فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 114 (زمستان 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/10/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 20
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  • سعید آزادی، ابوافضل مشکینی*، عبدالرضا رکن الدین افتخاری، احسان مصطفوی، محسن احدنژاد روشتی، پریسا ملکی صفحات 1153-1176

    در طی دهه اخیر علایق گسترده‏‏ای درباره مطالعه نقش همسایگی‏‏ها و فرم شهری بر سرطان و نابرابری‎های سرطان در مناطق جغرافیایی شکل گرفته است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف مدل‏‏سازی ارتباط فضایی سرطان‏‏های ریه با عوامل محیط ساخته‏‏شده از جمله آلودگی هوا، فرم شهری، دسترسی به خدمات عمومی، و شاخص‏‏های اجتماعی‏- اقتصادی در محلات شهر تهران انجام گرفته است. این پژوهش از نوع تحقیقات کاربردی است و به لحاظ روش نیز در دسته تحقیقات توصیفی و علی قرار دارد. جامعه آماری این تحقیق شامل کلیه بیماران مبتلا به سرطان ریه است که در سال‏‏های 1385-1389 در وزارت بهداشت و درمان کشور ثبت شده‏‏اند. از روش‏‏های آماری تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی و رگرسیون چندگانه در محیط نرم‏‏افزاری SPSS به‏ترتیب برای کاهش حجم متغیرها و استخراج متغیرهای تبیین‏کننده واریانس سرطان‏‏های ریه در سطح اطمینان 95درصد استفاده شد. همچنین، از مدل‏‏سازی معادلات ساختاری (SEM) در محیط نرم‏‏افزاری Amos Graphicبرای محاسبه اثر مستقیم، اثر غیرمستقیم، و اثر کل متغیرهای مستقل در تبیین تغییرات سرطان‏‏های ریه استفاده شد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد شاخص‏‏های آلودگی هوا حدود 30درصد واریانس سرطان‏‏های ریه را در محلات شهر تهران تبیین نمودند؛ متغیرهای قابلیت پیاده‏‏مداری، اختلاط کاربری زمین، نسبت سطح اشغال، نسبت تراکم ساختمانی، و تراکم کاربری‏‏های اداری از شاخص‏‏های بعد فرم شهری‏اند که در سطح آلفا 05/0 ارتباط آماری معنی‏‏داری را با توزیع جغرافیایی سرطان‏‏های ریه نشان داد‏‏ه‏‏اند که شاخص قابلیت پیاده‏‏مداری از نظر میانگین اثر مستقیم ارتباط معکوس داشته است و بقیه شاخص‏‏های مذکور ارتباط مستقیمی داشته‏‏اند. شاخص‏‏های دسترسی به خدمات آموزشی، دسترسی به خدمات حمل‏ونقل عمومی، و دسترسی به فضاها و امکانات تفریحی نیز، برخلاف فرضیه ضمنی این پژوهش، ارتباط مثبت و معنی‏‏داری با متغیر وابسته داشته‏‏اند. از نظر بعد اجتماعی‏- اقتصادی نیز شاخص‏‏های گروه‏‏های سنی آسیب‏‏پذیر، گروه‏‏های پایین اقتصادی، تراکم جمعیت، و سطح تحصیلات (زیر دیپلم و دانشگاهی) به‏طور میانگین با اثر کل 08/0 ارتباط مستقیمی با توزیع فضایی سرطان‏‏های ریه نشان داده‏‏اند.

    کلیدواژگان: تهران، سرطان ریه، محیط ساخته‏شده، مدل‏سازی معادلات ساختاری، Amos Graphic
  • کاظم برهانی، مجتبی رفیعیان*، ابوالفضل مشکینی، صفر قائد رحمتی صفحات 1177-1195

    تغییر کاربری ‏زمین یکی از مهم‏ترین چالش‏های برنامه‏ریزی‏ کاربری‏زمین بوده و تاثیر مستقیمی بر بسیاری از مسایل در جوامع کلان‏شهری دارد. در اثر تغییرات کاربری زمین در شهرها الگوهای کاربری زمین گوناگونی شکل می‏گیرد که این الگوها نیروهای پیشران گوناگونی در مناطق مختلف دارد.با شناسایی و سنجش سطح تاثیرگذاری و تاثیرپذیری این نیروها می‏توان با برنامه‏ریزی صحیح در زمینه تغییرات کاربری زمین بر مبنای توسعه پایدار کاربری زمین از مسایل شهری که منتج از بی‏برنامه‏بودن در این زمینه است جلوگیری کرد.هدف از مقاله حاضر شناسایی و تحلیل اثرگذاری و اثرپذیری نیروهای پیشران تغییرات ‏کاربری‏زمین‏شهری بر یکدیگر و تحلیل مکانیزم روابط این نیروها در کلان‏شهر تهران است. روش تحقیق حاضر توصیفی- تحلیلی است و روش جمع‏آوری داده‏ها اسنادی و پیمایشی از طریق پرسش‏نامه نخبگی است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش کارشناسان مسایل شهری شامل استادان دانشگاه و کارشناسان امور شهرسازی و شهرداری در شهر تهران‏اند. به‏منظور تحلیل داده‏‏ها از روش تحلیل ساختاری با بهره‏گیری از نرم‏افزار میک‏مک استفاده شده‏است. نتایج این پژوهش حاکی از آن است که از لحاظ تاثیرگذاری به‏ترتیب عوامل نهادی، سیاست‏ها، و قوانین و امکانات زیرساختی مهم‏ترین نیروهای پیشران تغییرات کاربری‏زمین در کلان‏شهر تهران‏اند. از میان 49 عامل که در تحلیل وارد شده، به‏ترتیب، این عوامل شامل اهداف مدیریت شهری، طرح‏جامع، دسترسی به شبکه ‏معابر، رشد جمعیت، قیمت زمین، وضعیت توسعه اقتصادی، حقوق کاربری‏اراضی و قوانین اجاره دارای بیشترین تاثیر بر دیگر عوامل تاثیرگذار در تغییرات کاربری زمین شهری‏اند که به‏عنوان عوامل پیشران و کلیدی در تغییرات کاربری زمین شهری تهران شناخته می‏شوند.

    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل ساختاری، تغییرات کاربری زمین، کلان‏شهر تهران، نیروهای پیشران
  • سمیه محمدی حمیدی، حسین نظم فر*، محمد یاپنگ غراوی صفحات 1197-1216

    امروزه، شهرنشینی شتابان چه در کشورهای توسعه‏یافته چه در کشورهای درحال‏توسعه، با ناهنجاری‏های اجتماعی، اقتصادی، فرهنگی، و فضایی زیادی همراه است که سبب افزایش تضادها و نابرابری‏های اجتماعی از یک ‏سو و انحرافات، کج‏روی‏های اجتماعی، و نزول امنیت از سویی دیگر در محیط‏های شهری شده است. با توجه به اهمیت امنیت و لزوم بررسی و سنجش این مقوله در شهرهای کشورمان، تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی شاخص‏های امنیت در سطح مناطق چهارگانه شهر اردبیل تهیه‏ شده است. نوع تحقیق کاربردی و روش آن نیز توصیفی- تحلیلی است. داده‏ها و اطلاعات به‏صورت پیمایشی (از طریق پرسش‏نامه با 384 نفر نمونه با روش نمونه‏گیری خوشه‏ای (از مناطق چهارگانه) با سطح با اطمینان 95درصد) جمع‏آوری ‏شده‏اند. برای تجزیه‏وتحلیل داده‏‏ها و اطلاعات نیز از نرم‏افزار اس‏پی‏اس‏اس، لیزرل، و مدل کوپراس (COPRAS) استفاده شده است. یافته‏ها نشان می‏دهد شاخص‏های احساس امنیت مالی شهروندان با مقدار آماره تی 4.23، احساس امنیت جانی شهروندان با مقدار تی26/5، احساس امنیت کالبدی با مقدار تی 59/4، و شاخص نقش نیروی انتظامی با مقدار تی24/2 در سطح کاملا معنی‏داری قرار دارد و از ارتباط درونی نسبتا مناسبی با هم قرار دارند. همچنین، نتایج حاصل از مدل کوپراس نیز نشانی می‏دهد که احساس امنیت مالی، نقش نیروی انتظامی، احساس امنیت کالبدی، و احساس امنیت جانی به‏ترتیب بیشترین تاثیر در احساس امنیت از دید شهروندان دارند. درنهایت، در بین مناطق چهارگانه شهر اردبیل منطقه 2 شهری با کسب بیشترین امتیاز (28/0=Q) در میان مناطق چهارگانه شهر در جایگاه اول قرار گرفته است.

    کلیدواژگان: امنیت، شهر اردبیل، فضاهای شهری، مدل‏کوپراس
  • یزدان شیرمحمدی*، سید اسحاق جلالیان، فرزانه عابدی، اسماعیل نصیری هند خاله صفحات 1217-1233

    ارایه دقیق و ذکر جزییات اطلاعات سفر توسط راهنمای تور برای گردشگر، به‏ویژه گردشگران اروپایی که برای اولین بار به ایران سفر می‏کنند، اهمیت تعیین‏کننده در رضایت آنان دارد. در این پژوهش به بررسی تاثیر ابعاد سواد جغرافیایی راهنمایی تور (شناخت جغرافیایی، دانش جغرافیا، فرایند اطلاعات جغرافیا) بر رضایتمندی گردشگران، کاهش ریسک درک‏شده، و کاهش تردید گردشگر پرداخته شده است. پژوهش حاضر به لحاظ هدف کاربردی و از نظر روش تحقیق در زمره تحقیقات توصیفی‏- پیمایشی قرار می‏گیرد. جامعه آماری پژوهش گردشگران اروپایی شهر تهران است. در تحلیل استنباطی داده‏ها از ضریب آلفای ‏کرونباخ و برای تعیین ثبات درونی ابزار از آزمون KMOو کرویت بارتلت و برای مناسب‏بودن حجم نمونه و درست‏بودن تفکیک عامل‏ها و برای تعیین ارتباط علی بین متغیرها از روش مدل معادلات ساختاری استفاده شد. یافته‏های این پژوهش نشان داد از میان ابعاد سواد جغرافیایی گردشگری، دو بعد شناخت جغرافیایی و فرایند اطلاعات جغرافیایی بر رضایتمندی، ریسک درک‏شده، و تردید گردشگر تاثیر مثبت و معناداری دارد؛ اما بعد دانش جغرافیایی گردشگر بر رضایتمندی و تردید گردشگر بی‏تاثیر است. راهنمای تور باید اطلاعات جغرافیایی غنی در زمینه مکان‏های گردشگری داخلی، فرهنگ مقصد، محل اقامت، نحوه استفاده از وسایل حمل و نقل عمومی داشته باشد. براساس یافته‏های پژوهش به سازمان میراث فرهنگی توصیه می‏شود مجوز کارت راهنمایی تور را در اختیار افرادی قرار دهد که، علاوه بر دانش گردشگری و زبان تخصصی، دارای سواد و دانش جغرافیایی مناسبی از مقاصد گردشگری باشند.

    کلیدواژگان: دانش جغرافیایی گردشگر، رضایتمندی گردشگر، ریسک درک‏شده، سواد جغرافیایی راهنمایی تور
  • افشین متقی*، حسین طلا، آرش قربانی سپهر صفحات 1235-1255

    تحولات انجام ‏‏گرفته در عرصه‏های مختلف زمینه‏ساز شکل‏دهی به مباحث جدید در عرصه مطالعه در حوزه شهرها به‏عنوان پدیده‏های فضایی- جغرافیایی است. این تحولات ناشی از بی‏عدالتی، تبعیض جنسیتی، فقر، و توزیع درآمد در روابط قدرت موجود در مناسبات شهری است که در حوزه مطالعات شهری، اجتماعی، و حقوقی می‏توان به آن پرداخت. بر این مبنا، می‏توان گفت وجود تبعیض و دسترسی ‏نداشتن به امکانات حق چگونه زیستن را در میان انسان‏ها به خطر می‏اندازد و باید پاره‏ای از امور فراهم باشد تا انسان‏ها بتوانند به یک زندگی مطلوب دست یابند. این حق در شهر را جمعی از متخصصان این حوزه «حق به شهر» نامیده‏اند که در آن شهروندان «حق آزادی، حق مشارکت و تملک، حق دسترسی به امکانات شهری، و...» را باید دارا باشند و برای رسیدن به آن می‏توانند فریاد یا درخواست کنند. پژوهش حاضر مبتنی بر روش تحلیل محتوا در پی پاسخ به این پرسش است که چگونه می‏توان مفهوم‏سازی درست از حق به شهر ارایه داد. فرضیه تحقیق این است: به‏نظر می‏رسد مفهوم‏سازی درستی از حق به شهر در کارهای مورد بررسی انجام نگرفته و فقط به توصیف آن از طریق بیان مثال‏ها بسنده شده است. نتیجه اینکه اگر ایده حق به شهر از سوی مدیریت شهری تحقق یابد، شاهد آن خواهیم بود که شهرها در آینده‏ به فضاهایی پویا و پایدار تبدیل ‏شوند. بنابراین، حق به شهر عبارت است از شناخت منابع و امکانات موجود و توزیع عادلانه آن در فضای شهر؛ به‏‏طوری‏که مدیریت دموکراتیک شهری براساس شفافیت، مسئولیت‏پذیری، و پاسخ‏گویی زمینه مشارکت شهروندان را فراهم آورد تا شهروندان بتوانند آن‏گونه که شایسته است بر سرنوشت خود نقش داشته باشند و چگونه زیستن را خود طراحی و اجرا کنند؛ زیرا انسان دارای قدرت اختیار و خودآگاهی است و درحقیقت این خودآگاهی و اختیار تشکیل‏دهنده گوهر انسانی اوست.

