فهرست مطالب

مسکن و محیط روستا - پیاپی 164 (زمستان 1397)
  • پیاپی 164 (زمستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/01/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • فرهاد عزیزپور*، زهره صادقی صفحات 3-12
    طرح ویژه بهسازی مسکن روستایی بر اساس اهداف کلان برنامه چهارم توسعه کشور تدوین و هدف گذاری شده است. این طرح، متاخرترین و از مهمترین طرح های عمرانی کشور می باشد. طرحی که با هدف تامین مسکن مناسب، مقاوم روستایی، حفظ هویت معماری بومی، ارتقای بهداشت محیط، بهینه سازی مصرف انرژی و... شکل گرفت. در قالب این طرح مقرر گردیده است که نیمی از واحدهای مسکونی روستایی کشور (دو میلیون واحد)، توسط بنیاد مسکن انقلاب اسلامی نوسازی گردد. پژوهش حاضر با هدف ارزشیابی اثرات اجرای طرح مقاوم سازی مسکن روستایی در دهستان ابریشم تهیه شده است. روش پژوهش، توصیفی- تحلیلی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش حاضر دهستان ابریشم است که طرح ویژه بهسازی مسکن روستایی در آن اجرا شده است.  در این دهستان، حدود 318 نفر از مردم روستاهای مورد مطالعه از 3138 خانوار موفق به دریافت وام شدند. برای تعیین حجم نمونه از روش کوکران استفاده شد. برای انتخاب نمونه از روش های نمونه گیری طبقه ای و تصادفی استفاده شده است. بر اساس این روش، 94 خانوار به عنوان جامعه نمونه تعیین شدند. برای جمع آوری اطلاعات از روش های کتابخانه ای و میدانی و ابزار پرسشنامه استفاده گردیده است. برای تحلیل داده ها، از روش های آماری استنباطی نظیر آزمون فریدمن، آنوا و کولموگروف اسمیرنوف استفاده شده است. بر اساس یافته های تحقیق این نتیجه حاصل شد که تحولات کمی و کیفی بوجود آمده در واحدهای مسکونی جدید در انطباق با نیاز غالب روستاییان (خانوارهای نمونه) بوده است. طرح در عین برخورداری از اثرات مثبت در کمیت و کیفیت مسکن روستایی، از جنبه نوع نگرش و مدیریت اجرا نیازمند بازنگری و اصلاح است. نوآوری مقاله حاضر ، در بخش نتیجه آن است، زیرا نتیجه حاصل شده متفاوت با نتایج سایر پژوهش های انجام گرفته در این زمینه است. در سایر پژوهش ها، طرح مقاوم سازی مسکن ، زمینه تحول مسکن روستایی را به سمت مسکن شهری سوق داده و پیوستگی ساختاری- کارکردی در مسکن را متزلزل ساخته است. ولی تحقیق حاضر به نتیجه ای متفاوت در محدوده مورد مطالعه رسیده است.
    کلیدواژگان: مسکن، طرح ویژه بهسازی مسکن، توسعه مسکن، نواحی روستایی، دهستان ابریشم
  • فرزاد ویسی*، محمدصدیق قربانی، سیوان اسدی صفحات 13-26
    طرح هادی محلی ترین طرح توسعه در ایران است و تاب آوری از مباحث مهم در مدیریت مخاطرات در سطح روستا می باشد .با توجه به اینکه در اجرای طرح هادی اغلب اثر گذاری کالبدی مد نظر است پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی و تحلیل میزان اثرگذاری اجرای طرح های هادی روستایی در تغییر سطح تاب آوری کالبدی روستاهای شهرستان مریوان انجام گرفته است. پژوهش به لحاظ هدف، کاربردی و از حیث روش، توصیفی- تحلیلی است. گردآوری اطلاعات با استفاده از دو روش اسنادی در بخش نظری و مصاحبه و پرسشنامه در بخش میدانی بوده است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش روستاییان سرپرست خانوار ساکن در شهرستان مریوان هستند که طرح هادی در روستاهای آن ها اجرا گردیده و با توجه به تعداد جمعیت روستاهای آن ها 260 نفر از سه بخش شهرستان به عنوان حجم نمونه انتخاب و پرسشنامه ها به صورت تصادفی ساده در میان روستاییان سرپرست خانوار توزیع گردید. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‏های حاصل از پرسشنامه ها با  استفاده از شاخص های آمار توصیفی و آزمون‏های آماری شامل خی دو و رتبه ای فریدمن حاکی از این واقعیت است که اجرای طرح هادی در روستاهای منطقه مورد مطالعه، موجب ارتقای سطح شاخص های تاب آوری کالبدی روستایی گردیده است. همچنین از میان  شاخص های مورد سنجش در تاب آوری کالبدی، شاخص اصلاح فضا و کیفیت معابر روستایی و اصلاح وضعیت مسکن، دارای بیشترین اثر بهبود و ارتقای وضعیت بوده و شاخص های نهادی- اداری و وجود سرپناه در زمان بحران کمترین اثرپذیری را داشته اند. بر اساس نتایج آزمون فریدمن، اثرپذیری شاخص ها به ترتیب عبارت از کیفیت فضا و معابر، کیفیت دسترسی به خدمات، کیفیت مسکن و ساخت و سازها، کیفیت کاربری اراضی، کیفیت محیطی، سرپناه و  اداری- نهادی بوده است. برای ارتقای تاب آوری کالبدی روستاها لازم است بر ارتقای شاخص هایی که اثرپذیری کمتری داشته اند در اجرای طرح هادی تاکید بیشتری شود.
    کلیدواژگان: تاب آوری، تاب آوری کالبدی، طرح هادی، تاب آوری روستایی، شهرستان مریوان
  • رسول لوایی آدریانی، ایرج قاسمی*، محمدعلی محمدی قره قانی، سید علیرضا نوربخش جعفری صفحات 27-40
    تغییر مکان روستا که به جابه جایی معروف است غالبا با هدف استقرار ساکنین پهنه های پرخطر در نقاطی امن و با رویکرد بهبود وضعیت مردم صورت می پذیرد. مداخله در ساختار موجود از جمله جابه جایی سکونتگاه، با پیامدهایی برای ذینفعان آن همراه است که می تواند زندگی مردم را تحت تاثیر قرار دهد. شناخت و تحلیل این پیامدها برای جابه جایی های بعدی و مدیریت این تغییر مکان ضروری است. بررسی این پیامدها به ویژه در طرح هایی که با موفقیت کمتری روبرو بوده اند برای درس گرفتن از آن اهمیت بیشتری دارد. این پژوهش با هدف تحلیل پیامدهای ناشی از جابه جایی هایی که موفقیت کمتری داشته به اجرا درآمد. مطالعه با رویکردی کیفی و با استفاده از روش شناسی قوم نگاری انتقادی انجام شد. رویکرد انتقادی بر این موضوع تاکید دارد که ممکن است جابه جایی روستاهای مورد مطالعه تابع خواست و اراده نظام برنامه ریزی باشد اما نوع برداشت و ادراک ذینفعان اصلی یعنی مردم روستا، در تشدید و تقلیل پیامدهای این فرایند نقش اساسی دارد. داده های میدانی با استفاده از تکنیک مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته فردی و مشاهده مشارکتی در محدوده روستا و ساکنین آن با استفاده از نمونه گیری هدفمند و تا نیل به اشباع نظری جمع آوری شد. داده ها از طریق کدگذاری و مفهوم سازی استخراج و مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که فرایند جابه جایی به دلیل مکانیابی نامناسب موفقیت چندانی کسب نکرده و پیامدهای نامطلوب فیزیکی، اقتصادی و اجتماعی به جای گذاشته است. نگاه کالبدی - فیزیکی به جابه جایی، آن هم به صورت ناقص، افزایش بدهکاری به دلیل هزینه های زیاد برای آماده سازی قطعات مسکونی، رها شدن قطعات تفکیکی و نیمه ساز و کاهش صمیمیت بین اهالی به دلیل وجود فاصله در بین قطعات از جمله پیامدهای شناسایی شده از سوی مردم در این جابه جایی می باشد. بنابراین مطالعه پیشنهاد می کند جابه جایی فقط در شرایط خاص انجام شده و در این صورت نیز با اقدامات ترویجی، جابه جایی به خواست مردم تبدیل شود تا مردم درک شفافی از موضوع پیدا کنند.
