient of effect on land-slip occurrence while land use in Both models have the lowest coefficient. As expected, the main faults, in particular the fault and the fault lines, and interspersed with the twin Arasbaran earthquakes, as well as the northern and northeastern slopes, are more susceptible to instability. The map of the model implementation categorized the susceptibility of earth sculpting in 5 classes with very low, moderate, high and very sensitive sensitivity. Very high and high risk classes have been shown to be 6.6% and 13.4% of the area of the region, prone to hazardous landslides. These results show a high correlation and correlation with the model implemented in the logistic regression method, which is 5.8% and 17.7%, respectively. The occurrence of 62.2% and 71.1% of landslides in high and very high risk classes, respectively, in ANP and logistic regression, indicate the acceptable accuracy of predicted maps for landslide. The results indicate that ANP methods and logistic regression are accurate in the study of landslide in the area affected by the Arasbaran earthquake. Logistic Regression model had better results. Using these methods together and comparing them with regard to the dependencies of landslip issues can be very useful for identifying areas prone to landslide. As suggested, these methods have acceptable results in analyzing the sensitivity to landslides. The highest density of landslides, even old landslides, are not accidental in the two-axis seismic centers with magnitudes of 6.4 and 6.2 in 2012, indicating a history of seismicity and high tectonic activity in the area. Keywords: Analytical Hierarchy Process, Logistic Regression, Landslide hazard zonation, Arasbaran earthquake, Qoshadagh Fault Zone.
    Keywords: Analytical Hierarchy Process, logistic regression, Landslide Hazard Zonation, Arasbaran earthquake, Qoshadagh Fault Zone
  • Abolghasem Goorabi *, Afsaneh Ehdaei, Arefe Shabani Araghi Pages 89-104
    Introduction due to  the phenomenon of global warming that we are facing today, studies of glacier areas, and sub glacier and its effects are of particular importance, because by examining the  past climate,   future  theclimate change processes are better analyzed. One of the most important climatic heritage of the 4th era in Iran's highlands is glacier geomorphology and its glacier phenomenon. Climate change is one of the most characteristic features of the Quaternary period. Landforms have changed a lot during this period. Due to the warm and dry climatic conditions in central Iran and the presence of glacial landforms which shows the cold and wet climate in the past, we decided to study the current climatic conditions in the region with the aim of studying the past climate conditions. Location of study area   Shirkouh Highlands are located in 40 kilometers south-southwest of Yazd. Shirkouh is the most important infiltration mass of Central Iran. The mid-Jurassic Batulite of Shirkuh consists of three major units:  granodiorite, monzogranite and leukogranite. Shirkouh mountainous has created two different worlds of climate at a short distance in its environs. The location of Shirkouh elevations in the direction of northwest-southeast is like a long wall against the air masses and it is a temperature moderator in the region. Methodology   In the present study, first, by identifying the glacial landforms (circuses, moraines), the boundaries and extent of the last glacial period in the Shirkouh Mountains were determined and then by discovering their local-spatial relationship with climatic (temperature and precipitation) and morphological (elevation and direction and gradient) parameters, the temperature drop in the time of glaciers existence and the amount of ELA have been determined. In the first step, by using Digital Elevation Models (SRTM 30 meters from the American Geological Survey) and 10 meters DEM of the organization of mapping of Iran and the Google Earth image, the position of the circuses has been determined and then, their accuracy has been verified by field surveys. In the next step, the correlations between the quantitative characteristics of the glacial landforms with morphological (elevation, slope, slope direction) and climatic parameters (temperature and precipitation of14 weather stations of the region from 1985 to 2008) have been determined. Then, the amount of drop in temperature required to form a glacier in the last glacial period in the mountainous area has been calculated by comparing the current and the past ELA. Discussion and results Detection of glacial phenomenon of the Shirkouh area: Based on the circus reflected in topographic maps and satellite imagery (Google Earth) and field surveys in the Shirkouh mountains, 62 circuses were identified.  