    کلیدواژگان: حق به شهر، حقوق شهروندی، شهر پایدار، مدیریت شهری، مشارکت شهروندی
  • مهدی عبدالله زاده*، محمدرحیم رهنما، محمد اجزاءشکوهی، میرنجف موسوی صفحات 1257-1273

    در میان ابعاد توسعه پایداری، بعد اجتماعی یکی از ابعاد اصلی شناخته می‏شود که بیشتر با ابعاد کیفیت زندگی همگام است و بر مفاهیمی همچون آینده‏نگری، عدالت‏محوری، مشارکت، و توانمندسازی تاکید دارد. هدف اصلی از پژوهش حاضر بررسی و ارزیابی شاخص‏های پایداری اجتماعی در شهرهای استان آذربایجان‏غربی است. بدین منظور، از مدل‏های تصمیم‏گیری چندشاخصه ویکور و شیوه‏های تحلیلی مربوطه برای رتبه‏بندی و سطح‏بندی شهرهای استان با توجه به شاخص‏های پایداری اجتماعی استفاده شده است. پژوهش حاضر از نوع پژوهش‏های توصیفی- تحلیلی است و جامعه آماری مورد بررسی در این پژوهش 42 شهر استان آذربایجان‏غربی است که 13 شهر از این شهرها به‏عنوان نمونه مطالعه و بررسی شده است. برپایه یافته‏های پژوهش، شاخص‏های «پایداری اجتماعی» در چارچوب مدل ویکور نشان می‏دهد که کلان‏شهر ارومیه بالاترین و مطلوب‏ترین شرایط را از نظر پایداری اجتماعی داراست و شهر بوکان نامطلوب‏ترین شرایط را از نظر این شاخص‏ها داراست. 45درصد از شهرهای مورد مطالعه به لحاظ شاخص‏های مورد بررسی دارای وضعیت ناپایداری بالقوه یا ناپایدار است. همچنین، 32درصد از شهرهای مورد مطالعه دارای وضعیت متوسط به لحاظ شاخص‏های پایداری اجتماعی است.ضریب پراکندگی و میزان نابرابری شهرهای مورد مطالعه به لحاظ شاخص‏های اجتماعی پایداری حدود 40/0 است که نشان‏دهنده عدم تعادل نسبتا متوسط نماگرهای شاخص‏های مورد مطالعه در شهرهای استان آذربایجان غربی است.یافته‏ها نشان می‏دهد همبستگی معنی‏داری بین تابع مزیت توسعه پایدار اجتماعی و شمار جمعیتی شهرهای استان وجود دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی، پایداری اجتماعی، تصمیم‏ گیری چندشاخصه، مدل ویکور، آذربایجان‏ غربی
  • محمدحسن پویان*، علی صنایعی، آذرنوش انصاری صفحات 1275-1293

    افزایش باورنکردنی بحران‏ها و فراوانی و پیچیدگی آن‏ها این رویکرد نگاه عامیانه و سنتی به آسیب‏پذیری را دچار تزلزل کرده و نیاز به رویکرد جامع‏تری از آسیب‏پذیری و مدیریت بحران را مطرح کرده است. با توجه به اهمیت موضوع ارزیابی آسیب‏پذیری کالبدی شهرها در مباحث مربوط به سیستم‏های اطلاعات مکانی شهری، در این تحقیق سعی شده با به‏کارگیری توابع آسیب‏پذیری در برابر زلزله، با استفاده از داده‏های مکانی و توصیفی، اجزا و عناصر اصلی و رفتاری بافت کالبدی شهری منطقه یک شهر تهران و تعیین تاثیر هر کدام از معیارهای به‏کاررفته در میزان آسیب‏پذیری مدل‏سازی و ریزپهنه‏بندی آسیب احتمالی وارده به بافت کالبدی منطقه مورد مطالعه پرداخته شود. نتایج حاصله نشان می‏دهد منطقه یک در سه سناریوی مختلف با شدت زلزله 6، 7، و 8 هم به لحاظ بافت شهری هم به لحاظ کالبد شهری دارای بیشترین میزان آسیب‏پذیری متوسط به بالاست که آن به‏سبب بافت فرسوده و توسعه و تغییر کالبدی است که در چند دهه قبل در این منطقه اتفاق افتاده است؛ بدین ترتیب، می‏توان به این نتیجه رسید که این منطقه نسبت به بافت‏های نسبتا جدید، که ساخته شده، به‏سبب گسلش منطقه، به بحران طبیعی مثل زلزله احتمالی که ممکن است در منطقه اتفاق بیفتد باز هم آسیب‏پذیر است.

    کلیدواژگان: آسیب ‏پذیری، سناریو، سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی، شهر تهران، فرایند تحلیل سلسله ‏مراتبی، منطقه یک
  • صادق بشارتی فر*، مصطفی میرآبادی صفحات 1295-1318

    توزیع نامناسب و نابرابر خدمات در شهرها به علت جاماندن توسعه شهر از رشد شهر در حال حاضر یکی از چالش‏های مدیریت شهری در پاسخ گویی به شهروندان است. در این میان شهرهای صنعتی دارای ویژگی‏های خاصی از جمله تمرکز فعالیت‏های صنعتی، مسایل زیست‏محیطی، و از همه مهم تر دوگانگی فضایی اند. به همین دلیل، توجه به پایداری توسعه شهرهای نفتی به ویژه از لحاظ کالبدی و خدماتی ضروری است. تحقیق حاضر (در سال 1396) با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و با هدف تبیین الگوی توزیع خدمات شهری در محلات شهر آبادان و بررسی نقش صنعت نفت در این زمینه انجام شده‏است. بنابراین، این پژوهش با گردآوری اطلاعات اسنادی و میدانی (توزیع پرسش نامه) و به کارگیری شاخص‏های خدماتی و اجتماعی- اقتصادی و بهره‏گیری از مدل‏های تخمین تراکم کرنل، اندازه‏گیری توزیع جغرافیایی، میانگین فاصله نزدیک ترین همسایه، موران، OLS، و همچنین آزمون‏های T.Test دونمونه‏ای و ضریب همبستگی پیرسون با استفاده از نرم افزازهای Arc GIS و SPSS انجام شده‏است. نتایج پژوهش حاکی از وجود رابطه مثبت، قوی، و معنی‏دار بین توسعه اقتصادی و اجتماعی با توسعه خدمات شهری در شهر آبادان است؛ به طوری که وجود محلات برنامه‏ریزی شده وابسته صنعت نفت، که هم به لحاظ اقتصادی و اجتماعی مترقی‏ترند هم به لحاظ کالبدی و خدماتی برنامه‏ریزی شده‏ترند و نیز وجود محلات حاشیه‏ای به ویژه در نواحی شرقی شهر آبادان که هم به لحاظ اجتماعی و اقتصادی ضعیف و آسیب‏پذیر‏ند هم به لحاظ توسعه کالبدی کمتر مورد توجه مدیریت شهری بوده‏اند به جدایی‏گزینی و دوگانگی فضایی در شهر آبادان منجر شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل، توزیع فضایی، توسعه اقتصادی - اجتماعی، خدمات شهری، شهر آبادان
  • سارا موزرمی، رحیم سرور*، مجید ولی شریعت پناهی صفحات 1319-1337

    رشد روزافزون جمعیت شهری و افزایش مهاجرت به کلان‏شهرها از یک سو و فقدان برنامه‏ریزی‏های کارآمد، از سوی دیگر، علاوه بر افزایش دامنه ساخت و سازها در نقاط پیرامونی شهرها، استفاده بی‏رویه و ناصحیح از منابع و تخریب اراضی کشاورزی را در پی داشته است. توسعه میان‏افزا یکی از رویکردهای اصلی در مقابله با پدیده پراکنش و رشد افقی شهرهاست. یکی از اصلی‏ترین حوزه‏هایی که در توسعه میان‏افزای شهر به آن توجه می‏شود زمین‏های بایر و بلااستفاده در محدوده شهر است. توجه به ظرفیت بالای زمین‏های بایر در شهر می‏تواند راه ما را در رسیدن به شهری پایدار هموار کند. هدف از پژوهش حاضر ارزیابی شاخص‏های توسعه پایدار شهری با تاکید بر شاخص‏های توسعه میان‏افزای شهری در شهر اهواز در قالب سه بعد اجتماعی، کالبدی، و فضایی از طریق بررسی 33 شاخص است. روش تحقیق در این مطالعه روش توصیفی- تحلیلی است.همچنین، برایدست‏یابی به این هدف از ضریب آنتروپی شانون، مدل TOPSIS، و تحلیل خوشه‏ای استفاده شده است. اطلاعات لازمه از طریق مطالعات کتابخانه‏ای و با استفاده از آمار نامه سال 1395 شهر اهواز به‏دست آمده است. نتایج حاصل از مدل تاپسیس نشان داد، به لحاظ ظرفیت توسعه میان‏افزا، با استفاده از شاخص‏های منتخب به‏ترتیب مناطق 5 (589/0) و 1 (416/0) دارای بالاترین ضریب و بیشترین ظرفیت توسعه میان‏افزای شهری را دارا می‏باشند. مناطق 2 (024/0) و 7 (145/0) دارای کمترین ظرفیت توسعه میان‏افزای شهری در شهر اهواز را دارا می‏باشند. همچنین، مناطق 4 (923/0) و 6 (759/0) به لحاظ وضعیت توسعه پایدار شهری به‏ترتیب دارای بالاترین ضریب برخورداری‏اند و مناطق 5 (022/0) و 2 (177/0) نیز دارای کمترین ضریب برخورداری‏اند. نتایج بررسی وضعیت میزان برخورداری مناطق هشت‏گانه شهر اهواز به لحاظ شاخص‏های منتخب توسعه پایدار شهری متفاوت است؛ به‏طوری‏که از لحاظ برخورداری از شاخص اجتماعی منطقه4، شاخص خدمات شهری منطقه 1، و شاخص کالبدی منطقه 4 دارای بیشترین میزان برخورداری‏اند و از نظر میزان عدم برخورداری (محرومیت) از لحاظ شاخص اجتماعی منطقه 5، شاخص کالبدی منطقه7، و از نظر شاخص خدمات شهری منطقه8 به‏عنوان محروم‏ترین مناطق از لحاظ برخورداری از شاخص‏های منتخب توسعه پایدار شهری مشخص شدند.

    کلیدواژگان: آنتروپی شانون، توسعه پایدار شهری، توسعه میان ‏افزا، شهر اهواز، مدل تاپسیس
  • محمدحسین شریف زادگان*، حسین قانونی صفحات 1339-1355

    در مقاله حاضر به بررسی مشارکت شهروندی در شهروندان اصفهانی بالای 18 سال پرداخته شده است. عناصر بسیاری بر مشارکت شهروندان اثرگذارند: ساختارهای سیاسی، شرایط اقتصادی، ویژگی های فرهنگی، و... اما حتی اگر زمینه های مشارکت از سوی تصمیم گیران فراهم شود، تا زمانی که شهروندان برای مشارکت در امور مرتبط با زندگی آنان تمایلی نداشته باشند، فرایندهای مشارکتی شکست می خورند. از همین رو، شناسایی عناصر موثر بر مشارکت شهروندی می تواند زمینه اجرای مداخلات نهادی برای بهبود مشارکت شهروندی را فراهم کند؛ امری که مسئله اصلی مقاله پیش روست. برای سنجش مشارکت شهروندی در شهروندان اصفهان 11 گویه انتخاب شد. نمونه گیری به صورت خوشه ای و با حجم نمونه 450 نفری انجام گرفت. علاوه بر گویه ها، ویژگی های بافتاری همچون سن، جنسیت، تحصیلات، شغل، نوع واحد مسکونی، نوع تملک واحد مسکونی، درآمد، مذهب، و قدمت سکونت نیز جمع آوری شد. سپس، با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSSپایایی پرسش نامه با آلفای کرونباخ 680/0 تایید شد. تحلیل عاملی به شناسایی سه عامل (با مجموع تبیین واریانس 65 درصد) انجامید: «تعهد مدنی»، «تعهد فردی»، و «مشارکت در انتخابات». با ترکیب وزنی عوامل، شاخص «مشارکت شهروندی» محاسبه شد و درنهایت نقشه توزیع شاخص مشارکت شهروندی و عوامل آن در مناطق پانزده گانه اصفهان ترسیم شد. برای سنجش اثر ویژگی های بافتاری بر مشارکت شهروندی، از مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری با نرم افزار SmartPLS استفاده شد. نتایج مدل سازی بیانگر آن است که عناصر بافتاری تحصیلات (217/0)، سن (162/0)، و موقعیت شغلی (101/0) با عامل «مشارکت در انتخابات» و «قدمت سکونت» (122/0)، «مذهب» (123/0)، و «نوع تملک واحد مسکونی» (122/0-) با عامل «تعهد مدنی» رابطه معنادار داشته اند.