    کلیدواژگان: جابه جایی سکونتگاهی، قوم نگاری انتقادی، پیامدهای اقتصادی، پیامدهای اجتماعی، روستای لرینی
  • ندا سلیمانی*، مریم عامری، احمد اصغریان جدی صفحات 41-54
    روستاها اولین شکل از حیات جمعی انسان در یک عرصه طبیعی و پایه تولید نیازهای زیستی می باشند که مبتنی بر فعالیت گروهی و تولیدات جمعی هستند. چنین جامعه ای جهت ایجاد زمینه رویارویی و مشارکت افراد، تبادل اطلاعات و نظرات و تقویت تعاملات اجتماعی، نیازمند فضاهای جمعی است. این فضا ها با نقشی که در ارتقای کیفیت زندگی روستاییان دارند، به عنوان محرکی در تداوم حیات روستایی محسوب می گردند. هدف این پژوهش، ارزیابی عوامل موثر بر کیفیت فضای باز جمعی در سکونتگاه های روستایی می باشد که در قالب نمونه موردی در روستای عباس آباد شاهرود انجام گرفته است. روستای عباس آباد و کاروانسرای آن به گونه ای با هم تلفیق شده اند که با وجود عملکردهای ویژه خود، در حیات یکدیگر نقش مستقیم دارند و حیاط کاروانسرا، میدانگاه و فضای جمعی روستا را شکل داده و به عنوان نمونه ای منحصر به فرد از کاروانسراهای ایران برگزیده شده است. پژوهش حاضر از نوع کاربردی بوده که به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و در دو بخش اسنادی و میدانی انجام شده است. ابزار اصلی گردآوری داده ها پرسشنامه می باشد و از مصاحبه ژرفکاوانه نیز در راستای تکمیل پرسشنامه ها استفاده شده است. جامعه مورد مطالعه، مردم ساکن در روستای عباس آباد می باشند که با استفاده از فرمول کوکران نمونه ای با حجم 209 نفر به صورت تصادفی انتخاب شده است. پایایی پرسشنامه نیز با آزمون آلفای کرونباخ عدد 9/0 به دست آمد که نشان دهنده اعتبار بالای آن است. داده ها با نرم افزار SPSS و با روش های آماری شامل میانگین داده ها، آزمون T تک نمونه ای و آزمون فریدمن مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. نتایج حاصل نشان می دهد که ارتقای کیفیت فضای باز جمعی روستای عباس آباد با 4 مولفه «عملکردی»، «تجربی- زیباشناختی»، «اجتماعی» و «زیست محیطی» و 23 معیار کیفی قابل دستیابی است. با کاربست این معیارها در حیاط کاروانسرا و برقراری دوباره حیات جمعی در آن می توان نقش این بنا را در زندگی روزمره روستاییان پررنگ تر نمود.
    کلیدواژگان: روستای عباس آباد، مولفه کیفی، فضای باز جمعی، کاروانسرا، ارزیابی
  • یوسف حمه جانی، قادر بایزیدی*، جلیل سحابی صفحات 55-68
    برقراری سطح مناسبی از تعاملات جمعی در محیط های زندگی، به عنوان یکی از مولفه های موثر بر کیفیت زندگی، متاثر از ویژگی های محیط انسان ساخت می باشد. تعامل اجتماعی با یکدیگر و مشاهده فعالیت های متنوع مردم، با بوجود آوردن زمینه های اجتماعی شدن و اجتماع پذیری به رشد فردی و اجتماعی انسان کمک می کند اما امروزه به دلیل ورود مظاهر نوگرایی به بسیاری از سکونتگاه های انسانی و عدم وجود الگویی مدون برای نوسازی و بهسازی، شاهد تغییرات کالبدی در فضاهای باز و از بین رفتن بافت های محلی و به تبع آن کاهش تعاملات اجتماعی هستیم. فقدان ارتباطات اجتماعی علاوه بر تاثیرات مخرب فردی، باعث مشکلات اجتماعی نظیر کاهش حس سرزندگی، افزایش جرم خیزی، کاهش اعتماد اجتماعی، کاهش سرمایه اجتماعی و... می شود. بنابراین هدف اصلی این پژوهش شناسایی و تدوین الگوهای کالبدی نظام استقرار و چگونگی تاثیر آن ها بر اجتماع پذیری فضا در ساختارهای معماری هورامان تخت می باشد چراکه استفاده از آن ها در برنامه های آتی نوسازی و بهسازی می تواند تاثیرات مثبتی بر میزان تعاملات اجتماعی داشته باشد. بر این اساس روش پژوهش حاضر توصیفی- تحلیلی و مبتنی بر مطالعات اسنادی و نیز مشاهدات میدانی است. بخش نهایی این مقاله نشان می دهد که چگونه نظام استقرار در محیط انسان ساخت اثر معناداری بر ارتقای اجتماع پذیری فضاهای کالبدی دارد و الگوهای این نظام گاه به تنهایی و گاه در ترکیب با یکدیگر می توانند در کمیت و کیفیت اجتماع پذیری فضاهای عمومی در هورامان اثر گذار باشند.