Due to the Wright method by passing 60% of the glacier circus location in the Shirkouh region, the Quaternary snow line is located at an altitude of 2491 m. This line represents the height of the zero-degree companion in the glacial period, by which we can reconstruct the past temperature conditions. Field observations in the Shirkouh region confirm the existence of glacial conditions such as circuses, glacier valleys and moraines. Based on the meteorological data and current climatic conditions, the current zero-degree temperature line is at 5438 m height, above the peak. According to the temperature equation, the past snow line is situated in the range of 22 centigrade degree of today’s temperature.  Regarding the paleo climate of the region: the distribution of circuses is different in Shirkouh altitudes. the highest number of circuses have northeast, north, west and east direction and the smallest of them have southeast and southern slope direction, respectively. The lowest circuses are situated in the range of 1800 to 1900 meters and the highest of them are located in the altitude range of 3800 to 3900 meters. Conclusion With the studies of the prior researches, including the Hagedorn, the glacier processes at this region were identified at the height of 1925 to 2240 meters in the Quaternary   and Moraines have also been seen at a height of 1600 meters. According to the fact that during the past decades we are facing with the global warming, due to the amount of annual snowfall and the lack of glaciers feeding, in contrary to the Quaternary period, today, we are no facing with the glacial processes in the Central parts of Iran. due to  the phenomenon of global warming that we are facing today, studies of glacier areas, and sub glacier and its effects are of particular importance, because by examining the  past climate,   future  theclimate change processes are better analyzed. One of the most important climatic heritage of the 4th era in Iran's highlands is glacier geomorphology and its glacier phenomenon.
    Keywords: Glacial Processes, Snow line, Circus, Quaternary, Shirkouh of Yazd
  • Afshin Honarbakhsh *, Ali Niazi, Said Soltani, Pejman Tahmasebi Pages 105-117
    Introduction Soil erosion and sedimentation are one of the most important environmental , agricultural issues and food production in the world. Soils that are eroded by runoff rain drops are transported to the rivers and released from the catchment areas. Therefore, regional analysis of the sediment load of rivers, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, and its relation to the characteristics of watersheds is very important in estimating the amount of erosion and sediment. Dez Dam Basin is one of the important catchments of the western part of the country in terms of water, energy and agricultural production. Dez river collecting runoff from vast areas of Lorestan, Isfahan, Khuzestan, Chaharmahal Bakhtiari and central provinces, and after watering it into the plains of its route to the Karoon River. The lack of sufficient number of sedimentation stations and the limitation of the number of statistical years as well as the low number of flood sampling during the outbreak of the Dez river indicate the importance of this study in modeling the suspended sediment estimation in the Dez dam basin. Therefore, the aim of this study is to model the relationship between the amount of suspended sediment load with hydrological characteristics and the environment of the dam dam. Matarials and methods The catchment area of the Dez River in the middle Zagros Mountains and between the geographic coordinates is 17 ° 31 and 15 ° 34, the northern latitudes are 17 ° 48 and 50 ° 50, respectively. The watershed of the Dez River is considered to be part of the Persian Gulf watershed for the general classification of the watersheds of Iran. The dominant climate in the study area is warm, dry and semi-arid soils. The average annual rainfall of the basin is 670.5 mm. The annual temperature varies from 6.7 to 24.4 degrees Celsius. The Dez River is more than 500 km long in the main drainage of the Dez Basin. For this purpose, 22 sedimentation stations were selected at the upstream of the Dez dam. 16 stations were used to develop suspended sediment estimation models. Then the developed models were validated with the information of 6 other sediment stations. Based on the suggestions of past studies, 15 different physiographic, climatic and hydrological features were considered as input parameters in modeling estimation of suspended sediments. Height, area and basin environment were obtained from maps of 1: 25000 scale with the use of ArcGis9.3 software. The average slope of the watercourses and basins was extracted from the DEM map. The average annual precipitation and average rainfall of rainy and floody days of the year included Azar, Di, Bahman, Esfand, Farvardin and May. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to select the most important parameters. The stations were then divided into two homogeneous groups based on the selected parameters and cluster analysis. Finally, the models were developed step by step using the multivariate regression method. R2, error rate (RE) and mean error (ME) were used to evaluate the models. Result and discussion The results showed that the sub-basin of the Takht-Dareh valley with an average of 1256 tons per year is the lowest and the tele-alarm-dose basin has the highest suspended sediment with 8800919 tons per year. Based on the results of the analysis of the main components, four factors of annual discharge with a weight of 94, average annual rainfall with a weight of 88, Horton coefficient with a weight of 90/0 and average height of the basin with a weight of 0.93, the most important parameters Estimates of sediment were suspended. According to the effective factors, sub-basin groups were grouped using cluster analysis. According to the cluster composition at 25, sub-basins were classified into two homogeneous groups. Suspended sediment estimation models were developed based on four factors and using stepwise stepwise multivariable regression method. All developed models in the homogeneous region 1 have more R2 coefficients than those developed in homogeneous region 2. The results of the evaluation of the models showed that the developed model using the four factors with 8% = RE, t ME= 25375 t ya-1, and R2 = 0.93 had the best performance and the least percentage of estimated error. The results also showed that Dubai was the most influential parameter on suspended sediment estimation models annually. Conclusion The purpose of this study was to model the relationship between the environmental characteristics of the Dez dam basin and the amount of sediment suspended in this river basin using stepwise multivariate regression method. The results also showed that the regression model derived from all four factors of annual discharge, average height of the basin, horton coefficient and mean rainfall, with the highest determination coefficient (R2 = 0.93), the lowest error (RE = 8%) and the lowest mean error (ME=125375 t ya-1) has a very good performance in estimating suspended sediments. In general, it can be said that the combined use of principal component analysis, cluster analysis and multivariate regression There is an appropriate and acceptable efficiency step in estimating suspended sediments.
    Keywords: Suspended sediment load, Regression, Horton coefficient, Soil erosion
  • Shahram Roostaei, Davood Mokhtari, Khalil Valizadeh Kamran, Leila Khodaei Geshlag * Pages 118-129
    Extended Abstract:
    Introduction
    In general, satellite data classification with digital interpretation method is separation of similar spectral sets and classification of images into groups or classes placed in each class, spectrum or a value (not being separable statistically). In other words, when a classification is carried out on data sets or images, in fact spectral classification is conducted and in the new image, every class or category is indicator of a specific phenomenon with a unit spectral value. The base for data classification is comparison of spectral value of picture pixels with the samples introduced by its interpreter or with initial classes and   categories, constituted automatically in the time of digital interpretation. Hence, the pixels, values of which are not statistically significant, are placed in the same spectral group or class. So, preparation of land use maps by digital classification of remote data sensing depends on the methods used in classification, land coverage condition and environmental condition of the area. The aim of the present research study is to compare pixel-based classification algorithm (maximum likelihood) with object-based method (support vector machine) to prepare land use maps with the aid of SPOT5 satellite HDR image sensor and Landsat 8 satellite OLI image sensor in Ahar Chai basin from Ahar area to Varzegan. Methods and materials: In this research study a SPOT5 satellite HDR image sensor dated back to August 23, 2006 with four spectral bands and separation power of 10 m with path and passage 138-272, 138-273, 139-272 and 139-273 and Landsat 8 satellite OLI image sensor dated back to 2017/07/21 with route and passage 168-33, isolation power of 30m, increased to 15m through combination with band 8 were used to collected the necessary data. Topography map at scale 1/50000 and geological maps of 1/100000, land control data harvested by GPS, Garmin model and ArcGIS 10.4.1 and ENVI 5.3 software were used in this study. Information extraction from remote sensing data especially land cover can be obtained by digital classification. In practical some people are more comfortable using visual interpretation to retrieve land cover information. However, it is highly influenced by subjectivity and knowledge of interpreter, also takes time in the process. Digital classification can be done in several ways, depend on the defined mapping approach and assumptions on data distribution. The study compared several classifiers method for some data type at the same location. Maximum likelihood Classifiers (MLC) which use pixel-based and object-based classification using advanced supervised machine-learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machine (SVM).Therefore, the aim of the present research is to compare maximum likelihood in pixel-based processing and support vector machine algorithm in object-based processing in order to evaluate their performance in classification of LANDSAT 8 and SPOT 5   satellite images.  The necessary pre-processing including geometrical corrections and atmosphere corrections were conducted on the image. Discussion and