    کلیدواژگان: اصفهان، تحلیل عاملی، تعهد شهروندی، مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری، مشارکت شهروندی
  • منصور عزیزی، رسول درسخوان*، محمدرضا پورمحمدی صفحات 1357-1371

    تغییر در نگرش به توسعه و فرایند آن برای شهرها از عوامل مهم در پیدایش زمینه تغییر رویکرد در برنامه‏ریزی شهری به سمت استفاده از برنامه‏ریزی ساختاری-راهبردی بود. این تغییر نتیجه تحولات سیاسی در جوامع برای استقرار دموکراسی و مشارکت‏پذیری دولت‏ها در اداره شهرهاست. برنامه‏ریزی ساختاری-راهبردیو حکمروایی به شکل چارچوب مناسبی می‏تواند کمبود دموکراسی موجود مربوط به تصمیم‏گیری مرتبط با مسایل مهم محلی را پر کند که می‏تواند راه مهم دیگری برای ارایهمحتوای جدید به دموکراسی محلی باشد. برنامه‏ریزی ساختاری-راهبردی هم فرایند هم محصولی است که موجبات تامین بخشی از حکمروایی خوب شهری را مهیا می‏کند. استراتژی توسعه شهری در شهرهای مختلف تابع یک چارچوب واحد نیست؛ ولی حداقل به پنج موضوع مهم شهری توجه دارد: زیست‏پذیری شهر، پایداری زیست‏محیطی، شکل فضایی شهر و زیرساخت‏های آن، منابع مالی، و حکمرانی شهر. استراتژی توسعه شهری بر این فرض مبتنی است که مسیر توسعه شهرها از طریق مداخلات استراتژیک جامعه، بخش خصوصی، و تشکل‏های مدنی در زمان و به شیوه مناسب می‏تواند به شکل شگفت‏انگیزی تغییر یابد. هدف از این پژوهش واکاوی نقش طرح‏های ساختاری- راهبردی در تحقق انگاره حکمروایی خوب شهری با نمونه مطالعاتی منطقه 22 کلان‏شهر تهران است. روش تحقیق کیفی (تحلیل محتوا) است. در این بخش با قاعده اشباع نظری با 22 نفر مصاحبه ‏شد. ساختار نمونه به شیوه‏ تدریجی با رویکرد گلوله‏ برفی در فرایند تحقیق مشخص شد. نتایج نشان‏دهنده وجود مشکلاتی عمده در ساختار مدیریت و قوانین شهری است.

    کلیدواژگان: تحقق، حکمروایی خوب شهری، طرح راهبردی- ساختاری
  • عباس‏علی آروین*، علیرضا کیانی صفحات 1373-1389

    توزیع نامناسب و غیرعادلانه خدمات عمومی در شهرها به یکی از چالش‏های مهم در برنامه‏ریزی شهری تبدیل شده است. شهر یزد نیز، به‏عنوان مرکز استان، از این قاعده مستثنا نبوده است. از این رو، هدف از این پژوهش تحلیل فضایی پراکنش خدمات عمومی در شهر یزد است. در این راستا،نخست موقعیت نقطه‏ای نه گروه خدمات اصلی و 32 گروه خدمات فرعی براساس نقشه‏های کاربری اراضی طرح تفصیلی مکان‏یابی و لایه‏بندی شد. سپس، هر یک از خدمات اصلی و فرعی با استفاده از تکنیک دلفی و پرسش‏نامه کارشناسان وزن‏دهی شد. درنهایت، با استفاده از قابلیت‏های سیستم اطلاعاتی جغرافیایی (فاصله اقلیدسی و روش هم‏پوشانی لایه‏ها) پراکنش فضایی براساس وزن اختصاص‏یافته هر یک از خدمات مذکور تحلیل شد. یافته‏های پژوهش نشان داد درمجموع بهترین پراکنش فضایی مربوط به خدمات فضای سبز و ضعیف‏ترین پراکنش فضایی در درجه اول مربوط به خدمات فرهنگی و سپس خدمات بهداشتی‏- درمانی است. به‏طوری‏که فضای سبز در سطحی معادل 71 درصد شهر یزد از پراکنش فضایی خوب و بسیار خوب برخوردار است و فقط در مساحتی معادل 6/10 درصد از شهر یزد پراکنش پارک‏ها در سطح ضعیف و بسیار ضعیف قرار دارد. در حالی که خدمات فرهنگی و بهداشتی‏- درمانی به‏ترتیب در سطحی معادل 52 و 9/56درصد از شهر یزد خوب و بسیار خوب و در 48 و 1/43 درصد متوسط تا بسیار ضعیف است. بررسی نقشه‏های حاصل از پژوهش نشان می‏دهد پراکنش‏های ضعیف و بسیار ضعیف در نواحی تازه توسعه‏یافته شهر اتفاق افتاده است.

    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل فضایی، خدمات عمومی، شهر یزد، فاصله اقلیدسی
  • جهان بین میرزایی، یعقوب پیوسته گر*، حسین کلانتری خلیل آباد صفحات 1391-1408

    به ‏‏رغم صرف هزینه‏های کلان برای تهیه طرح جامع شهری، شواهد نشان می‏دهد این طرح در بسیاری از فضاهای شهری کشور با مشکل و چالش عدم تحقق‏پذیری مواجه است. هدف از پژوهش حاضر، که با روش توصیفی‏- تحلیلی انجام گرفته است، شناسایی عوامل بازدارنده تحقق‏پذیری طرح جامع شهری در کلان‏شهر شیراز است. جامعه آماری را مدیران و کارشناسان شهری و همچنین استادان دانشگاهی متخصص تشکیل می‏دهد که از میان آن‏ها 170 نفر نمونه آماری درنظر گرفته شده‏اند. ابزار اصلی پژوهش برای جمع‏آوری داده‏های مورد نیاز پرسش‏نامه محقق‏ساخته است و برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده‏ها از نرم‏افزارهای SPSS و Amosاستفاده شده است. نتایج نشان داد پنج عامل شناسایی‏شده مهم‏ترین بازدارنده‏های تحقق‏پذیری طرح جامع در محدوده مطالعاتی‏اند که توانسته‏اند 7/69 درصد از واریانس متغیر وابسته پژوهش را تبیین کنند. عوامل شناسایی و درصد تبیین هر یک به‏ترتیب اهمیت عبارت‏اند از: ضعف عوامل مدیریتی (09/20)؛ ضعف فرایند تهیه، تدوین، و تصویب طرح (9/13)؛ بنیان مالی و اقتصادی ضعیف نهادهای متولی (15/13)؛ موانع اداری‏- قانونی (38/11)؛ و بی‏اعتنایی به بسترهای مشارکتی(18/11). همچنین، نتایج پژوهش نشان داد مدل تجربی نهایی عوامل بازدارنده تحقق‏پذیری طرح جامع با استفاده از رویکرد مدل‏سازی معادلات ساختاری در کلان‏شهر شیراز از برازش مناسبی برخوردار است و تاییدکننده مدل اکتشافی شناسایی‏شده است. همچنین، نتایج نشان داد نظارت دقیق علمی بر فرایند تهیه و تصویب و اجرای طرح، ممانعت از دخالت آرایشخصی و دیدگاه‏های سیاسی در فرایند تهیه، تصویب و اجرای طرح،و درنظرگرفتن مشارکت و همکاری شهروندان در همهمراحل تهیه، تصویب،و اجرای طرح به‏ترتیب با 145، 138، و 135 مورد تکرار مهم‏ترین راهکارهای عملیاتی برای رفع موانع شناسایی شده‏اند.

    کلیدواژگان: توسعه پایدار، طرح جامع، فضاهای شهری، کلان‏شهر شیراز
  • علیرضا یوسفی مقدم*، غلام رضا نبی بیدهندی، حسن هویدی صفحات 1409-1432

    در سال‏های اخیر، تلاش‏های برنامه‏ریزی بر موضوع‏های محیطی تاکید داشته است، از قبیل اینکه چگونه باید توسعه را جهت‏دهی و اداره کرد تا آسیب‏های وارده بر محیط به کمترین میزان ممکن برسد. تصمیمات گرفته‏شده در مرحله برنامه‏ریزی بدون توجه به محیط طبیعی و فیزیکی می‏تواند در جهت مخالف نیازهای طرح و برنامه‏ریزی مناسب برای سرزمین حرکت کند. در برنامه‏ریزی ملی باید به تعیین وظایف فضایی هر منطقه متناسب با توان اکولوژیکی آن و تخصیص عوامل فیزیکی توسعه توجه کرد. بنابراین، در طراحی استراتژی و سیاست‏های مربوط به بخش‏های برنامه‏ریزی شهری باید ارزیابی توان اکولوژیک توسعه را مد نظر قرار داد و مدل بهینه برای آن طراحی کرد. در ایران نیز با توجه به اینکه درستی مدل‏های اکولوژیک،به‏رغم استفاده چند دهه، تا کنون برای توسعه شهری با استفاده از سیستم GISو سیمای سرزمین بررسی نشده است، با پیشرفت تکنولوژی، ضرورت دارد نخست مدل‏سازی اکولوژیک توسعه شهر انجام شود. سپس، با سیمای سرزمین و سنجه‏های آن منطبق شود. در این تحقیق تغییرات شهر شیراز و محدوده آن براساس تغییرات کاربری زمین بین سه دوره زمانی و دو دوره تغییرات در سال‏های2010-2015 و دوره دوم 2015-2019 براساس استخراج تصاویر ماهواره‏ای از سری ماهواره‏های لندست انجام شده است. پس از بررسی تغییرات و استخراج و مقایسه آن، به بررسی سه‏دوره‏ تغییرات لنداسکیپ منطقه مورد مطالعه و تغییرات آن در اسکیپ‏های گوناگون پرداخته شده است و درنهایت به مدل‏سازی توسعه شهر شیراز با توجه به حفظ اکولوژیک منطقه و توسعه بهینه شهری آن پرداخته شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: تغییرات کاربری، توسعه اکولوژیک، سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی، شیراز، لنداسکیپ
  • محمدرضا رضایی، شهاب الدین حج فروش* صفحات 1433-1452

    معلولان جسمی- حرکتی بخشی از افراد جامعه‏اند که همچون سایر شهروندان نیازمندمطلوبیت طراحی فضاهای مسکونی‏اند؛ بنابراین، هدف از اجرایاین پژوهش ارزیابی مطلوبیت طراحی فضاهای مسکونی برای معلولان جسمی- حرکتی با رویکرد شهر دوستدار معلولان در سطح شهر یزد است. این تحقیق ازنظرهدفکاربردی، ازنظرماهیت و روشتوصیفی از نوع پیمایشی است. مطالعات میدانی به‏صورت پرسش‏نامه توسط 157 نفر افراد معلول جسمی- حرکتی (براساس جدول مورگان) به‏صورت تصادفی در سطح شهر یزد تکمیل‏شده است. به‏منظور ارزیابی و رتبه‏بندی شاخص‏ها، از تکنیک UTA  و برای تحلیل داده‏ها از آزمون‏های آماری در نرم‏افزار SPSS استفاده‏شده است. براساس نتایج به‏دست‏آمده از تکنیک UTA و وزن‏دهی شاخص‏های مربوط، که به روش سلسله‏مراتبی فولر انجام‏گرفته است، مشخص شد معیار ایمنی با وزن 437/0 در رتبه اول و معیار دسترسی با وزن 183/0 در رتبه آخر قرار دارد. در تحلیل همبستگی پیرسون مشخص شد بین میزان درآمد افراد معلول، مدت اقامت آن‏ها در فضا‏های مسکونی، و سطح زیربنای محل سکونتشان با سطح رضایت این افراد رابطه معناداری وجود ندارد؛ اما بین رعایت استانداردهای لازم در فضای سکونت با سطح رضایت معلولان رابطه برقرار است. تحلیل رگرسیونی نیز نشان می‏دهد رعایت استانداردها در فضای سکونت اولویت اول را در رابطه با سطح رضایت معلولان دارد و سطح زیربنای مسکونی، درآمد، و مدت اقامت به‏ترتیب اولویت دوم، سوم، و چهارم را دارا می‏باشند.درنهایت،می‏توان نتیجه گرفت مطلوبیت طراحی فضا‏های مسکونی برای معلولان جسمی- حرکتی می‏تواند به ایجاد شهر دوستدار معلولان در سطح شهر یزد منجر شود.