    کلیدواژگان: نظام استقرار، محیط انسان ساخت، اجتماع پذیری، تعاملات اجتماعی، هورامان تخت
  • سیدمهدی مداحی*، غلامحسین معماریان صفحات 69-84
    بسیاری از نظریه پردازان حوزه محیط و رفتار، شیوه زندگی و نظام رفتاری حاصل از آن را به عنوان عینی ترین بیان های فرهنگ سکونت می دانند. انسان و نیازهای او طبق نظر محققان، عامل اصلی در طراحی فضا و روابط میان آن است که چنانچه به درستی صورت گیرد، می تواند در خلق محیط های مطلوب تر راهگشا باشد. طیف متنوع نیازهای انسان از نیاز به خلوت و قلمرویابی تا تماس اجتماعی و  تعامل با دیگران در روابط درونی افراد خانواده، طراحی خانه را به ویژه به لحاظ سازمان فضایی و نحوه استقرار فضاهای عمومی، نیمه عمومی و خصوصی درون خانه و در کنار یکدیگر بسیار حساس و قابل تامل می سازد. روش زندگی، به نحوه زندگی انسان ها که انتخاب می کنند مربوط می گردد و بر ایده ال ها، قواعد، قوانین، رفتارهای روزمره زندگی و نظایر آن استوار است. لذا خوانش و فهم چگونگی اثر بخشی شیوه زندگی و آداب رفتاری ناشی از آن بر شکل گیری فرم و سازمان فضایی خانه های بومی بسیار حائز اهمیت می باشد. این تحقیق از گونه پژوهش موردی با استفاده از روش تحقیق ترکیبی شامل روش های توصیفی، تحلیلی و در نهایت مصاحبه و تهیه پرسشنامه و قیاس تطبیقی صورت گرفته است. نمونه انتخاب شده، بافت تاریخی شهر بشرویه می باشد. در این بافت معماری مسکونی دوره های تیموری، صفوی و قاجار در بومی ترین شکل های خود مشاهده می شود که ویژگی اساسی اش، علاوه بر سالم بودن، تداوم و نفوذ آن در مناطق پیرامونی است. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش نشان می دهد ویژگی های شیوه زندگی بومی و سیستم های فعالیت ناشی از آن به ویژگی های خاص استقرارها و محیط ها انجامیده و دلایل تنوع آن ها و در نتیجه ارتباط بین شیوه زندگی و محیط ساخته شده مصنوع را شرح می دهند. لذا بایستی اذعان داشت شیوه زندگی و سیستم های فعالیت، هر دو باهم، در تحلیل و طراحی بسیار مفید هستند و طراحان و برنامه ریزان را در رسیدن به الگوی مسکن مناسب منطقه یاری می رسانند.
    کلیدواژگان: شیوه زندگی، نظام رفتارها (سیستم فعالیت ها)، سازمان فضایی خانه، بشرویه، معماری بومی
  • سیده پوراندخت سعادتی*، فرهنگ مظفر، عیسی حجت صفحات 85-100
    دلبستگی به خانه، پیوند عاطفی مثبت میان انسان و خانه است که می تواند منجر به ایجاد احساس امنیت، آرامش و راحتی خاطر برای ساکنان و افزایش کیفیت زندگی آنان شود. همچنین ساکنان را به مراقبت و محافظت از مکان وا داشته و در حفظ و نگهداری محیط های مسکونی موثر خواهد بود. برای ایجاد چنین پیوندی حضور برخی مقدمات کالبدی و اجتماعی در خانه ضروری است. این مقاله با هدف دستیابی به عوامل موثر بر شکل گیری این پیوند، در پی شناخت ویژگی هایی از خانه است که نقش موثری در دلبستگی انسان به آن ایفا می نمایند. برای دستیابی به این هدف، این پژوهش رویکردی کیفی اتخاذ نموده است و از روش «نظریه زمینه ای» بهره می برد. داده های پژوهش با انجام مصاحبه عمیق با 30 نفر از ساکنان مجتمع های مسکونی واقع در محلات منتخب اصفهان در بازه سنی 25-65 سال گردآوری شده اند. یافته های این مطالعه نشان می دهد که هر دو دسته «ویژگی های مربوط به درون خانه» و«ویژگی های مربوط به بیرون خانه» نقش مهمی در شکل گیری دلبستگی ساکنان به خانه ایفا می نمایند. این پژوهش «مالکیت»، «کیفیات آسایشی و دوام کالبدی خانه»، «مبلمان و تجهیزات داخلی خانه» و «روابط عاطفی مثبت در خانه» را از جمله عوامل درونی و «جلوه بیرونی خانه»، «رضایت از همسایگی» و «کیفیت و خوشنامی محله» را از جمله عوامل بیرونی موثر بر شکل گیری دلبستگی ساکنان به خانه معرفی می نماید. همچنین «جلوه محیط مسکونی» را به عنوان مقوله هسته ای در برگیرنده مقولات مطرح شده معرفی می کند . لذا ارایه راهکارهایی برای اغنای این کیفیات در دو حوزه «درون» و «برون» خانه، می تواند منجر به ایجاد و یا ارتقای دلبستگی ساکنان شود. از آن جا که این عوامل و کیفیات رابطه تنگاتنگی با فاکتورهای فیزیکی فضا دارند، این پژوهش می تواند به عنوان یک پژوهش پایه، مبنایی برای ارایه راهکارهایی برای ارتقای دلبستگی انسان به خانه در حوزه های مختلف و از جمله معماری و شهرسازی باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: خانه، ویژگی های خانه، دلبستگی به خانه، نظریه زمینه ای، خانه معاصر در ایران
  • مهدی سلطانی محمدی*، یوسف یوسفی صفحات 101-114
    شهرها و سکونتگاه های فلات ایران در پیوند و وابستگی عمیق و متقابل با منابع تامین آب و نظام های حاکم بر آن ها  شکل گرفته، پایدار شده و توسعه یافته اند. یکی از نمونه های بارز پیوند همه جانبه نظام تولید، سکونتگاه ها و تقسیم آب در حاشیه کویر مرکزی ایران، در روستای محمدیه شکل گرفته است. نظامی که بر پایه  استحصال و هدایت  آب های زیر زمینی توسط فن آوری قنات به وجود آمده  و امروزه  نیز با تغییراتی پا برجا مانده است. این نظام، نقشی چند وجهی در مجتمع زیستی و زندگی ساکنان آن دارد و طی سالیان متمادی که از برقرار شدن آن می گذرد به صورتی پایدار وجود داشته و سیستم وار با آن توسعه یافته است. بررسی مطالعات موجود در تحلیل تاثیرات آب بر سکونتگاه ها نشان می دهد که از یک سو عمده این مطالعات و نتایج آن ها توصیفی بوده و تنها جنبه کالبدی را بررسی کرده اند و از سوی دیگر برپایه های روش شناختی روشنی استوار نیستند. لذا  با توجه به تمرکز عمده مطالعات پژوهشگران ایرانی بر مناطق کویری و همچنین ساختار شناخته شده و پا برجای نظام آبی محمدیه واقع در فلات مرکزی ایران، این روستا به عنوان نمونه مطالعاتی پژوهش انتخاب شده است. پژوهش حاضر  با استفاده ازروش تحلیلی و پیمایشی و در قالب مطالعه ای ترکیبی (کمی وکیفی) به بررسی نحوه تعامل محمدیه با نظام آبی پرداخته است. پژوهش تلاش می کند با یافتن جنبه های مختلف پیوند این نظام با ساختار کالبدی- فضایی و کارکردی -فعالیتی از یک سو و زندگی اجتماعی ، ذهنیات و باورها از سوی دیگر اصول حاکم بر شکل گیری و توسعه این نظام را جستجو کند. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد نظام آبی مبتنی بر قنات، در لایه های مختلف، ارتباط تنگاتنگ و عمیقی با ساختار کالبدی و اجتماعی شهر و حوزه های شخصی و عمومی برقرار ساخته است. در نتیجه رابطه چند بعدی این نظام با ساختار شهر، از یک نظام زیرساختی با نقش خدماتی و کارکردی صرف به نظامی چند بعدی تبدیل شده و در پیوندی متقابل و همزمان با دو بعد کالبدی-فضایی و اجتماعی- فرهنگی قرار گرفته است.