    conclusion
    Findings of the study indicated that both support vector machine algorithm in object-based classification and maximum likelihood in pixel-based classification enjoy higher and appropriate accuracy in classification and exploration of land use maps for Ahar-Varzegan area. However, considering the results obtained from the two algorithms used in this research, it can be concluded that   support vector machine algorithm in object-based classification of satellite images provide the conditions for higher accuracy compared to maximum likelihood in pixel-based method. One of the main reasons of achieving higher accuracy in support vector machine algorithm classification is that in this algorithm, in addition to spectral data the data related to contexture, shape, position and content are also used in classification process, hence classification accuracy is increased significantly. After doing classification procedure using both algorithms of pixel and object-based method we proceeded on evaluation of the results reliability in them
    Conclusion
    The results showed that, Findings obtained from both classification algorithms indicated higher accuracy of object-based classification with total accuracy of 94.99 % and Kappa coefficient for exploration of land use of Ahar-Varzegan area, this is while pixel-based classification with total accuracy of 89.39% and Kappa coefficient of 0.89% indicated acceptable level of classification. So that Feizizadeh et.al (2009) in exploration of East Azerbaijan land use with the aid of the two pixel-based and object-based algorithms concluded that object-based classification with total accuracy of 95.10 % has higher efficiency in exploration of the province land use compared to pixel-based classification with total accuracy of 88.37%.
    Keywords: Remote Sensing, Pixel-based Classification, Object-based Method, Ahar-Varzegan
  • Amir Saffari *, Amir Karam, Samad Shadfar, Mahdi Ahmadi Pages 130-146
  • Mohammad Hossein Rezaei Moghaddam *, Asadollah Hejazi, Abdollah Behbodi Pages 147-159
    Estimation of erosion caused by ephemeral gullies with EGEM model in Lanbaran basin, Ahar Chay Abstract Gully erosion is one of a variety of geomorphic phenomena. Every year, this phenomenon causes lots of damage to agricultural land, rangeland and roads. Identifying the causes and modeling it play an important role in the management of catchment areas. One of the types of gully erosions is the ephemeral gully erosion. Currently, the only model that can assess this type of erosion is the EGEM model. Therefore, the study area has been observed since 2008 after rainfall. The data needed to implement the EGEM model was collected. SPSS and Excel softwares were used for quantitative analysis. According to the analysis of the measured parameters and the results of the model, the highest correlation coefficient exists among the estimated and measured depth, cross-sectional area, volume and width with the corresponding correlation coefficients of 0.849, 0.845, 0.818 and 814/0. Keywords: ephemeral gully – Lanbarn – Ahar Chai - EGEM model Introduction One of the most important types of erosions is gully erosion. This type of erosion causes significant changes in agricultural lands in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, and has harmful economic and social consequences (Esmaeiliy et al., 2015). (Kheir, et al., 2006; Marker, et al., 2008; Desmet, et al., 1999). Gully erosion is among the most important and complex types of erosion for the control of which the effective factors need to be identified (Ahmadi, 2011; 243). Gully growth is often considered as a major measure of environmental change, because its growth is not rapid and is not a common cause of erosion (Bayati Khatybi; 2004; 54). And because of the concentration of water flow in small grooves, a large volume of fine grains can easily be displaced in a short time due to ghost erosion compared to other erosion factors (Ryan, 2010; 288). According to Poesen, the gullies are channels with a cross-sectional area of more than 929 centimeters. Of course, this term was first used by Hughes in 1977 (poesen; 2003; 94). This type of erosion causes a sharp decrease in soil fertility and the production of abundant sediment loads. Sedimentation on the path to human structures and their destruction are among the effects of this type of erosion (Esmaeiliy et al., 