    کلیدواژگان: تکنیک UTA، شهر دوستدار معلولان، شهر یزد، فضا‏های مسکونی، معلولان جسمی- حرکتی
  • محمد قاسمی*، فرهاد عزیز پور صفحات 1453-1474

    سازمان فضایی سکونتگاه‏ها پیوسته از درون و از بیرون تحت تاثیر نیروهای متعدد (محیطی، اقتصادی-اجتماعی، تاریخی، و سیاسی) در حال دگرگونی و تغییر است. حاصل این تغییرات تحول در ساختارها و کارکردهای ناحیه و به تبع آن سازمان و ساختار نظام سکونتگاهی شهری و روستایی است. یکی از عناصر اصلی سازمان فضایی مناطق، شهرها و روستاها و جریان‏های فضایی مابین آن‏هاست؛ چنانچه یکی از عناصر این سیستم دچار تحول شود، سایر عناصر نیز متاثر می‏شود. در این مقاله دگردیسی سازمان فضایی روستاهای بخش بن‏رود و جلگه در شهرستان اصفهان در اثر تحولات نظام فعالیت بررسی شده است. پژوهش از نوع پژوهش‏های کاربردی و توسعه‏ای است و با روش کیفی و مصاحبه عمیق تحولات شناسایی شده‏اند. به‏منظور دست‏یابی به هدف تحقیق و در راستای پاسخ‏گویی به سوالات پژوهش،‏ با رویکرد فضایی و نگرش سیستمی به تبیین تحولات ساختاری‏- کارکردی و تغییرات سازمان فضایی سکونتگاه‏های روستایی واقع در ناحیه مورد مطالعه (بخش بن‏رود و جلگه شهرستان اصفهان) در اثر تحول نظام فعالیت پرداخته شده است. نتایج بیانگر آن است که در اثر عواملی مانند محدودیت منابع آب و خاک، تضعیف نقش تولید کشاورزی، تضعیف نظام اقتصاد روستایی، کاهش نقش نیروی انسانی فعال در تولید، تضعیف ساختارهای بومی نظام بهره‏برداری از منابع آب در ساختار اشتغال به نفع بخش خدمات تغییری به‏وجود آمده که این امر به رشد مهاجرفرستی انجامیده است. در نتیجه ساختار فعالیت تولیدی در منطقه به فروپاشی رسیده است و در اثر این امر سازمان فضایی منطقه از یک سازمان منظم و پایدار به سمت سازمانی قطبی‏شده با محوریت شهرگرایی به نقاط کانونی سوق داده شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: اصفهان، بن‏رود و جلگه، سازمان فضایی، ‏ نظام فعالیت، نواحی روستایی
  • مهرداد استیری*، سمیه حسامی، بی بی مرجان فیاضی، فرزاد رضا علی صفحات 1475-1492

    در شهرداری‏ها، به‏عنوان سازمان‏های ارایه‏دهنده خدمات عمومی به شهروندان، نیروی انسانی مهم‏ترین سرمایهسازمان محسوب می‏شود و هر چه این سرمایه کیفیت مطلوب‏تری داشته باشد، احتمال موفقیت، بقا،و ارتقای سازمان بیشتر خواهد شد. هدف اصلی از این تحقیق بررسی نقش برخی متغیرهای میانجی و تعدیلگر مهمی است که می‏توانند بر رفتار شهروندی سازمانی کارکنان سازمان‏های عمومی ارایه‏کننده خدمات شهری تاثیرگذار باشند. به‏طور خاص، در این مطالعه تاثیر تحقق قرارداد روان‏شناختی بر رفتار شهروندی سازمانی با توجه به نقش میانجی حمایت سازمانی ادراک‏شده و نقش تعدیلگر درهم‏تنیدگی شغلی در کارکنان شهرداری تهران بررسی شده است. این پژوهش از منظر هدف کاربردی و از منظر گردآوری داده‏ها از نوع توصیفی-پیمایشی است. با بهره‏گیری از روش نمونه‏گیری تصادفی ساده، 291 نفر از کارکنان شهرداری منطقه 6 تهران به‏عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. داده‏های جمع‏آوری‏شده با روش مدل معادلات ساختاری و رگرسیون سلسله‏مراتبی تحلیل شد. نتایج تحلیل داده‏ها نشان داد تحقق قرارداد روان‏شناختی بر حمایت سازمانی ادراک‏شده و رفتار شهروندی سازمانی اثر مثبت و معناداری دارد. همچنین، اثر مثبت و معنادار حمایت سازمانی ادراک‏شده نیز بر رفتار شهروندی سازمانی تایید شد. به علاوه، دیگر یافته‏های این مطالعه نشان داد حمایت سازمانی ادراک‏شده در رابطه میان تحقق قرارداد روان‏شناختی و رفتار شهروندی سازمانی نقش میانجی و درهم‏تنیدگی شغلی در رابطه میان حمایت سازمانی ادراک‏شده و رفتار شهروندی سازمانی نقش تعدیلگر مثبت دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: تحقق قرارداد روان ‏شناختی، حمایت سازمانی ادراک‏شده، رفتار شهروندی سازمانی، درهم ‏تنیدگی شغلی، مدیریت سازمان‏ های شهری
  • محمدرضا جلوخانی نیارکی*، علیرضا سرسنگی علی آباد، نرجس محمودی وانعلیا صفحات 1493-1509

    مشکل پارکینگ یکی از موضوعات مهم در زندگی شهری است؛ زیرا بسیاری از شهروندان مقدار زیادی از انرژی و زمان خود را برای یافتن پارکینگ مناسب از دست می‏دهند. علاوه بر این، افزایش مصرف سوخت، حجم ترافیک، و رانندگی‏های غیرضروری مشکلات اجتماعی، اقتصادی، و زیست‏محیطی فراوانی برای شهروندان به‏وجود می‏آورد. در همین راستا، در این مقاله یک سامانه شهروندمحور مبتنی بر تحلیل تصمیم‏گیری چندمعیاره مکان‏آگاه و GISبرای جست‏وجو و مسیریابی پارکینگ‏ها ارایه شده است. این برنامه کاربردی از سه بخش اصلی تشکیل شده که شامل دو بخش مدیریت پارکینگ محلی و مدیریت جامع پارکینگ‏ها در بستر وب و یک بخش پارکینگ‏یاب مبتنی بر تلفن همراه است. بخش‏های کاربردی‏ مدیریت پارکینگ محلی و مدیریت جامع پارکینگ‏ها اطلاعات مربوط به هر پارکینگ را جمع‏آوریو به بخش کاربردی پارکینگ‏یاب منتقل می‏کنند. شهروندان می‏توانند با تعیین اولویت معیارهای موجود در بخش پارکینگ‏یاب مناسب‏ترین پارکینگ و مسیر دست‏یابی به آن را دریافت کنند. از این برنامه به‏منظور بهبود مسیریابی جای پارکدر شهر یزد استفاده شد. در ادامه، به‏منظور ارزیابی برنامه، از 55 نفر از شهروندانی که از آن استفاده کرده‏اند نظرسنجی شد. نتایج نشان می‏دهد 4/36 درصد از افراد شرکت‏کننده بیشتر از 10 بار در ماه و بیشتر در ساعات بعد از ظهر (6/63 درصد) و روزهای تعطیل (20 درصد) از این برنامه استفاده کرده‏اند. همچنین، این برنامه سبب کاهش زمان جست‏وجو (5/54 درصد به میزان کمتر از 10 دقیقه و 4/16 درصد بیش از 15 دقیقه) و افزایش کارایی استفاده از سیستم‏های پارکینگ شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: پارکینگ ‏یاب، تحلیل تصمیم ‏گیری چندمعیاره مکان ‏آگاه، سامانه شهروندمحور، مسیریابی، یزد، GIS
  • زهرا پیشگاهی فرد*، محمود واثق، محسن زمانی صفحات 1511-1528

    یکی از ضروریات دست‏یابی به سیاست خارجی کارآمد و مبتنی بر منافع ملی، منطقه‏گرایی است. در کدهای ژیوپلیتیکی قدرت‏های طراز اول منطقه‏گرایی یک استراتژی فعال و بستری برای تعامل فزاینده با نظام جهانی تعریف شده است. تاریخ سیاست خارجی ایران نشان می‏دهد منطقه‏گرایی و الگوهای آن در دستور کار طراحان و تصمیم‏سازان دستگاه‏های سیاسی ایران از پیش تا پس از اسلام قرار نگرفته است؛ به‏طوری‏که از نظر تاریخی منطقه‏گرایی به‏عنوان یک رهیافت و خط‏مشی در دولت‏های مختلف حاکم بر ایران نادیده انگاشته شده است. غفلت از به‏کارگیری رویکردها و خط‏مشی‏های جغرافیایی تا حدی است که حتی دولت‏های هخامنشی و ساسانی نیز نیازی به تعامل و منطقه‏گرایی با کشورهای تابعه خود احساس نمی‏کردند. با وجود این، جمهوری اسلامی ایران برای نیل به اهداف و منافع ژیوپلیتیکی خود ناچار از تدوین و به‏کارگیری اصول و رهیافت‏های منطقه‏گرایی است. در وضعیت فعلی، اصرار و پایبندی جمهوری اسلامی ایران به رویکرد صرف ایدیولوژیک در روابط خارجی خود تا حدی موجب غفلت از واقعیت‏های پیرامونی و از دست رفتن ظرفیت‏های جغرافیایی و ژیوپلیتیکی خود شده است. در پژوهش حاضر با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و با مبنا قراردادن رهیافت هم‏تکمیلی به تبیین اصول و رهیافت‏هایی به‏منظور فعال‏ کردن رویکرد منطقه‏گرایی در ساختار سیاست خارجی جمهوری اسلامی ایران در قفقاز و آسیای مرکزی پرداخته شده است. نتایج نشان می‏دهد از میان رهیافت‏های منطقه‏گرایی سه رهیافت هم‏تکمیلی فرهنگی، هم‏تکمیلی تمدنی و هم‏تکمیلی ژیواکونومیک از جمله مهم‏ترین رهیافت‏های منطقه‏گرایی جمهوری اسلامی ایران در قفقاز و آسیای مرکزی محسوب می‏شوند.

    کلیدواژگان: آسیای مرکزی، جمهوری اسلامی ایران، قفقاز، منطقه ‏گرایی، هم‏ تکمیلی
  • یاشار ذکی، سجاد نجفی* صفحات 1529-1549

    ضعف در مدیریت صحیح منابع آبی به‏خصوص در حوضه‏های آبی مشترک بین‏المللی، نداشتن دیپلماسی آبی کارآمد، و شیوه نامناسب بهره‏برداری از منابع آبی بین‏المللی در قرن 21 به کمبود شدید و افزایش روزافزون نقش و اهمیت آب و منابع آبی در روند زندگی ملت‏ها به‏خصوص در منطقه خاورمیانه منجر شده و می‏تواند زمینه‏ساز بحران‏های فراگیر منطقه‏ای شود. از جمله حوضه‏های آبی مشترک در منطقه خاورمیانه حوضه اروندرود است که از حساسیت و جایگاه خاص بنا بر موقعیت ژیوپلیتیکی حاکم برخوردار است؛ در دوره‏های مختلف تاریخی روابط دو کشور همسایه ایران و عراق متاثر از نحوه بهره‏برداری و مالکیت این حوضه آبی بوده است. بنابراین، لزوم اتخاذ استراتژی مناسب در روابط دیپلماتیک ایران با عراق بر سر نحوه مدیریت و بهره‏برداری این حوضه آبی مشترک بسیار مهم است. در همین راستا، در تحقیق پیش‏رو، با استفاده از نظر خبرگان، به شناسایی عوامل محیطی تاثیرگذار در هیدروپلیتیک اروندرود اقدام شد و با استفاده از تحلیل ماتریس SWOTمشخص شد راهبرد هیدروپلیتیکی ایران در حوضه اروند تهاجمی است و در ادامه اولویت‏بندی راهبردهای احصاشده حاصل آرای خبرگی با استفاده از تحلیل سلسله‏مراتبی AHPانجام گرفت و «تاکید به دولت‏مردان جهت توجه ویژه و اختصاص بودجه مناسب در راستای ارتقا و توسعه صنایع وابسته، تجهیزات زیربنایی و استراتژیک اقتصادی، هسته‏ای، و نظامی کشور با استفاده از ظرفیت‏ها و توان علمی و فنی و دانشگاهی درون کشور در راستای دست‏یابی به توازن و برتری نسبی نسبت به عراق» با کسب وزن (412/0) اولویت‏دارترین و موثرترین راهبرد انتخاب شد.