    کلیدواژگان: قنات، نظام تقسیم آب، شکل کالبدی، فعالیت، اجتماع، محمدیه نایین
  • کاوه بهرام زاده*، علیرضا رازقی، نجمه خاتون میری صفحات 115-124
    بناها، محوطه ها و آثار معماری خشتی تاریخی و باستانی متعدد و زیادی در ایران وجود دارد که پراکندگی آن ها بیشتر در مناطق گرم و کویری ایران به چشم می خورد اما در مناطق کوهستانی و بارانی نیز آثار گلی و خشتی فاخری وجود دارد که  نیاز به حفاظت و مرمت دارند تا بتوان آن آثار را به همراه پیام های خفته در آن ها به نسل های آینده منتقل کرد. در مناطق کوهستانی و مناطق بارانی، رطوبت بالا و جمع شدن آب در پای دیوارها و در مناطق کویری و گرم نظیر سیستان بالا بودن سطح آب های سطحی عامل اصلی آسیب رسیدن به ساختارهای خشتی و دلیل اصلی تخریب بسیاری از آثار معماری خشتی هستند که لازم است برای جلوگیری از تخریب و فرسایش راهکاری مناسب و کاربردی پیدا کرد. بهینه سازی مصالح در حفاظت، مرمت و بازسازی بناهای خشتی در سرتاسر جهان یکی از روش های مناسب مرمتی برای این گونه بناها به شمار می رود. نظر به ویژگی های کالبدی و شرایط مکانی و محیطی هر بنا، مواد افزودنی مختلفی تا به امروز مورد آزمایش قرار گرفته و به کار برده شده اند. در این پژوهش آهک به عنوان ماده ای سنتی و بومی که در مناطق دارای رطوبت بالا و بارندگی های فصلی شدید و تعدادی از بناهای شمال و شمال غرب ایران نیز دارای اصالت کاربردی است به عنوان ماده بهینه ساز خشت مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. هدف پژوهش حاضر دستیابی به خشتی سازگار با محیطی با شرایط رطوبت بالا (اشباع خشت) و توام با کیفیات فیزیکی مناسب و مقاومت نسبی در مقابل سایر نیروهای آسیب رسان است. به این منظور پنج نوع خشت با ترکیب ها 0، 2، 5، 7، و 10 درصد از آهک ساخته شد و مورد آزمایش های مقاومت فشاری در شرایط خشک و اشباع، مقاومت سایشی، جذب مویینگی و مقاومت در برابر غوطه وری قرار گرفتند که نتیجه مطلوب و متناسب باهدف این پژوهش مربوط به خشت ساخته شده با 2 درصد آهک بود.
    کلیدواژگان: خشت خام، آهک، بهینه سازی، مقاومت فشاری، جذب مویینگی، مقاومت سایشی، غوطه وری
  • فائزه خسروی، محمودرضا ثقفی*، حامد کامل نیا صفحات 125-140
    استفاده از روش های مشارکتی در طراحی مدارس در قرن حاضر مورد توجه قرارگرفته اما با وجود مطالعات مختلف در زمینه طراحی با استفاده از مشارکت کاربر، در مدارس و محیط های یادگیری کمتر از تجربه و دخالت مستقیم کاربران در طراحی  استفاده گردیده و در اکثر نمونه ها به استفاده از سطوح اولیه و پایین مشارکت بسنده شده است. مشارکت طبقات پایین اجتماعی در حوزه معماری یکی از ویژگی های عمومی رویکردهای مشارکتی بوده است. بنابراین پژوهش حاضر در یک مدرسه روستایی با هدف ارتقای کیفی مدارس روستایی و تجربه سطوح بالاتری از مشارکت به دنبال ارائه راهکاری عملیاتی برای مشارکت کاربران و توجه به نیازها و خواست های آن ها در طراحی مدرسه روستایی در یک منطقه مشخص از ایران بوده است. منطقه انتخابی روستای زیرکن در شهرستان مشهد می باشد. پژوهش از نوع کیفی و کابردی بوده و از روش تحقیق تحلیل محتوا استفاده شده است. داده های مورد نیاز از طریق برگزاری گروه های بحث و با استفاده از روش های مشارکتی به دست آمده است. در بخش سنجش و تحلیل آزمون، از تحلیل همبستگی و آزمون آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شده است، تحلیل نتایج نشان می دهد که کاربران در مورد غیر رسمی بودن فضای راهرو مدرسه و داشتن زمین های بازی مختلف با بالاترین امتیاز (96% ) دارای کمترین اختلاف نظر هستند و بتن با کمترین امتیاز( 44%) آخرین انتخاب آنان برای مصالح مدرسه شان است. نتایج نشان می دهد استفاده از مشارکت می تواند مزیت های مثبتی به همراه داشته باشد. روش های مشارکتی به کار رفته در این پژوهش، در جذب و مشارکت طیف های مختلفی از جامعه مدرسه کارا و موفق بوده و توانسته دیدگاه های متنوعی را مورد بررسی قرار دهد. اما الزاما نتایج، دقت کافی را نخواهد داشت و لازم است برای رسیدن به نتایج دقیق تر و گسترده تر، متغیرهای بیشتری تحلیل شوند و از طیف وسیع تری از روش های مشارکتی و مکمل استفاده گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: مدارس روستایی، مشارکت در طراحی، محیط های یادگیری، روش های مشارکتی
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  • Farhad Azizpour*, Zohreh Sadeghi Pages 3-12
    Housing is a specific place where households reside in. It is a physical center, a shelter and one of the most basic needs for a family. The Islamic Revolution Housing Foundation is considered as the main provider of rural housing in Iran. This special plan for the improvement of rural housing is the latest and the most important development plan, which was designed to provide affordable, durable, and affordable housing for Rurales. This plan was implemented in the rural areas from 2005 to 2011 with the aim of retrofitting, preserving the identity of native architecture, promoting environmental health, optimizing energy consumption, and so forth. Considering the above-mentioned, the following basic questions are raised: What changes have been made in the rural housing system of the Abrisham rural district due to the implementation of special improvement plan? To what extent do these changes have resulted in housing development in this rural area? There are a variety of theories in this regard, including theoretical approach of structuralism, functionalism approach, structural-functional approach, construction approach, phenomenological approach, critical realism, and structural-functional dynamics. In this research, structural-functional dynamics has been used to analyze the changes resulting from the implementation of a special improvement plan in rural housing area. Housing as a part of the spatial system has certain structural-functional features. This main element of the physical texture of the villages has undergone changes during recent decades due to the implementation of the housing renovation and improvement plan, in particular the special improvement plan for rural housing. The implementation of this plan has played a significant role for changes in the construction and functions of rural houses. Considering the encouragement of urban housing model (within the framework of urbanism) and the lack of attention to the relationship between structure and functions of rural houses, sometimes produced changes resulted in a kind of dichotomy between housing and the basic activities of rural households. Structural-functional changes in rural housing have led to the structural-functional transformation of the texture, physical and the overall spatial system of the village. The research method is descriptive-analytic. The statistical population include the Abisham rural district, in which the special housing improvement program has been implemented. In this rural district, about 318 villagers out of 3138 households in the studied areas received loans. Cochran method was used to determine the sample size. Samples selected using stratified random sampling. According to this method, 94 households were selected as a sample size. Data collected by using library and field methods as well as questionnaires. For data analysis, inferential statistical methods such as Friedman, Anova and Kolmogorov Smirnov tests have been used. Friedman test results show that the suitability of material type to meet the needs of villagers with the highest average ranking is first in comparison with other indicators. Improvement of sanitary facilities, façade of residential unit and lighting of the residential unit as well as the proper orientation of the residential unit and ... are other indicators that have caused desirable situation and positive development.   Eliminating the livelihood space and removing support space have low ranking. According conducted survey based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the development of rural housing in the Abrisham rural district described as follows: The special program caused the long life buildings with low-durability materials have more resilience to natural hazards (such as earthquakes). Also, by implementing a wastewater system, the proper living space have been created at the residential unit level. This change has led to the housing development indices The results of the research show that the quantitative and qualitative changes in the new residential units have been adapted to the dominant needs of the villagers (sample households), and the special plan for the improvement of rural housing with its implementation in the Abrisham rural district has created the structural-functional cohesion of rural housing.