2015). Recent field-based studies in Europe have evidenced annual soil losses due to EG erosion ranging between 2 to 90 m3 hectares. (Poesen et al., 1996; Casal´ı et al., 1999; Capra and Scicolone, 2002; aygarden, 2003; Valca´rcel et al., 2001). Material and Methods The sub-basin of Lanbarn is located on the eastern side of the Aharchay River. The area of this sub-basin is 20118 hectares and it is considered as the main stream of the Aharchay river. The basin was fielded between 1378 and 1395 after rainfall. There occur ephemeral gullies in this area in autumn, summer and spring, especially with heavy rainfall. Therefore, to study the ephemeral gullies, the required parameters were collected from 70 ephemeral gullies. To collect the data, field observations, GIS software and a GPS device were used. GIS, Excel and SPSS softwares were also used for processing. Results and discussion According to the results of the model, the highest correlation coefficient was observed among estimated and measured depth, estimated and measured cross-sectional area, estimated volume and measured volume, and estimated and measured widths. Therefore, the model predicts the cross-sectional area, the volume and the width of the ephemeral gullies efficiently. Also, regarding the effect of morphometric characteristics of the gully, the area of the basin, the width, watershed length and concentrated flow length of the ephemeral gully play the most part in soil erosion. The depth and cross section of temporary gullies have the least impact on erosion. Conclusion - Ephemeral gullies in this area are mostly formed in agricultural land. The intensity of rainfall, the expansion of communication routes and the burning of vegetation play an important role in the development of ephemeral gullies. - The standard version of the EGEM model can be used in the catchment area of Lanbarn. - To achieve optimal results, this model should be used in other climatic regions of Iran. - In this basin, the drainage area, width, watershed length and concentrated flow length of gully play the most part in soil erosion. - The depth and cross section of ephemeral gullies have the least impact on the eroded soils in this area. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- -- --
    Keywords: Ahar Chay, ephemeral gully, Lanbarn, Erosion, EGEM model
  • Vahid Mohammadnejad, Sayyad Asghari *, Hadi Emami Pages 160-178
    Land use reflects the interactive characteristics of humans and the environment and describes how human exploitation works for one or more targets on the ground. Land use is usually defined on the basis of human use of the land, with an emphasis on the functional role of land in economic activities. In this research, a pixel-based method and object-oriented method for mapping the map of Maragheh city using ASTER sensor images in a 17-year time series were compared between 2000 and 2017. Also the effect of land use changes on erosion was studied. In order to compare the results, both methods used the same educational data for classification. Then, the most important methods for assessing accuracy including precision and kappa coefficient of classification were extracted, and it was determined that the result of the object-oriented classification was better than the 3% Offers. The increase in accuracy in a method based on object-oriented classification largely depends on choosing the appropriate parameters for classification, defining the rules, and applying the appropriate algorithm to obtain the degree of membership. After classifying and comparing the extracted maps, we attempted to reveal the changes that occurred during this period and it was determined, that the rangeland and Bayer classes have a decreasing trend and dense garden classes and water with increasing trend. According to the user-mapped maps of the two methods of maximum-likeness and object-oriented classification and comparison and adaptation of these maps with ground-based properties, the results of the object-oriented classification method were confirmed. According to the results of the study, with object-oriented method, in the Maragheh area, densely populated gardens, gardens, housing, housing, agriculture, industry, and communication in the object-oriented method have increased, and agronomic, pasture, dryland and Bayer uses Reduced area. This indicates the importance of agriculture and horticulture in this city. In 2000, 9.08 percent and 15.88 percent of study area are located in very high-risk and high-risk erodibility and these values for 2017 are 13.66 and 29.76 percent respectively. Also results showed that dense and low dense agricultural land, residential and industrial land use have been increased. The increase in accuracy in a method based on object-oriented classification largely depends on choosing the appropriate parameters for classification, defining the rules, and applying the appropriate algorithm to obtain the degree of membership. After classifying and comparing