    کلیدواژگان: اروندرود، دیپلماسی آب، راهبرد، رودخانه مرزی، هیدروپلیتیک
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  • Saeid Azadi Ghatar, Abolfazl Meshkini *, Abdolreza Roknoldin Eftekhari, Ehsan Mostafavi, Mohsen Ahadnejad Reveshty, Parisa Maleki Pages 1153-1176
    Introduction

    There is satisfying evidence that the socio-economical and built environmental conditions facing residents affect health as much as the individual characteristics of residents themselves (Jackson, 2003: 1382-83 cited in: Gomez, et al. 2015: 2314). In other words, neighborhood social and built environments have been recognized as important contexts in which health is shaped (Gomez & et al, 2015: 2314 & Ansello, 2016: 1). There is now widespread interest in the role of neighborhoods in cancer and cancer disparities (Landrine & et al, 2012: 141; Baker & et al., 2000; Krieger & et al., 2002; Singh & et al., 2003). Neighborhoods contribute to disparities in cancer and its risk factors and, hence, understanding the nature of that contribution can highlight new community-level approaches to reducing cancer disparities (Landrine, et al., 2012: 141). Cancer is a chronic disease associated with genetic mutations caused by various exposures, most of them environmental (Dey et al, 2011: 254 and Smeltzer & et al, 2007: 1001). Meanwhile, lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world, with the majority of the cases in developing countries (Ferlayetal., 2010; Jemal etal.,2011 Cited in Guo, et al,. 2016). It is estimated that there were 1.825 million lung cancer cases globally in 2012, accounting for 13.0% of all cancer cases, and 1.59 million deaths from lung cancer, responsible for 19.4% of deaths from all cancers (Chen, et al., 2015: 307). Although personal choices, such as tobacco use, dietary and physical activity patterns, play a major role in the development of cancer, environmental and occupational factors are involved in the causation of a large number of human cancers (WHO-a, 2011: 1 & Anand, et al, 2008: 2098; Black & Hawaks, 2009: 504; Tomatis, 1990). In this regard, several studies have shown that the air pollution, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity are the key risk factors for lung cancers that urban planning can have an effective role in improving or reducing of their incidence. Given the inverse relationship of these factors with the neighborhood walkability, walking and physical activity; and due to little knowledge about the potential role of the urban built environments in reduce of the trend, the present paper seeks the modelling the spatial association of lung cancer with built environmental factors such as air pollution, urban form, access to public services and social and economic indicators in neighborhoods of Tehran metropolitan in the period of 2006-2010.

    Methodology and Materials 

    The research is conducted using descriptive and analytical approaches. Several data and methods are used due to multifaceted nature of the research subject. In this regard, spatial statistics and geo-statistics methods are employed. PM10, PM2.5 and CO data are used that adapted from Tehran air pollution monitoring center and along with Lung cancers data (2006-2010) from ministry of health and population density from Iran statistics Center. Lung cancers data is used for identifying geographical pattern (Cluster, scattered and random) of its by using Moran’s spatial autocorrelation statistics. Also Getis-Ord general G statistics and Cluster and Outlier Analysis (Anselin Local Moran's I) statistics, respectively, are employed for detecting High/Low value clustering and mapping the cluster and outliers. Invers Distance Weighted and kriging methods are used for interpolating point based air pollution parameters (CO, PM10, PM2.5) data. Population and employment data and Tehran’s land use and road network data are used as a mediating factors. All of mentioned statistics are done in ArcMap 10.3.1 software.

    Results and discussion

    Transportation is one of the most important sources of air pollutant emissions in Tehran city. In this case, urban air pollution is caused by urban transportation systems and suburban factories. Two major groups of polluting industries around Tehran are automotive and fuel production industries (Vafa-Arani, et al, 2014) that are located in west and south west of the city in the courses of prevailing winds. These two industries are the most related to the urban transportation systems. Ineffective public transportation infrastructures, non-standard streets and highways, population congestion, non-efficient urban management and planning, and several other reasons cause high traffic congestion in the metropolitan area of Tehran. Due to the closure of Tehran in northern, northeastern and partly east by mountains, this is an issue that worsen the air pollution in Tehran which brings many negative effects on lung cancer. The overall results showed that by applying the following policies, it can be overcome to the public health and air pollution problems in the medium and long-term: using urban smart growth policies and transit-oriented development approaches (TOD) in urban planning and designing practices; propagating the culture of using public transport; developing the natural, open and green zones and spaces in the city and especially in the western area of the city where there are more polluting sources.

    Conclusion

    Automobile dependence cities today are revealed in modern urban societies. The context preparation for automobile dependence phenomenon are improving living standards and tendency to well-being. This is in addition to the lack of necessary transport infrastructures and public transport options in developing countries, has brought many expenses including: exhaustion of natural resources, environmental hazards and public health problems. Despite that the numerous factors are involved in production and Intensifying the urban air pollution and its related problems, but ultimately this somehow refers to urban and suburbs land uses. Redistribution of land uses in urban spaces is one of the strategies that has been proposed to achieve the appropriate development patterns in order to reduce urban challenges and pollution, especially air pollution in different urban scales. Studies show that compact and smart growth urban forms has greatly impacts on reducing the air pollution (Bahtash & et al, 2013). Urban form and public transport network developments must comply with and support each other as much as possible. The compliance can create urban forms that encourages the use of public transport to against using private automobile and reduces the amount of air pollutants and results improving public health and lung cancer outcomes.

    Keywords: Lung cancer, Built environment, Structural Equation Modeling, Amos Graphic, Tehran
  • Kazem Borhani, Mojtaba Rafieian *, Abolfazl Meshkini, Safar Ghaed Rahmati Pages 1177-1195
    Introduction

    Changing the use of land is one of the most important challenges in land use planning and has a direct impact on many issues in metropolitan communities. Due to land use changes in cities, patterns of land use patterns vary, and these patterns have different forward forces in different regions. By identifying and measuring the level of influence and the impact of these forces, it is possible to prevent urban problems resulting from the unplanned use of the plan by correctly planning land use changes based on sustainable land use development. Considering the role of forces in urban land use changes and changing the way these forces are influenced by the differences in spatial-temporal conditions, political systems and socioeconomic conditions, and the impact of these forces on each other, this research seeks identification of forces Investigating changes in urban land use and investigating the impact and impacts of propulsion forces on each other in the process of land use change in metropolitan areas of Iran (case study: Tehran metropolis). By identifying and measuring the level of influence and the impact of these forces, it is possible to prevent urban problems resulting from the unplanned use of the plan by correctly planning land use changes based on sustainable land use development. Land use change can also be the result of the growth and development guiding and the lack of guidance for growth and development. The desirability of urban land use improves the efficiency and effectiveness of space-based space and is one of the ways to conserve sustainable resources and prevent the loss of these resources in the city. This process also helps to reduce environmental and airborne contamination, air, noise, water and soil pollution and, by decreasing traffic pressure, helps to reduce social disturbances and it is introduced as an effective factor in human health. . In order to achieve the objectives of this research, firstly, the identification of the forces of land use land use change has been addressed. Also, in order to determine the effect of these forces on each other and to analyze the mechanism of relations between these forces, based on the knowledge of experts, the structural analysis method has been.

    Methodology

    The research method is descriptive-analytical and in terms of its purpose. The data gathering method is descriptive survey and statistical population of urban experts in Tehran. In order to analyze the collected data, structural analysis method has been used. The method of structural analysis is a method used to analyze the relationships between variables, especially in large-scale systems with multiple dimensions. MICMAC software is one of the best software tools designed and developed to implement structural analysis.

    Results and discussion

    The purpose of using structural analysis in this research is to determine the forces driving the urban land use changes in Tehran metropolitan area and to identify the type of relationship between them and the total system relations of these factors. Identifying the drivers of urban land-use change, as well as determining their relationships, helps us to provide a strategic planning model for urban land use change. With the help of structural analysis results, it is possible to determine the hypotheses to be tested and, if necessary, change. In cross-matrix analyzes, the software has been developed in six steps including system perception and observation of system stability or instability, identifying indirect effects of variables, identifying key factors and drivers, general understanding of the system, and avoiding partial analysis. Identifying the system's unstable factors, identifying the environment to the interfacing of the impact measure. In the first stage of implementation of the model, in the present study, 49 factors causing urban land use changes in the Tehran metropolis entered the software and were considered for each short indication.Then, based on the data extracted from the questionnaire (a total of 41 experts), the effect of each factor on the other development factors was measured. In order to determine the final number of experts opinion from the statistical survey and use 49 extracted factors as the primary identifiers And analyzed with the help of the MICAMMOCK software. The dimensions of the 49 * 49 matrix are ranked in eight, and according to the results of the analysis, the degree of matrix filling is 63.14%, which indicates that the factors selected on more than 63.14% had an effect on each other. A total of two types of analyzes and graphs and analytical graphs, including one direct effect and the other indirect effects, are shown in the software. The direct effect analysis is in fact the result of the interaction of the initial matrix data, and the indirect effects analysis is the result of calculating higher powers and repeating the initial matrix, which is selected based on the initial proposal of the software of four replications.

    Conclusion

    This paper has been designed with the aim of identifying the forces that drive urban land use changes in Tehran metropolis based on structural analysis method. For this purpose, 49 agents were identified in eight environmental groups, policies and laws, socio-demographic, economic, cultural, spatial / physical, institutional, and infrastructure facilities - through a review of past and external studies. Factors in the software have been introduced and using experts from urban issues, the effectiveness of the factors has been determined by analyzing the effects of the cross-sectional matrix. Based on the results, among the factors that have the most impact and influence, the factors of urban management goals, comprehensive plan, access to the network of roads, population growth, land prices, economic development situation in the region, price Rents, features of parts, have zoning regulations that are known as key factors in land use land use change. Among the 49 factors involved in the analysis, these factors include urban management objectives, comprehensive Plan, access to the street network, population growth, land prices, economic development status, land use rights, rental rules zoning regulations has the most impact on urban land use changes. These are known as key driving forces in the changes in Tehran's urban land use.

    Keywords: Driving forces, Land Use Change, Structural analysis, Tehran, Metropolis
  • Somayeh Mohammadi Hamidi, Hossein Nazmfar *, Mohammad Mohammadi Yapang Gharavi Pages 1197-1216
    IntroductionIn 

    general, security is the primary right of citizenship and its provision is the prime duty of governments to the citizens and is the most basic concept in social and civil life, which is tied to the concept of backwardness. As geographic regions with better development indicators have a higher safety margin, the less developed and undeveloped regions of the world are matched by insecure areas. The concept of security was introduced in the context of the development of new security and post-Cold War analysis in Europe. In today's world, it is one of the significant phenomena that is considered to be the basic needs and necessities of a person and society, and its lack or disturbance has consequences and alarming and dangerous reflections. And it is one of the most important components to achieve stable reliance on stability. And its existence in urban environments is one of the basic requirements of quality of life. Considering the necessity of the subject, this research has been carried out with the aim of evaluating and evaluating social security by examining various aspects of various dimensions of security in urban space. And the city of Ardabil has been studied as one of the cities of the country. Like other provincial centers of the country after the land reform and post-revolution urbanization, the city faced a huge flood of migrants to the city. According to the Central Statistics Organization, the population of the city of Ardabil in 1335 was 65 thousand, which in 2011 was 482 thousand people, and finally reached 592.347 thousand in the 1395 census. Considering the presented issues, this discussion seeks to answer the question. Is there a significant difference between the four areas of Ardabil in terms of social security components? And which areas of the city have more security than other urban areas?

    Methodology

    The research method is descriptive-analytical and survey in terms of its purpose and its method. Libraries and questionnaires were used to collect data and information. The statistical population consists of residents of Ardabil city. According to the census of 1395, the population of Ardabil city is 592374 people. The sample size is based on the formula “Cochran” with a confidence level of 95% of 384 people. Also, in order to measure social security, a 26-item questionnaire was used in the form of a Liker scale. In order to estimate the validity of the questionnaire and the questions asked in it, experts and experts have used the subject of research and questionnaires. To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, Cranach's alpha coefficient was used. And for validation through structural equation model, after entering the data from the questionnaires into SPSS software and coding operation on the data, coding data in the LISREL program environment (LISREL) was called and analyzed to analyze the data and information has been.