    Keywords: housing, special improvement plan for housing, housing development, rural areas, Abrisham rural district
  • Farzad Vaisi*, Mohammad Sedigh Ghorbni, Seivan Asadi Pages 13-26
    Resilience in the field of rural development has economic, social, environmental and physical aspects. In the meantime, in the rural system, the rural area as context for socio-economic activities and areas that vulnerability and invulnerability of rural system largely depend on it,. resilience with regard to its impact on performance of other aspects of villages which determines the strength of rural system resilience, has a very great importance. Kurdistan as one of the provinces that has a lot of villages, a lot of rural master plan has been implemented in this villages to promote rural physical conditions. Marivan, as one of the counties of Kurdistan province has been chosen as case of study. In order to improve rural physical situation, rural master plan have been implemented and ended in 50 villages. The main issue that is being addressed in this study is the study of effects of implement rural master plan on the physical resilience level of villages in the Marivan County. Resilience refers to the recovery of initial conditions after natural and human hazards. Resilience emphasizes on positive aspects, and today governments and communities are struggling to improve living conditions by promoting resilience to crises in at risk areas. In the meantime, the implementation of conductors' plans in rural areas by organizing physical status will be a step towards achieving physical resilience in rural areas. The physical situation of rural settlements is admitted as an area for their economic and social practices, so to promote the performance improvement, resilience of the physical condition of villages are necessary. In the meantime, conducting projects in rural areas by organizing physical condition will be a step towards achieving physical resilience in rural areas. In terms of method, this applied research is analytical - descriptive. In order to collect information, documentary resources and field-based interviews and questionnaires(survey) were used. The population of the study includes the heads of rural households who are living in villages in Marivan county that 5 years past after the masterplan were implemented. By applying Cochran formula, 260 households are selected as the sample size selection and then , the questionnaires were distributed simple randomly among selected household’s heads in selected sample villages. Implementation of rural master plan  at a significant level of 0.05 and 95% confidence has been effective in improving the status of road quality indicators, housing quality and facilities, quality of access to services, environmental quality and infrastructure, and land use quality. The calculated average is more than the numerical desirability of the test, the desirable value of the t statistic and the confirmation of this. However, in contrast to the unsatisfactory t-statistics, two indicators of improvement of shelter status and institutional-institutional status at a significant level of 0.05 and 95 percent confidence, confirm the inadequate effect of conducting conducting plans on improving the status of these two indicators in the studied villages. Finally, the average calculated at 3.18 at a significant level of 0.05 shows that the implementation of conductor designs has been able to improve the physical condition of the villages in the study area in relative terms. According to the research findings, the implementation of conducting the plan has had a positive effect on all the indicators of physical resilience (except for administrative-institutional and shelter). Indicators for improving the quality of passages and rural space and indicators for improving the quality of access to services and improving the quality of housing and infrastructure (among the indicators of physical resilience) are the indicators that have been most effective in conducting the plan, respectively. Based on the results and field survey, to promote and improve physical resilience of rural areas, following strategies can actually be useful: - Training local  about the earthquake and coping strategies to reduce human and financial losses; - Strengthening rural housing through low-interest and long-term lending in vulnerable villages; - Providing a comprehensive map of the risk area and determining accident-prone areas; - training local people by local intelect in order to observe the danger zone in areas that should not be done housing
    Keywords: resilience, physical resilience, tarhe hadi(rural master plan), rural resilient, marivan county
  • Rasool Lavaei Adaryani, Iraj Ghasemi*, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi Gharehghani, Seyed Alireza Noorbakhsh Jafari Pages 27-40
    The main purpose of displacement plan is to dwell the residents of high-risk areas into the safe regions with the aim of improving their economic, physical, social, and environmental situations. These plans often have desirable and undesirable consequences that affect the target groups. Examining these consequences is especially important in the less successful projects based on the idea of learning-from-the-past. The main purpose of the study was to analyze the displacement consequences in Lerini Olya and Lerini Sofla villages in Iran. This qualitative study employed the critical ethnographic methodology. The critical approach in the study emphasizes that the residential displacement in Lerini village may have done subject to the will of the authorities’ planning system. The population of the study was consisted of the residents of Lerini Olya and Lerini Sofla villages who have experienced the resettlement. Data were gathered by individual semi-structured interviews technique and participant observation and were collected through purposive sampling to reach theoretical saturation and after that were analyzed through coding and conceptualization. The results revealed that the resettlement process was not successful because of the undesirable locating that in turn had led to the undesirable economic, physical, social and environmental consequences. The steep slope has led to the increased construction costs increasing villagers' debts due to reliance on building mortgages and bank loans and uncompleted houses has made financial and economic issues more important than displacement itself. Decrease of intimacy among the residents due to the distance between houses, difficulties of access to the agricultural lands and concerns about product protection in the villagers' remarks was the other issues among the many. Also, the lack of standards in the size of the residential units for animal livestock led to the livestock slums in the corners of the dwellings and in some cases led to the sale of livestock and migration. The results of the study showed that the displacement was due to function of two categories. The first and the main category was the difficulty of construction and the development constraints in the previous place. The second cause was based on the people will to shift. So the main cause of the displacement was natural. But the participants believed that their demands did not affect the resettlement plan and it was carried out without regarding stockholders’ desire. Planning from top to down and the lack of people's participation in the process of displacement provided negative and challenging perceptions and prevented the proper implementation of the policy. A different understanding of needs and a heterogeneous interpretation of concepts are other important issues that can have adverse effects in displacement. Generally, the economic and social consequences of the resettlement in this village have been caused by the physical consequences. The perceived consequences of settlement displacement by stakeholders are different from what is expected from the plan and mentioned for its purposes. In this study, the perceptions and understandings of the rural residents as the main stakeholders of the project was focused. The results showed that there is a gap between the people expectations of displacement and what authorities have had implemented. The failure to meet people expectations from displacement has had a negative effect on the whole process. But the most positive consequences identified by the stakeholders were of the physical outcomes which have often been subjected to a physical-spatial subsystem, and the negative consequences have been perceived in the economic and social subsystem. This means that in rural displacement, intervention in the physical system can have implications for social and economic systems that the authorities cannot ignore. Ignoring of these sub-systems provides grounds for a dysfunctional occurrence in the whole system and a negative impact on its total performance. Therefore, the study suggests that displacement must only be carried out in certain circumstances, and in this case, by means of promotional measures, the displacement will be turned to the will of the people so that people will find a clear understanding of the issue.