the extracted maps, we attempted to reveal the changes that occurred during this period and it was determined, that the rangeland and Bayer classes have a decreasing trend and dense garden classes and water with increasing trend. According to the user-mapped maps of the two methods of maximum-likeness and object-oriented classification and comparison and adaptation of these maps with ground-based properties, the results of the object-oriented classification method were confirmed. According to the results of the study, with object-oriented method, in the Maragheh area, densely populated gardens, gardens, housing, housing, agriculture, industry, and communication in the object-oriented method have increased, and agronomic, pasture, dryland and Bayer uses Reduced area. This indicates the importance of agriculture and horticulture in this city. In 2000, 9.08 percent and 15.88 percent of study area are located in very high-risk and high-risk erodibility and these values for 2017 are 13.66 and 29.76 percent respectively. Also results showed that dense and low dense agricultural land, residential and industrial land use have been increased. The increase in accuracy in a method based on object-oriented classification largely depends on choosing the appropriate parameters for classification, defining the rules, and applying the appropriate algorithm to obtain the degree of membership. After classifying and comparing the extracted maps, we attempted to reveal the changes that occurred during this period and it was determined, that the rangeland and Bayer classes have a decreasing trend and dense garden classes and water with increasing trend. According to the user-mapped maps of the two methods of maximum-likeness and object-oriented classification and comparison and adaptation of these maps with ground-based properties, the results of the object-oriented classification method were confirmed. According to the results of the study, with object-oriented method, in the Maragheh area, densely populated gardens, gardens, housing, housing, agriculture, industry, and communication in the object-oriented method have increased, and agronomic, pasture, dryland and Bayer uses Reduced area. This indicates the importance of agriculture and horticulture in this city. In 2000, 9.08 percent and 15.88 percent of study area are located in very high-risk and high-risk erodibility and these values for 2017 are 13.66 and 29.76 percent respectively. Also results showed that dense and low dense agricultural land, residential and industrial land use have been increased.
    Keywords: revealing of changes, Object-Oriented, maximal likelihood, Maragheh city, land use map
  • Hamid Kamrani Dalir * Pages 179-198
    Today, along with morphometric and distance-based methods based on the use of satellite imagery and digital elevation model (DEM), several algorithms have been developed to evaluate tectonic activities in the form of land-based software applications. This includes TecDEM software. (Shahzad and Golghoun, 2011). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the morphotectonic analysis of the catchment areas of the Karkas Mountains by using TecDEM-based geomorphic components and analyzing the digital elevation model and field evidence from the analysis of morphotectonic data. In this research, we tried to study the geomorphometric methods and comparative analysis of geomorphic phenomena in catchment areas. The effect of each of these basins on the tectonic movements of Qom-Zefreh's fault system by quantifying landform phenomena using the features of the single program, Check and evaluate. Concerning the right-angled motion of the right-strike motion components along with the vertical components of the fault system (QZFS), is the study of the research problem, have the surface dynamics and catchment areas in the studied area been uniformly affected by the tectonic processes of this system? On the other hand, have the changes of the pattern tectonic processes have affected the hydrogeomorphological model of catchment areas? Therefore, in this research, using the basic principles of geomorphic tectonics, the adaptation of land surface changes to changes in their shaping processes has been investigated.
    Keywords: Morphotectonic, Qom-Zferh fault zone, morphometric method, TecDEM2.0 algorithm
  • Cyrus Esmaeili *, Mohammad Mahdi Khatib, Hamid Nazari, Jean, Pierre Burg, Ebrahim Gholami Pages 199-216
    Introduction