    Discussion of Results

    The findings show that the citizens 'sense of financial security indices with the T 4.23 statistic, the sense of citizens' safety with T 5.26, the sense of physical security with the value of 4.59 and the role of the police force with a T 2.24 level were completely Meaningful and have a fairly inwardly interconnected relationship. In the study of the social security status based on the Coopers model in urban areas of Ardabil, it has come to the conclusion that among the four studied items, the citizens' financial sense of security by obtaining the rate (Q = 0.198) The role of law enforcement in feeling of security with a score of points (Q = 0.1916) and a sense of physical security with a score of points (Q = 0.1912) were ranked first to third.Among the items studied, the sense of security of citizens is at an end. To assess the status of each of the four areas of the city of Ardebil with regard to the indicators studied in the security sector; The 2nd district of the city with the highest score (Q = 0.30) was placed in the fourth zone of the city in the first place and the 4th with the score (Q = 0.28) and the area 1 with the score (Q = 0.25) in the third place. They are eventually, the 3rd district of the city with the score (Q1.81) is in the last place.

    Conclusion

    With the development of cities, social, economic and environmental problems also emerged. Meanwhile, with the complexity of the social relations of citizens, the concept of security was eliminated from the physical and physical state and became more subjective, objective, and more concrete. As security is of vital importance to a community, security feelings are equally important. Because the actions and reactions of individuals' social relationships in the community are as much understood and secured as security. Unless a person has security in the community, he does not feel safe and relaxed. The social, economic and environmental problems of urban development and urbanization continue. Following the wider social relations of citizens, the notion of security in cities is intrinsically tangible and has a different physical, social, cultural, and political dimension. Social security is one of the important consequences of social order and social cohesion and the basic precondition for the development and advancement of society. If the citizens of a community do not feel socially safe, the people of society cannot enjoy their talents effectively, as a result of the social-human capital will not be able to develop Economic, social, political and cultural life, and the urban structure has also rebuilt its growth and development.Keywords: Security, Social Security, Urban Spaces, Structural Equation Modeling, Coopers Model, Ardabil City

    Keywords: Security, Urban Spaces, Structural Equation Modeling, Coopers Model, Ardabil City
  • Yazdan Shirmohammadi *, Eshagh Jalaliyan, Farzane Abedi, Esmael Nasiri Pages 1217-1233
    Introduction

    Tour guides are considered as representatives of a country that interact directly with tourists. The abilities and expertise of tour guides, especially their geographic literacy, are one of great importance factor for the satisfaction of tourists. Tour guide Provide detailed information about destination for tourists, Tour guide is very important especially for European tourists who travel for the first time to Iran's tourism destination, in this research, the effect of tourism geographic literacy of tour guide on tourism satisfaction has been studied. Geographic literacy indicate to knowledge and skills related to the use of geographic information geographic literacy of tour guide is ability to understand, process, and utilize geospatial data such as locations and place attributes. Geographic literacy can improve our world understanding. Geographic skills allow tour guide to organize tour itinerary effectively. Geographic literacy of tour guide is a systematic view toward tourism destination, tourism attraction, events, situations, and places which turns understanding and comprehension of knowledge into skills. Tour geographic literacy is an important and indispensable ability for tourists when traveling. Tour guide with good geographic knowledge have successful travel. Some travel knowledge and skills, such as understanding of the local travel environment, map reading ability, and use of local transportation, tools are essential for tour guide, Travel guide knowledge refers to the extent of travel knowledge, include of dealing with documents, knowing local tourist attractions, restaurants, lodging, and so on. Travel geoformation processing can be defined as the tourist's ability to gather, interpret, and use travel geographic information for the trip. Information processing proceeds along with the systematic thinking route, and the attitude toward the tourism destination is more durable due to the detailed analysis. In the field of geography, geospatial recognition represents the tour guide ability to locate tourism attraction and places and features on a map, with its emphasis on map recognition. However, travel geospatial recognition involves both map skills and on-site geospatial recognition skills. Therefore, travel geospatial recognition can be defined as the tour guide spatial ability to recognize the tourism destination and its features, and orientation awareness, which can include such skills as reading travel maps, sensing direction, recognizing travel signs and indices, and visualizing routes as a map-like image between tourism attractions.

    Methodology

    There purposes this paper is to study Literacy Impact of Tour Guides on the Satisfaction of Tourists and to develop a measurement scale of tour guide by employing quantitative methods and to examine the linkage between Literacy of tour Guides and its consequences. The present research is applied in terms of its purpose and in terms of research method, it is a descriptive survey. The statistical population of the study is European tourists in Tehran. Inferential analysis of the data was performed using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. For determining the internal consistency of the questioner, the KMO and Bartlett test were used to determine the appropriateness of the sample size and the separation of the factors, and to determine the causal relationship between the variables, the structural equation modeling method was used. The conceptual model of the research is based on Chang et al. Chang et al examined the impact of the geographic tourism visitor's visibility, which has three dimensions of geographical recognition, geographic knowledge and information process, on the satisfaction of tourists. But the present study examines the geographic literacy of tour guides on tourism satisfaction.

    Result and discussionIn

    this study, the effect of tourism geographic dimensions on satisfaction, perceived risk of European tourists from Tehran in terms of tour guides were studied. The finding of this research suggests that the geographic knowledge of the tour guide will affect the tourist's satisfaction, and reduce the tourist's risk involved and also reducing tourist hesitation and destination risk perception. Also, the findings suggest that the tour information process by tour guide influences the satisfaction of the tourist, the reduce risk involved also reducing tourists' concerns, Previous research also suggests that the process of geographic information such as the use of destination information may affect the satisfaction of tourists. The reason for the rejection of this hypothesis is weakness of communication of tour guide in providing accurate information for tourist. To help resolve this problem it is necessary for tour guide to improve their communication skills.

    Conclusion

    Very few studies have identified the construct and definition of tour guide. The results of this research recognized geographic knowledge; travel geoformation processing; and travel geospatial recognition. Furthermore, this research also evidenced that tour guide geography knowledge has a positive influence on tourist satisfaction, and has negative effects on tourist hesitation and destination risk perception, suggesting that tour guide geography knowledge is a critical construct in tourism that can impact tourists' psychological and behavioral outcomes. These findings extend the knowledge and theory of tourism research, and fill the research gap of geographic literacy in the field of tourism. Finally, this study also proposes some practical implications and suggestions for future research. With regard to travel geographic knowledge, our results showed that understanding the local travel information such as tourist spots, shopping information, culture, and so on was very important for tourists. However, past studies have found that many tourists do not have adequate local knowledge. So the role of tour guide have become so important. The tour guide is a valuable asset to tourism destination. Many European tourists tend to see their tour guide as the representative of the region or country they chose as a tourist destination. If the tour guide doesn’t have good knowledge and geographic literacy tourist become dissatisfied from travel to destination. Several implications are derived from this study. First, the tourism operators consider geographic literacy impact of tour guides on tourism satisfaction and conduct market segmentation and design different travel products according to the tourist geography literacy. At the same time, because improving tour guide literacy can lead to higher travel satisfaction, this offers destination managers and operators a new marketing direction. Finally, the tour geographic literacy scale can be used to assist for tourists enjoy tourism attraction.

    Keywords: Tourism, Satisfaction, geography, Help, risk
  • Afshin Mottaghi *, Hossein Tala, Arash Ghorbani Sepehr Pages 1235-1255
    Introduction

    "Right to the City" is a collective right and relates to objective places, which Henri Lefebvre calls the right to urban life. In such a way that everyone is far from everything only by inherent dignity and moral agency, the right to self-determination and a life full of comfort. Then the concept of the right to the city is a "scream and a request", a scream because it is a response to the existential pain of the sad crisis of everyday life, and the request is, in fact, a desire to look more closely at the crisis and demand for an alternative life. However, the right to the city has taken its place in legal, social and geographical studies. However, although it takes about five decades for this theory to emerge in urban studies, we still find this concept ambiguous among scholars and researchers. Therefore, its ambiguity and ambiguity is due to the fact that the concept of the right that forms the basis of it is ignored in this concept, and most of the problems and problems of urbanization are addressed in it. That is why we have not been able to conceptualize it well in the first step, and in the second step in the city, in order to maintain its stability and dynamism. Understanding and understanding the general history, philosophical nature, why, and definitions of the right to the city as a new and expanding debate is therefore of relatively high importance for those entering social, urban, and legal studies, who The present study has attempted to address these issues. It should be noted, however, that at the end of the present study, the authors have attempted to provide a different and basic conceptualization based on a relatively clear and precise definition of the right to the city in such a way as to properly understand and understand it. Provide readers and scholars with the concept and nature of the right to the city.

    Methodology

    Qualitative research consists of a set of material-interpretive practices that make the world visible. It is also worth noting that in accordance with the qualitative strategy, the content analysis method was used to conduct the research. Therefore, the main research method is philosophical and based on logical reasoning. Accordingly, in this study, it is attempted to illustrate and explain its concept in addition to illustrating what is right about the city and its function in urban issues. In this article, library information, the Internet, was used to collect and retrieve it. This research, considering its approach to the subject, is the first scientific research to explain the concept of the right to the city.        

    Result and Discussion

    Considering some of the issues and aspects of the philosophical nature accepted for the concept of right to the city are based on the two principles of "equitable distribution of resources and facilities and democratic management of the city", it can be said that the philosophical nature of the right to the city is also the same as the two. The point is that its emphasis on cities, urban spaces and areas has become more pronounced. In other words, the philosophical nature of the formation of the right to the city is based on the equitable distribution of resources and facilities and the democratic management of the city, with emphasis on the city (s), the urban space and their areas of influence. Given these two foundations for the right to the city and the conceptualization and recognition of its new nature, the right to the city can be defined as appropriate and appropriate. Accordingly, these two bases have been identified and selected because the main issue facing the citizens, especially the working classes and the weak urban community, is the lack of access to resources and facilities. So, until all the citizens have access to the resources and facilities in the city, they will not achieve prosperity and comfort, and then their inherent dignity and morality will face serious problems, and if the management of the city is not democratic and democratic. If there is no democracy, governance and social equality in the city, the city will inevitably face serious problems in most cities around the world. However, it can be said that these two foundations have the necessary integrity and precision.

    Conclusion

    A definition that has somehow reduced the ambiguity in this area and, on the other hand, has the necessary comprehensiveness and precision in this field, can be defined as follows: The right to the city is to know the resources and facilities available for its equitable distribution. In the space of the city, in order to achieve the minimal prosperity of citizens, in a way that democratic urban management based on transparency, accountability, accountability for citizen participation provides citizens with the means to govern their own destiny and how to live, design and To run. For man has the power of self-consciousness, and in fact, this self-consciousness and authority constitutes his human essence. Therefore, the right to the city is to preserve the human essence and to achieve minimal prosperity based on democratic urban management. The result is that the right to the city, though a demand and a desire to achieve a unique life, must always be remembered, especially in a century where there is no guarantee and millions of hungry poor in cities. There can be no right to the city, but the right to the city can only be realized when the city's resources and facilities are first identified and then the city has democratic urban management in order to achieve equality. Shaped social and spatial justice in cities. Thus, if the idea is formed in cities by urban management, we will see cities in the future become spaces that provide all the rights of their citizens and that citizens achieve urban comfort and prosperity.

    Keywords: Citizenship rights, Citizen participation, Urban Management, Right to the city, Sustainable City
  • Mahdi Abdollahzadeh *, Mohammad-Rahim Rahnama, Mohammad Ajza Shokouhi, Mirnajaf Mousavi Pages 1257-1273
    Introduction

    The urban life of the West Azerbaijan Province has been faced many changes in recent years, and has seen a lot of demographic and physical changes. In order to achieve a balanced and justice-centered development which improves all residents lives, we need a correct recognition and optimized proper planning in the cities of the province. Because, the increasing split in the cultural, social, economic fields and other fields in different regions, is the evidence of a failure to complete the goals of justice-centered planning and sustainable development. This paper, tries to Identify the status of social sustainability indexes in the cities of West Azerbaijan province by using quantitative Techniques. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate and measure the feasibility of the social sustainability in different cities of the province.

    Methodology

    The overall approach of this research is a quantitative research type and in terms of the data collection method which it is based on library-documentary and survey data. In the first step of research, in order to identify the social sustainability indexes and related indicators, various sources and databases were used. Accordingly, five main indexes were identified in this context. Totally 35 indicators for 5 indexes were evaluated. The statistical population of this study is the 42 cities of West Azerbaijan province which among them, 13 cities have been studied as samples. In order to analyze the collected data, we have used the multi-index decision-making methods (vikor). Also, the analysis of the impact of economic components on the utility of social sustainability in the studied cities, are specified by Use of the regression method like the Enter method in the path and beta coefficients (β) analysis.