    Keywords: Displacement, Relocation, Critical Ethnography, Economic Consequences, Social Consequences, Lerini village
  • Neda Soleymani*, Maryam Ameri, Ahmad Asghariyan Jeddi Pages 41-54
    Villages are the first type of communal life throughout a natural arena and known as the cornerstone of production for biological needs, which is based on group work and mass production. Such a society requires communal spaces for preparing the required space for interactions, the partnership of different groups, information transfer, and improving interactions and social relations. Communal space is a physical setting to encounter with the social life. These spaces with their roles in improving the life quality could trigger the continuity of life in rural areas. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the factors contributing to the quality of communal open space in rural settlements, which has prepared in the case study in Abbas Abad village in Shahrud. The place, in addition to the role of a way stations, has a socio-cultural position in the life of residents. The Abbas Abad Caravanserai and the fabric of the village are integrated, in a way that despite their special performance are interdependent. The yard of this caravanserai is known as the main square and communal space of the village and is the place for collective events and daily activities of the residents. This feature distinguished the caravanserai as a unique sample. This study is descriptive-analytical, in terms of method and qualitative, in terms of type of research. Data were gathered through available documents in the literature of communal space. To reach the objective, the communal space initially studied generally, then the rural settlements were considered. To achieve the qualitative principles of rural communal space is limited due to lack of enough literature in this field. The urban and rural space, despite some differences in nature, have some similarities since they are the living space. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the qualitative principles of urban and rural communal space have some commonalities. Such that some qualitative principles of urban communal space could be used for preserving the natural values of village and for improving the rural society. Among these studies and based on the initial observations in the area under study, the qualitative criteria of communal spaces were detected and after the general classification, the mutual concepts were extracted. Then, by designing a conceptual method of the study and by adapting the qualitative criteria and the proposed method, four components, namely “functional”, “experimental-aesthetic”, “social”, “and “environmental” and 23 criteria were defined. After the formation of the theoretical foundation, the study is carried out in the field research and survey area using data collection tools, observation, questionnaire, and in-depth interview with rural people. The size of the statistical sample at 95% level of confidence should be 209 people (based on the Cochran formula) to be able to generalize the sample of the study to the entire statistical population. The reliability of the questionnaire, based on Cronbach's alpha, is 0.9, which is indicative of its high reliability. The obtained results were analyzed using the SPSS Software and different statistical methods, including average data, one sample T-test, and Freidman test. Results indicate that the communal space of Abbas Abad village, which is formed in the yard of the Caravanserai, should have some qualities, like “economic self-reliance”, “mixed uses”, “walkability”, “integration of building with fabric”, “flexibility”, “safety  and security”, “attracting traveler and pilgrims”, “physical permeability”, “inclusiveness”, “climate comfort”, “attention to context”, “efficiency”, “respect to building,s authenticity”, “legibility”, “sensory richness”, “visual permeability”, “identity and sense of place”, “collective memory”, “strengthening rural character”, “local management and participation”, “sociability”, “link to nature” and “environmental cleanliness”. By applying these criteria in the yard of the Caravanserai and by establishing the collective life, we would be able to distinguish the role of this building in everyday life of rural people.
    Keywords: Abbas Abad Village, Qualitative Component, Communal Open Space, Caravanserai, Evaluating
  • Yousef Hamejani, Qader Bayzidi*, Jalil Sahabi Pages 55-68
    The present paper is a field and library research achievement and attempts to analyze the role of patterns of spatial deployment in the human-made environment on the social nature of the physical environments of everyday life and the passion for acting in the spaces. Establishing a proper level of collective interaction in the living environment, as one of the factors affecting the quality of life, is influenced by the characteristics of the human environment. Social interaction and the observation of diverse people's activities, by creating socializatioشn  help to develop individual and social development. Today, however, because of the arrival of manifestations of modernity to many human settlements and the absence of a pattern for modernization and improvement, we see several effects such as physical changes in open spaces,the destruction of the local tissues and, consequently, the reduction of social interactions. Lack of social communication, in addition to individual destructive effects, can lead to social problems such as lowering the sense of vitality, increasing crime, reducing social trust, reducing social capital, and so on. Therefore, the main purpose of this research is to identify and formulate the physical patterns of the system of deployment and how they affect the space community in the architectural structures of Hawraman Takht, because their use in upcoming programs of renovation and improvement can have a positive impact on the level of social interactions., The present article attempts to understand the above-mentioned relationship and raises the following basic questions: 1. Which physical patterns of the settlement system are identified in the architecture of the Hawraman? 2. How do each of these features of the deployment system affect the components of socialization and the level of social interaction in  the Hawraman? The present study was conducted using the descriptive-analytical method based on documentary studies as well as field observations. It is a case study because it involves methods whose purpose is to describe the conditions or phenomena under investigation and is analytical because the method A case study examines the extent to which the social component is influenced by the physical patterns of the present situation. In the first step, theoretical foundations and components affecting the space community are extracted through library studies and based on valid internal and external resources. In the second section, using the field scanning in the architectural structures of the five human settlements in Hawraman Takht, three general patterns of deployment, under the heading: a) general patterns of tissue deployment, b) access development patterns, and c) ecological deployment patterns, Identified and compiled.In the final step, through analysis and logical reasoning, the effects of the patterns of the establishment of the system on the components of socialization and the level of social interactions were assessed and evaluated. The final section of this paper shows how the establishment of the human environment has a significant effect on the social structure of the physical spaces, and the patterns of this system can sometimes, alone and sometimes in combination, be in the quantity and quality of the social environment of the public spaces in Hawraman be effective. In other words, the results of this research indicate that the patterns of the deployment system in the architecture of the Hawraman Takht are identifiable and evaluated in four categories of general structure, deployment, accessibility deployment patterns, ecological deployment patterns; and the findings of the evaluation. Each of the three categories of deployment affects the degree of sociality of space and social interactions.