    Tectonics play an important role in the evolution of large-scale gravitational phenomenon (Galadini, 2006), mainly through the formation of steep slopes. Competing tectonic and surface processes build and destroy topography in active orogens, hence, thrusting, crustal thickening and isostatic response result in rock uplift and relief production (Agliardi et al., 2013). In some cases, the faults play a primary role in increasing the local relief and their activity is an important geomorphic factor conditioning the gravitational movements (Galadini, 2006). We have studied this kind of gravitational movements and slope instabilities termed “Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD)”. This paper focuses on a study aimed at defining the role of structural setting, local uplift and morpho-structural evolution on the onset and development of a DSGSD that affects the western parts of the Siahcheshmeh pull-apart basin (SPAB) in a releasing bend of the Gailatu-Siah Cheshmeh-Khoy fault. DSGSD: DSGSDs are gravity-induced and large to extremely large mass movements generally affecting the entire length of high-relief slopes, extending up to 200–300 m in depth, which can frequently extend beyond the slope ridge and evolving over long periods of time. (Crosta et al., 2013). DSGSDs are not considered hazardous phenomena because they evolve very slowly. Despite their slow deformation rates, they can cause damage to surface and underground man-made structures (Soldati, 2013). The main feature that distinguishes DSGSDs from landslides is the absence of a continuous or well-defined sliding surface (Soldati, 2013) and discontinuous or poorly defined boundaries, both laterally and at their lower ends (Crosta et al., 2013). Gailatu-Siah Cheshmeh-Khoy fault: The 200 km long (Karakhanian et al., 2004; Berberian, 1977) Gailatu-Siah Cheshmeh-Khoy fault, with the same trend as the North Tabriz, Chaldiran, Nakhichevan and Pambak-Sevan-Syunik faults, is regarded as a part of the active strike-slip fault system in the Arabian and Eurasian collision zone, which extends from 42˚ E to 48˚ E with the Tutak and North-Tabriz faults in the west and east, respectively (Selçuk et al., 2016). This system includes a series of right-lateral strike-slip faults between the southern front of the Lesser Caucasus to the northeast and Bitlis-Zagros suture zone to the southwest. The available literature, fault plane solutions, offsets of various geomorphological and man-made features indicate the right-lateral strike-slip nature of the Gailatu-Siah Cheshmeh-Khoy fault. The trace of this fault is very obvious and displays a series of well-developed and preserved morphologic structures indicating recent activity of the fault, such as fault scarps and horizontal deflection in the Quaternary features, pull-apart basins, hot water springs and uplifted terrace deposits. Discussion and
    results
    Our geological and structural survey along the Gailatu-Siah Cheshmeh-Khoy fault confirms the presence of a large slope instability in the western flank of SPAB. In order to understand the relationship between the nucleation and evolving DSGSDs with structural aspects of this fault, we focused on slip rate of this fault in two segments, the Gailatu-Siahcheshmeh (northwestern sector of Gailatu-Siah Cheshmeh-Khoy fault) and the Siahcheshmeh-Khoy fault segments (Southeastern sector of Gailatu-Siah Cheshmeh-Khoy fault), which overlap at a right step-over in the SPAB. Along the Gailatu-Siahcheshmeh fault segment, Quaternary lavas, known as Maku basalts, form a few ridges that are elongated parallel to the strike of the fault and displaced as a result of this fault activity by ~ 725±50. Using the about 400 kyr published age of these basalts (Pb206/U238 and Ar40/Ar39 dating methods, Allen et al., 2011; Lechmann et al., 2018), a mean slip rate has been calculated 1/65 ± 0.1 mm/yr. On the Siahcheshmeh-Khoy fault segment, we excavated a trench to determine the fault geometry and its rake, and to assess recent offsets. Radiocarbon dating of the youngest deposits in the stream wall that displaced right-lateral by 42±4 m, yield 6764±283 calBC, suggest a horizontal slip rate of 4.6±0.3 mm/yr. The northwestern and southeastern terminations of Siahcheshmeh-Khoy fault segments form the eastern and western flanks of SPAB, respectively. Hence, the higher slip rate of Gailatu-Siahcheshmeh fault compared to Siahcheshmeh-Khoy fault, causes uplift of the western SPAB sectors. This is accompanied by thrust faulting in a general northwest-southeast direction as a splay configuration at the termination of Siahcheshmeh-Khoy fault. Consequently, local uplift has been taken place in the western flank of SPAB that is readily obvious from higher altitude of this flank relative to the eastern side. Therefore, DSGSDs have been occurring almost along the entire slopes facing the pull-apart basin. On the other hand, decreasing altitude in the SPAB in the releasing bend and normal faults are additional controlling and intensifying factors for DSGSD. As a result, most of the expected structural features, especially splay strands of Siahcheshmeh-Khoy fault and normal faults at the margin of SPAB, have been covered by DSGSD phenomena. Therefore, except at a small part of the southwest of SPAB, we could not find exposure of normal faults along the western flank.
    Keywords: Deep-seated gravitational slope deformation, Gailatu-Siahcheshmeh-Khoy fault, Siahcheshmeh pull-apart basin, Slip Rate, Slope instability