    Results and discussion

    After collecting data and information by using the entropy method, the relative weight of each index is calculated. The public health index with a score of 230.0 points has earned the highest score. Also, the sense of belonging to the location index among the residents of the province cities has the lowest score with a score of 172.0. The ranking of the cities in the province is based on social sustainability indexes, using the cluster analysis and SPSS software in Table 1, shows that Urmia city with Zero advantage function is in the steady state in terms of social sustainability and Urmia metropolis is the best city in terms of social sustainability indexes in the province and Khoy and Noushin cities have a potential stability status with the advantage function of 0.452 and 0.446, respectively. Whereas, 45% of the studied cities have a potential instability status or unstable status. Also, 32% of the studied cities have a moderate status in terms of social sustainability indexes. The average amount of advantage function (Q), the utility of social sustainability indexes in the cities of the province, is equal to 0.622. Therefore, the cities of West Azerbaijan province are below the average in terms of social sustainability indexes and need to be strengthened and invested. Table 1: The utility of social sustainability in cities of West Azerbaijan, based on the values of the advantage function(Q)Row Cities (Q) Rating Sustainability desirability1 Urmia 0 1 Sustainable2 Khoy 0.452 2 Potential Sustainability3 Noushin city 0.462 3 4 Tekab 0.568 4 Medium Sustainability5 Salmas 0.578 5 6 Mahabad 0.578 6 7 Maku 0.630 7 8 Dizajdiz City 0.709 8 Potential insustainability9 Mohamadyar 0.750 9 10 Miandoab 0.770 10 11 Bazargan 0.772 11 12 Naghta 0.840 12 13 Bukan 0.965 13 UnsustainabilityDispersion coefficient Q= 0.40The dispersion coefficient and the inequality rate of the studied cities is about 0.40 in terms of sustainability indexes which shows a relatively moderate imbalance in the index indicators in the cities of the province. The results also show that there is a significant correlation between the advantage function (Q) of the sustainable social development and the population of the cities of the province. In fact, the distribution and method of allocating resources and benefits is the most important factor which defines the relationship between population and development which it has not been balanced in the cities of the province. Evaluation of the economic components effect (including economic support burden, unemployment rate, employment rate, female employment rate, male employment rate) on the utility of social sustainability in the studied cities shows that economic support burden and unemployment rate with negative coefficients of -0.16 and -0.07 respectively, and employment rate with a positive coefficient of 0.29, female employment rate and male employment rate with positive coefficients of 0.21 and 0.47 respectively, are effective in the utility of social sustainability in the studied cities. Indeed, the economic support burden is a potential social problem, which reveals the dependence of the individual or individuals of the society on the people who work and provide their own livelihoods and others and the unemployment rate, which is directly related to the economic growth and job creation, have had a negative and decreasing effect on the social sustainability indexes in the studied cities.

    Conclusion

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the social sustainability level of the west Azerbaijan province cities, based on a set of some sustainability attitudes. Results of the calculations related to the social sustainability indexes in the province cities, indicate that 45% of the studied cities in the West Azerbaijan province are in the potentially unstable or unstable status in terms of social sustainability indexes. The research results show that among the evaluated indexes in the cities of West Azerbaijan, the public health index has earned the highest score. Urmia city has the best situation in terms of this index among the cities of the province, and on the contrary, Bukan city has the worst status in the public health indexes. The cluster rating results also show that 46% of the studied cities are in unfavorable conditions in terms of utility of the social sustainability indexes.

    Keywords: Evaluation, social sustainability, multiple criteria decision making, Vikor Model, West Azerbaijan province
  • Hassan Poyan *, Ali Sanayei, Azarnosh Ansari Pages 1275-1293

    The unbelievable increase in crises and the frequency and complexity of these crises has undermined this traditional and traditional approach to vulnerability and called for a more comprehensive approach to vulnerability and crisis management. Considering the importance of the issue of urban physical vulnerability assessment in urban spatial information systems, in this research, we have tried to apply the functions of earthquake vulnerability by using spatial and descriptive data, components and main elements of behavioral construction And determine the impact of each of the criteria used in the vulnerability, modeling, and microtubation of damage to the body tissue of a Tehran city. The results show that the first one in three different scenarios with 6.7 and 8. earthquake intensity both in terms of construction and economically has the highest average to high vulnerability due to the deteriorated texture and buildings that have been in decades Previously, it was built in this area, thus it can be concluded that this area is still vulnerable to new proportions that have been built into a natural disaster such as a possible earthquake that may catch the area. In modeling different scenarios we concluded that the scenarios due to the close vicinity of the earthquake in the area of ​​the study area did not result in significant changes. But in all three scenarios, the vulnerability in the study area is due to the deteriorated texture and the amount of construction that has been made in recent decades.Key words: vulnerability, area one, geographic information system, hierarchical analysis process, Tehran city, scenarioIntroductionThe increasing trend in the severity and extent of crises, crisis management and the reduction of vulnerability has led the people and the community under their control to further thinking. As humans from past times have learned the experience of living in villages, small towns and large cities, they have built settlements in accordance with the technological and socio-economic needs of the time. In recent decades, major changes have taken place in the theoretical views of crisis and vulnerability. For example, contrary to the behavioral viewpoint of the crisis, according to the structural viewpoint, crises are no longer intense events simply caused by natural factors, but they are now considered as unresolved problems of development. In fact, today, the development and communication crisis of infinity Close and complex, have become a common and popular belief. And it emphasizes the fact that crisis development and management are both focused on reducing vulnerability. Therefore, in recent decades, especially from the 1970s onward, the emphasis on hazard has gradually shifted to emphasis on crises, and increasing attention has been paid to vulnerability and causal change has changed. Such an attitude is vulnerability, risk and crisis, which considers emergency response with a top-down approach and without using the crisis community participation in the process of vulnerability and management of urban crises. But the unbelievable increase in the cost and complexity of crises has shaken this traditional and traditional approach to vulnerability and has called for a more comprehensive approach to vulnerability and crisis management. In the same vein, with increasing focus on vulnerability, since the 1970s, vulnerability to social risk factors and risks has shown a significant shift from focusing on socioeconomic and political roots.As a result of these increasing changes in the structure and functioning of city and urbanization, today vulnerability has gained a more prominent role in crisis management, and more attention is paid to physical and physical factors. Therefore, the policy of achieving vulnerability from the general risk factors to the social and economic details of change Which has its point of reference in cities, especially in cities where the earthquake is at risk and its risk is greater and the need for physical vulnerability assessment is felt. One of the main reasons for the existence of a large number of wounded and victims after natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, etc. can be the lack of precise planning in this area for cities with potential hazard, including Tehran. Of course, in recent years, efforts have been made in this area to set a clear future for managing the Tehran metropolitan crisis. Considering the fact that the district of a Tehran municipality is one of the strategic areas of this city, this study seeks to provide vulnerability analysis according to the conditions of the region. In sum, the achievement of sustainable development and the overall reduction of vulnerability in its physical and spatial dimensions, due to the crisis and the issue of vulnerability in the metropolis of Tehran, characterized by socio-spatial differentiation and its concentration among the particular strata and areas of the city, requires the study of factors Effective on the socio-spatial differentiation of vulnerability and its degree of variation in society and space. The importance of the issue and its failure to be taken into account in the development and crisis management plans of the country will make the study twofold. The increasing trend in the severity and extent of crises, crisis management and the reduction of vulnerability has led the people and the community under their control to further thinking. As humans from past times have learned the experience of living in villages, small towns and large cities, they have built settlements in accordance with the technological and socio-economic needs of the time. In recent decades, major changes have taken place in the theoretical views of crisis and vulnerability. For example, contrary to the behavioral viewpoint of the crisis, according to the structural viewpoint, crises are no longer severe events that are simply caused by natural factors, but they are now considered to be unresolved problems of development. In fact, today, the development and the extremely complex and complex communication crisis have become a common and popular belief. And it emphasizes the fact that crisis development and management are both focused on reducing vulnerability. Therefore, in recent decades, especially from the 1970s onward, the emphasis on hazard has gradually shifted to emphasis on crises, and increasing attention has been paid to vulnerability and causal change has changed.

    Keywords: Vulnerability, Region One, Geographic Information System, Tehran city, Scenario
  • Sadegh Besharatifar *, Mostafa Mirabadi Pages 1295-1318
    Introduction

    The process of urban centralization in Iran caused the lack of facility and infrastructure to be multiplied as the urban population increases and different urban groups according to the quality of life have different access to these facilities. Industrial cities have certain characteristics including: the centralization of industrial activities, environmental problems and spatial dichotomy which is the most important of all. Thane fore, paying attention to the sustainability of the development of petroleum oil cities, particular in according to physical condition and civil services is necessary. In relation to the city of Abadan, the oil generation in Khuzestan is the main factor in the formation of this new city. It is one of the largest and most important new cities created in the 20th century. It is predictable that the city was emerged by accepting 300 thousand people as its population. It is a young and non - historical city, and it has grown across the island as a mushroom, on the basis of the oil - based economy. The city, created by the economic relations resulting from the production of oil, according to its manufacturers’ tendency, admits the shears to its body and is divided into separate sections and with conflicting social morphology. Accordingly, the city’s face is related to the strong dichotomy in biology, population and class. In this research, the distribution pattern of urban facilities and services in relation to economic and social factors are discussed. Therefore, this study tries to develop practical solutions using important factors such as the use of new statistics and data as well as methods, tools and models to conduct research in order to better explain the distribution of urban services pattern and effective factors on it so that it can regulate the balance of the city of Abadan in terms of the enjoyment of urban services.

    Methodology

    It is an applied study based on the descriptive - analytic research space. Considering that the main objective of this study is to investigate the spatial equilibrium of oil - rich city of Abadan in relation to economic and social factors, the economic and social status variables of the city are selected as the dependent variable and the changing variable of urban services users as dependent variable. This research has been done by descriptive analytical method and aims to explain the distribution pattern of urban services in the neighborhoods of Abadan and to study the role of oil industry in this regard. The aim of this study is to collect documentary and field data (questionnaire distribution) and to utilize indexes of kernel density estimation, location of the nearest neighbor, Spatial Autocorrelation (Morans I), Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Pearson correlation coefficient by Arc GIS and SPSS software.

    Results and discussion

    The most important results of this research are presented below:• The distribution of urban services in the city of Abadan was unbalanced and focused.• The central neighborhoods of Abadan, which are mostly dependent on the oil industry and formed around the refinery, are the origins of Abadan city in terms of their advantages of urban services, citizens enjoy a very good state, especially the eastern border of the city and it’s a kind of fueled spatial duality of the city of Abadan.• Socially and economically developed locations include the central neighborhood around the refinery, a significant number of which are dependent on the oil industry. As well as social and economic development, they are also in a better position in terms of their enjoyment of urban services, which led to separation and spatial duality in the city of Abadan. Among these factors, such as the existence of the planned neighborhoods of the oil industry, which are both economically and socially progressive, are also affected by the existence of marginal neighborhoods, especially in the eastern regions of the city of Abadan, which are socially and economically vulnerable and are less sensitive to urban management in terms of physical development. It has continued in a continuum: And as it comes to discussing the urban development stages, Weak economic and even social groups, after the promotion of their class, moved to migrate from their slums and to the more prosperous quarters economically and socially, as well as the enjoyments of urban services.

    Conclusion

    One of the factors that need to be observed for spatial equilibrium in urban planning is the proper distribution of urban public services and proper use of space. On the other hand, industrial cities have long had specific problems, especially in spatial structure. This research has proposed more efficient methods for pattern analysis and factors affecting the distribution of urban services, methods and techniques of this research were presented into spatial statistical models using Arc GIS software. The methods and models such as geographical distribution indices (e.g., mean center, center of gravity, ellipse deviation, etc.) might provide a better spatial vision of the distribution patterns of urban services in the city of Abadan. The pooled OLS model also depicts the correlation and effects of different indicators and variables in the form of multiple linear regression models in the context of the studied space.In general, what the present study (in the form of objectives) seeks to analyze and the general conclusion suggests is that the spatial distribution of urban services in the city of Abadan is seriously unbalanced and the need for a serious review of the plans of the city of Abadan, particularly in its discussion of the plans, is seriously felt. In this regard, it is essential to consider plans for organizing broken localities and urban areas (with regard to allocating part of income from the oil industry as well as municipality duties from more developed localities).