    Keywords: Settlement System, Human Environment, Socialization, Social Interaction, Hawraman Takht
  • Seyyed Mahdi Madahi*, Gholam Hossion Memarian Pages 69-84
    Many theorists consider lifestyle and behavioral systems as the most objective expressions of living culture. According to researchers, mankind and his demands are the major factors in designing the space and their relationships in-between so that if done properly, it will be helpful in creating a better environments. Wide range of human demands, from need for privacy and territoriality to social engagement and interaction with family members and others, make the home design fragile and signified, especially in stands of public, semi-public and private spaces inside the house. Living methods and human’s choices are related to their ideals, principles, rules and their everyday behavior. Therefore, studying and understanding the effectiveness of lifestyle and behaviors caused by it are important for developments of form and spatial arrangements of local houses. Therefore, this research was a case study conducted by using a combination of methods, including descriptive, analytical and logical reasoning methods. This study was conducted using field observation, library research, interview, questionnaire, and comparative analogy. The combined methodology indicates the highest convergence between two methods or more. The advantage of this approach is that the strengths of the various methods complement each other and the weaknesses of each method are largely covered. Selected sample is a historical texture of Boshrooyeh city. In this texture, residential architecture of Timurid, Safavid   and Qajar eras can be seen in their vernacular forms is its major specification plus persistence and its influence in surrounding areas.  Considering the impact of social-cultural issues in architecture is the subject that many theorists of this field have addressed to, Rappaport and Oliver consider the cultural backgrounds as an affective factor in the formation of vernacular architecture as Rappaport also has stated, “Space defines a meaning” and Grout and Wang also have stressed the importance of attention for environmental designers to social-cultural aspects .The pattern should organize the spatial and configure it to be examined in order to understand the connection  in-between the design of the built environment and subsequently cultural dimensions. this study aims to provide a base to design the relations among main spaces of houses. Presenting design values model (profile) for house spatial arrangement based on local lifestyle. The results of the study show that lifestyle and latent aspects of quite simple activities illuminate the reasons of special organizations of local residential environments. Finally, wide variety of latent aspect of pure activities leads to diverse establishment for these activities and diversity of established systems for systems of activities. The main point is that the achievements from the research show that the vast variety of hidden faces of sheer activities which leads to a variety of deployments for these activities and the diversity of deployment systems for operating systems. Then it causes a variety of environments such as the types of spatial arrangement in different residential areas, therefore it should be acknowledged that both lifestyle and activity systems, simultaneously are very useful in analyzing and designing, and they help designers and planners to achieve the appropriate housing pattern.
    Keywords: lifestyle, behavioral system (activity systems), spatial arrangement of house, Boshrooyeh, vernacular architecture
  • Sayedeh Poorandokht Saadati*, Farhang Mozafar, Isa Hojat Pages 85-100
    People communicate with their surrounding environment in different ways. Emotional interaction is one of these ways which can involve positive feelings such as place attachment, belonging to place and so on. On the other hand negative emotional interaction leads to dissatisfaction or sometimes aversion to places which may result in psychological inconveniences. Home is one of the most important places which we interact in our daily lives.  Home attachment is positive emotional relationship between home and its dwellers which may result in place dependence. By forming this synthesis, home becomes an anchor for its dwellers which brings safety, solace and tranquillity to them. Also it may lead to home preservation and caring by residents. It is a mutual interaction which is affected by house characteristics as well as dwellers' attributes. To create this kind of interaction some physical and social prerequisites are needed to exist at home. Without supplying these prerequisites, developing home attachment seems improbable. This article aims to find solutions to create this kind of relationship between people and their homes. Therefore it seeks for effective factors which may facilitate the process of developing home attachment. It tries to find those of home attributes and characters that play role in creating home attachment. To reach this aim, this survey has adopted a qualitative approach. The method employed here is "Grounded Theory".  Research data is gathered by semi-structured interview with 30 persons in selected areas in Isfahan. Participants are selected from residents between ages 20 to 65. The results of this study show that in creating home attachment, two groups of house characteristics are effective: "house indoor characteristics" and "house outdoor characteristics". Based on this research "home ownership", "physical permanence and comforting qualities of the house", "furniture and interior equipments of the house", "positive emotional relationships at home", are interior factors and "house external appearance", "neighboring satisfaction", "quality and good reputation of neighborhood" are exterior factors that play role in developing home attachment. Therefore developing solutions to enrich these characteristics and qualities in both araes of inside and outside of the houses, may lead to create or strength this emotional bond in residential environments. Also results show that among various attributes of home the followings can cause home attachment and therefore are determinative in establishing this kind of relationship: being home as a haven, as a symbol of social status, as a context for positive emotional relationships and as a context for satisfying human needs. Planning to enrich home of these attributes, will increases the opportunity to create home attachment for its dwellers. This enrichment can be planned in social and physical schemes. Environmental designers and planners are in charge of the physical ones and should create physical solutions to improve these meanings at home. In this case creating homes which ease dwellers' attachment is more probable. Lack of these characteristics will result in decreasing home attachment. Concentrating on these factors and presenting physical and social solutions to improve them can result in creating homes which may ease attachment for their dwellers. By considering these factors in designing houses we can be hopeful that dwellers will feel attached to their homes. Therefore they will feel safe and tranquil which is the final aim of settling at homes. This research can act as a fundamental research and presents a steppingstone for achieving solutions to create home attachment in different areas of knowledge.
    Keywords: Home, Home characters, Home Attachment, Grounded Theory, Contemporary housing of Iran
  • Mehdi Soltanimohammadi*, Yusef Yusefi Pages 101-114
    Cities and settlements in the Iranian Plateau are developed in deep relationship with and dependence on water sources and their functioning systems . A clear manifestation of this all-inclusive link between the settlement and the water storage and distribution system can be found in Mohammadiyeh, in central Iranian deserts. The system that was developed based on groundwater recovery and its transportation by Qanat still remains today with little change. Two types of Qanat can be found in Mohammadiyeh: Irrigation and Urban Qanats. Irrigation Qanats (such as the Hanfash Qanat) enter agricultural lands immediately from the outlet, but urban Qanats (such as the Mohammadiyeh qanat) first enter residential areas and are then used for irrigation purposes. In residential areas, the Qanat is distributed in a path that is chosen based on land slope. Public areas such as mosques, bathhouses, creeks, houses, etc. are located along this path. This path ends in a morgue in Paderakht neighborhood, then enters the northeastern gardens, and then the agricultural lands.  There are multiple aspects to this system with respect to the community and the life of inhabitants. This water system has remained for centuries and is systematically developed. Mohammadiyeh's water system has been developing since the time of its formation, and has continued to develop along with the development of the city and today continues to make changes. Areas such as Mohammadiyah have been formed in a deep and interconnected relationship with the water resources and the division of the system, which today can be very useful in recognizing and revising the multiplicity and multi-functional relationship of this system. A survey of previous studies analyzing the impact of water on the settlements reveals that they are predominantly descriptive and that they have only addressed physical aspects; besides, they do not adopt a specific methodology. Therefore, considering that most Iranian studies focused on the desert areas and the well-known, stable water system in Mohammadiyeh, in the central Iranian plateau, this village was selected to be studied. The present study adopts an analytical, survey approach to the investigation of interactions between Mohammadiyeh and the water system in a mixed method (both qualitative and quantitative). The present study, based on field observations, analysis of documents and existing studies, and in-depth interviews, studies and analyzes the relationship and effects of Qanats in Mohammadiyeh in three dimensions: physical, functional-activity, and social. This study is aimed to reveal the principles governing the development of this system by investigating the various aspects of the link between the system and the physical-spatial, and functional-activity structure on the one hand and the social life and beliefs on the other. The results suggest that water and its distribution system include all-inclusive, multi-functional networks that have survived over the centuries. The circulation and distribution of water encompass the path of Qanats (linear element) and karizes, underground channels and creeks, bathhouses, pools (point element), etc. The development of Mohammadiyeh, including the establishment of neighborhood centers, the network of passages, houses, and public buildings, matches the ideas shaping the water distribution system and the physical form of Mohammadiyeh. In addition, the Qanat-based water system is in a close relationship with the physical and social urban structure and private and public spheres at many levels. Therefore, the multidimensional relationship between this system and the urban structure has transformed from a mere utility infrastructure into a multidimensional system that is in correlation with both physical-spatial and social-cultural aspects of the village.
    Keywords: Qanat, Water Distribution System, Physical Structure, Activity, community, Mohammadiyeh, Nain
  • Kaveh Bahramzadeh*, Alireza Razeghi, Najme Khatoon Miri Pages 115-124
    The importance and the value of historical buildings and sites and even villages which have adobe houses causes that conservators annually schedule restoration plans and programs to protect the buildings from hazards. This is done because conservation of these memorials is equal to conservation of culture, civilization, heritages of a nation, their architecture, and their lifestyle. There are many damaging factors for an adobe building being always a threat for its skeleton. Causing irreparable harms independently or dependently, moisture is one of the damaging factors for adobe buildings. Optimizing the repairing materials in conservation, repair, and reconstruction of adobe buildings to increase their resistance against moisture and other damaging factors is one of the suitable methods for protecting these buildings worldwide. Until today, many additive materials have been tested and occasionally applied regarding the enhancement of the physical and environmental properties of the buildings. Lime is a conventional locally supplied material, had been originally used in areas with high humidity and heavy seasonal rainfall. In this research a number of buildings in the North and North West of Iran have been selected as the case study where the lime was used as the adobe optimizer. This research aims to find a mix of adobe which is compatible with the highly humid environment (saturated adobe) as well as having high physical quality and a relative strength against other damaging forces. Now, the question is that by adding lime to soil as a traditional material that absorbs water and is resistant to moisture, can it be possible to increase the stability of these adobe against moisture, as well as their physical properties to keep compressive resistance and abrasion resistance? The research hypothesis suggests that because of low adhesion and poor bonding between lime and soil and low humidity in open spaces, it is likely that by adding lower percentages of lime, a more favorable result can be achieved.  For this aim, five mix of adobe were made containing 0, 2, 5, 7 and 10 percentage of lime. The samples undergone multiple mechanical tests: compressive resistance in dry and saturated condition, abrasion resistance, capillary absorption and resistance to immersion tests. The results show that lime is affective on physical properties of adobe in such a way that by increasing the amount of lime aforementioned, the compressive strength and abrasion resistance decreases by a significant amount. Capillary test results show that, the increase in the amount of lime in the mix causes the increase in the speed of capillary absorption. This characteristic of lime causes using preparing adobes having lime in reconstruction of walls be an ideal solution to conserving the old  internal wall adobes. This is because the exposure of water and moisture are absorbed by this kind of adobe due to the higher level of lime concentration in the mix portion and the main old structure of the wall absorbs the minimum amount of the water and remains safe from abrasion. Based on the results of pressure resistance test on the wet and dry adobe samples and also their resistance against immersion, only 2% added lime cause to keep the physical resistance of adobe compares to the other samples, impressively. According to the results of the tests done in this research and its purpose, among tested adobe samples, the sample number 2 having 2% added lime is estimated as the best optimized sample. In this way, its resistance to compressive and abrasion is higher than other lime samples, as well as its resistance to water immersion and its compressive strength after soaking from all specimens, even the lime sample was higher This optimization of the crude clay and its resistance to water saturation conditions is the same as the desired result and the purpose that this research seeks to do.
    Keywords: adobe, lime, optimization, pressure resistance, capillary absorption, abrasion resistance, immersion
  • Faezeh Khosravi, Mahmoud Reza Saghafi*, Hamed Kamelnia Pages 125-140
    The use of collaborative approach in school design has been considered extensively in the present century. Despite various studies in design using user participation, experience and direct involvement of users in design have been used less in the field of learning environments. Furthermore, in most of the cases, collaborative approach is restricted to the use of primary and lower levels of participation. The participation of low social classes in the field of architecture has been a common feature of collaborative approaches. Therefore, this research aimed at improving the quality of rural schools, and introducing higher levels of participation. It also seek to provide a practical strategy for users’ participation and pay attention to their needs and desires in designing a rural school in a specific region of Iran. Selected area is Zirkan village near to Mashhad (a capital state). The research methodology is a mixed of qualitative and implementing content theoretical analysis. In this regard, firstly, theoretical studies about the participation of users has been expressed. Then, the necessity for participation in the schools’ design, and various models of user participation have been presented. By analyzing the status of the school in this study and the wishes of the residents  using the focus group method, design patterns have been investigated. The results have been obtained through analyzing data collected from the participatory groups (that benefit from participation tools such as visual questionnaire _similar to the "ROLE test"_ expressing their dream, imagination and Dialogue),. Content Analysis of the views of the groups in defining and describing their desired school can introduce the school design pattern in a rural environment. Users’ comments has been discussed on their school’s architecture in several key features including: the form of the building, the characteristics of the interior space (classroom and communication spaces), outdoor spaces ( such as courtyard), materials and some of the spaces needed. Then, in the analysis section, a comparison was made between qualitative and quantitative methods which are correlation analysis and Cronbach's alpha test. According to the results of this comparison, it was found that when the images have been selected in a large number group (ROLE test), the results are more reliable than findings’ correlation. Based on the Cranbach's alpha test and its unacceptable results in this research, it was determined that qualitative results such as (ROLE) has higher validity and quantitative results do not have enough validity for the test. However, reliable results were classified for different school’s spaces from each section of the study group through comparative analysis.  Data analysis shows that participants have the highest agreement for the informality of school corridor space and having different playgrounds with the highest score (96%). Moreover, concrete with the lowest score (44%) is their last choice as the building’s materials. Also, providing green space at the building and the use of flowerboxes in outdoor spaces, were another desire of users. Furthermore, participants prefer bright colors, daily light, social space and connection with outdoors as well as facilities for classrooms were among the factors of interests. They considered facilities such as laboratories, libraries, appropriate bathrooms, large prayer hall, and classrooms which are equipped by technology. In addition,  applying informal space were mentioned for the spaces between classes and corridors. Finally colored materials and color variations were the choices of study groups. Using the collaborative approach in relation to school design, especially for the projects which aimed attention to participants’ needs and desires, provides a user-friendly environment and enhance user's desirability and connectivity to the environment. Results indicate that participation has several benefits. Also, participation approach which used in this research has been successful in attracting a wide range of school communities and has been able to explore diverse viewpoints. However, the result will not necessarily be sufficiently precise and variables. Therefore, more extensive and wider range of collaborative and complementary methods is necessary to achieve more accurate results.
    Keywords: Rural schools, Design Participation, learning environment, collaborative methods