    Keywords: Analysis, Urban service, Spatial distribution, Socio- Economic Development, City of Abadan
  • Sara Mouzarmi, Rahim Sarvar *, Majid Vali Shareeatpanahi Pages 1319-1337
    Introduction

    One of the main plans for creating a sustainable urban form is the urban infill development plan. Infill development can be understood as the simplest interpretation of infill development, which attempts to extend development on the empty and abandoned land (Sharifian, 2010: 47; Mirkatoli & Hosaini, 2014: 71). According to Ahvaz municipality data (2017), from 1956 to 2016, 1,20098 persons and an area above to 2500 hectares had been reached to 130,2591 persons and an area of 22200 hectares. Arising problems caused by the large spatial- physical development of Ahvaz such as the low quality of life and indicators of human development, the lack of residential unit, the existence of worn-out urban texture in the central regions of the city with a severe need to organize and Re-development, locating a large percentage of the population (about 40%) in unsustainable urban regions, undesirable city life, lack of space and cultural facilities, and ... have led to a critical approach to horizontal distribution in this city which is one of control method against horizontal distribution of city and controlling its problems for achieving sustainable development is urban infill development that we can use this approach to identify urban development capacity in empty land and physical urban limits.Therefore, in this research, the aim is to investigate the distribution of selected indicators of research related to urban infill development in Ahvaz city and the impact of these indices on urban infill development on studied regions in order to strengthen and improve them to achieve sustainable urban development. In this regard, according to the above-mentioned problem, the present study seeks to answer the main research question "How will be the situation of the eight regions of Ahvaz based on infill development capacity indicators distribution in the form of sustainable urban development indicators”.

    Methodology

    The purpose of the present study is to be considered as an applied research. The method of collecting information in this research is considering documents and library studies. In general, the process of doing research is as follows: first, the theoretical foundations related to the subject have been considered, then three main selected indicators and 13 sub-indicators have been used for evaluating and considering the situation of eight regions of Ahvaz in terms of infill development indicator and three main selected indicators and 20 sub-indicators have been used for evaluating and considering sustainable levels of eight regions of Ahvaz. In this study, using the statistics presented in the statistics of Ahvaz and according to the data available in the documents obtained from the municipality of Ahvaz (2016), the indicators have been selected for the purpose of considering the main objective. After identifying the indicators and collecting information, TOPSIS model is used to combine the selected indices and the ranking of the eight regions of Ahvaz in terms of the status of the affective indexes on the urban infill development. Also, Shannon's entropy coefficient was used to weigh the selected indices. After calculating the TOPSIS coefficient for the indicated indices, the levels of eight regions of Ahvaz related to the capacity of urban infill development and sustainable urban development using cluster analysis technique. Finally, using the GIS software, the results are presented as output of map.

    Result & discussion

    The results showed that in terms of the capacity of urban infill development, using the selected indicators, regions 5,1 and 3 have the highest coefficient and the highest urban infill development. regions 2 and 7 have the least capacity in Ahvaz. Also, the results obtained from the TOPSIS model were ranked by cluster analysis, which was determined that region 5 in the first level and region 1 in the second level have the highest capacity for urban infill development and region 2 in fourth level has the lowest level of capacity in terms of urban infill development in Ahvaz city. Based on the results obtained from the TOPSIS model, it can be said that regions 4, 6 and 3 have the highest coefficient, and regions 5 and 2 have the lowest coefficient in terms of sustainable urban development respectively. Also, based on the results obtained from cluster analysis, region 4 is the most suitable region in terms of selected indicators of sustainable urban development and regions 5 and 2 is the least suitable region in terms of selected indicators of sustainable urban development in Ahvaz city.

    Conclusion

    According to the social index of the region 1, the urban services index of region 1 and the physical indicators of region 5, the eight regions of Ahvaz have the highest capacity for urban infill development. Also in accordance with the urban services index of region 5 and the physical indicators of region 2 have the lowest capacity for urban infill development. Also, the results of the survey on the status of the amount of access to indicators in eight regions of Ahvaz were different in terms of the selected indicators of sustainable urban development, so that in terms of access to the social index in region 4, the urban services index in region 1 and the physical index in region 4 has the highest rate of access to the indicators. It is necessary to say that the lowest rate of access to the indicators is belonged to regions 5,7 and 8 for the social index, the physical index and urban services index respectively. In general, it can be noted that due to the importance of infill development in the field of creating a sustainable urban form, it is necessary to pay attention to all important and effective indicators. In this regard, one of the necessities of reaching to urban development specially in Ahvaz is paying attention to type of development resources distribution, considering justice in utilization, and lack of attention and investment in a particular place. This point emphasizes that all these selected indicators can influence the sustainable development of Ahvaz city if it is properly paid attention to them.Keywords: Infill development, Sustainable urban development, TOPSIS, Shannon Entropy, Ahvaz Metropolis

    Keywords: Infill development, Sustainable urban development, TOPSIS, Shannon Entropy, Ahwaz Metropolis
  • Mohammad Hossein Sharifzadegan *, Hossein Ghanouni Pages 1339-1355
    Introduction

    This article studies citizen participation of Isfahan citizens over 18 year old. The concept of articipation is as old as humankind and has taken different forms in different periods of history. Since the 1970s, social sciences’ scholars have increasingly emphasized that citizen participation in public decision-making is an important strategy for enhancement of democracy and improving development results. Then, these thoughts were introduced in the urban planning field and have become a hot topic in theoretical and practical debates of the field. Many features influence citizen participation: political structures, economical situations, cultural and historical specifications, etc. However, even if the politicians and decision-makers embrace participation and make it possible from the top, there will be no success in in participatory processes if citizens have no interest in participating. This is the reason why identification of influential features on citizen participation can provide the basis for institutional intervention in order to improve participatory processes, which is the main concern of this article.

    Methodology

    For measurement of citizen participation in Isfahan, 11 statements were selected after reviewing the theoretical and practical literature and corresponding indicators. Two examples of statements are: “I’m not much interested in issues not concerning me and my family” and “I have sufficient ability and self-confidence to join parties and political groups”. The alternatives of answers were designed in 5- point Likert-type scale. Based on the statements, these alternatives were “strongly agree”, “agree”, “indifferent”, “disagree”, “strongly disagree” or “too much”, “much”, “middle”, “little” and “too little”. The statistical population is Isfahan citizens of over 18 years old. The sample was chosen by clustering method at first for every city district, three blocks were chosen randomly and amongst those, accidentally selected people were asked to answer to the questionnaire. The sample size is 450 people, which is more than what Cochran’s formula suggests. The sample is distributed in a way that 30 people represent each district. In addition to the statements, the contextual features were asked from sample population, namely age, gender, education, job status, housing type, tenure type, household income, religiosity and years of residence.

    Results and Discussion

    After entering and sorting questionnaire data in SPSS, reliability and validity tests were conducted using Cronbach’s Alpha and Factor Analysis, respectively. First, Cronbach’s alpha was calculated for all the statements. Since the score was not acceptable (0.580), two statements were omitted, which resulted in an alpha score of 0.680 and approved the reliability of the questionnaire. Nine remaining statements were analyzed by factor analysis to test construct validity of data and identify explaining factors of citizen participation. Factor analysis -which was conducted by the Varimax rotation method and factors with eigenvalues of over 1.0 acceptance threshold, extracted three factors from nine statements. The factors explained 32, 18 and 16 percent (in total 65 percent) of variation of the citizen participation concept. These factors were named “civic engagement”, “personal engagement” and “participation in elections”. The citizen participation indicator was calculated by a weighted combination of three factors, in which weighing was based on the variance explained by each factor. Finally, the distribution map of three factors and citizen participation indicator were drawn for Isfahan 15 districts of Isfahan. The values were categorized into three classes by half-sigma method, namely “low”, “average” and “high” values.The maps show that District 2 has the least citizen participation by four “little” values. After that, District 6 & 12 stand with three “little” and Districts 4, 5, 7 & 11 by two “little” values. No district showed “high” values in all 4 variables, but District 9, 10 & 14 showed the best citizen participation by three “high” values. District 3, 4 & 12 were second best by two “high” values.For measurement of the effects of contextual features on citizen participation, Structural Equation Modeling was conducted by SmartPLS software package. Modelling results show that household income, socioeconomic status, housing type and gender have no significant effect on citizen participation. The factor “personal engagement” showed no significant relation to contextual features. Education (0.217) was shown to be the most influential feature on citizen participation (via “participation in elections” factor). After education, age had the most effect on “participation in elections” factor. Contextual features of “years of residence” (0.122), religiosity (0.123) and “tenure type” (-0.122) were next influential features on citizen participation (via “civic engagement” factor). The least significant relation was reported to be between job status and “participation in elections” factor. In total, contextual features explained 3.4% and 7.8% of the variations of “civic engagement” and “participation in elections” factors, respectively.

    Conclusion

    The results of this article indicate that improving citizen participation is not just about the contextual features. Although general characteristics of citizens such as educational level and religious beliefs have a significant effect on their participation, the extent of this effect is minimal. this This article shows that contextual features are not decisive factors in citizen participation, but this is “civic engagement” and “personal engagement” of citizens explains more than half of the variations of citizen participation. Therefore, if the decision-makers want to increase civic and personal engagement of citizens successfully, they should make public participation a part of their routine process. To that end, facilitation and policymaking for increase on membership rates of political parties and activities, allowing peaceful protestations to be held, and give liberty to campaigns and social non-governmental institutions can have significant effects on improvement of citizen participation. Moreover, raising awareness of citizens about the important role of personal activities in increasing public benefits (especially environmental activities) can have an influential effect on citizen participation. Finally, although participation in elections apparently is a decisive determinant of citizen participation, the results of this article show that this factor can just explain 15% of the variations of citizen participation. Compatible to theoretical views, this result shows that citizen participation is much more than just representative democracy and has many aspects for consideration. Maybe the temporary nature of participation in election and continuity of civic and personal engagement is the reason why participation in elections is the last explaining factor for citizen engagement.

    Keywords: Citizen participation, citizen engagement, factor analysis, structural equation modelling, Isfahan
  • Mansor Azizi, Rasol Darskhan *, Mohammad Reza I Pourmohammad Pages 1357-1371
    Introduction

    The change in attitude towards development and its process for cities was one of the important factors in the emergence of the urban planning approach towards the use of structural-strategic planning. This change is the result of political developments in societies for the establishment of democracy and the participation of governments in the administration of cities. The overarching goal of the strategic plan process is to create a multilateral development framework with broad stakeholder support to improve urban governance as well as to use resources for sustainable and equitable economic growth, sustainable poverty reduction and improved urban environments. Structural-strategic planning and governance in the form of an appropriate framework can fill the lack of existing democracy in decision-making related to important local issues, which can be another important way of delivering new content to local democracy. Structural-strategic planning is both a process and a product that provides part of good urban governance Urban development strategy in different cities is not subject to a single framework but focuses on at least five important urban issues: city sustainability, environmental sustainability, spatial form The city and its infrastructure, resources and governance. The strategy of urban development is based on the assumption that the path of urban development through the strategic interventions of the community, the private sector and civil society organizations can be dramatically changed in a timely and appropriate manner. The purpose of this research is to analyze the role of structural-strategic plans in the realization of the concept of good urban governance with the study sample of district 22 of Tehran metropolis.

    Methodology 

    The present study is an applied one in the qualitative research group. We will use the library survey method to explain the components of the concept of good urban governance and strategic-structural plans. Given the multitude of public and private and public institutions involved (directly and indirectly) in the strategic-structural plan (from preparation to implementation), studying them all is impossible and impractical. Therefore, the present study first focuses on three important organizations (design consulting firms, municipalities, neighborhood houses). The common feature of all three mentioned entities is their non-governmental nature. The structure of the sample is determined in a gradual manner by a snowball approach in the research process. The theoretical saturation rule will be used to determine the number of participants depending on the criterion of conformity with the method.

    Results and discussion

    After repeatedly studying and moving back and forth between data and concepts, categories and codes (the final stage of content analysis), the two categories emerged most prominently in data and interviews. These two categories, which are the central or core category of the present study, are at the heart of the other categories as an effective approach to urban governance as a central phenomenon. The reason for choosing these two cases is that all the concepts and categories referred to it in a way that based on the axial phenomenon and axial coding, the components affecting the dominance influenced by the strategic plans at the selective coding stage were extracted.

    Conclusion

    The results of the research in content analysis section were as follows: Weakness and inexperience in management planning and implementation, lack of communication skills between people and authorities (interactive communication) and inefficiency of supervision system are the categories that are considered factors related to the urban governance of the region. Obstacles to the constituent factors These include the lack of up-to-date laws and guidelines and the lack of ongoing formal law enforcement interactions. The consequence is also management fragmentation and instability.On the other hand, there are significant changes in area management (through the demand for strategic plans):• The emergence of strategy-based management and planning in the region• Change from government to governance in the area management system• The emergence and development of communication and information networks• Develop and expand responsibilities tailored to the complex needs of the city's urban management system• Developing a culture of accountability and transparency in the field of urban management• Activating grassroots institutions called the Semnis• Training and culture in participatory management• Preparing local and local plans based on extensive surveysThe extent to which they are applicable is far from fully operational, but the initiation of the aforementioned statements can be considered a very positive step.Finally, there is the need to formulate a legal system as needed, with either a positive or negative impact. Sometimes these laws are necessary, but what is more important is the use of law.The review of the strategic plan of Tehran 22 area shows the significant difference between the executive phase of the project and the previous one, which shows that the traditional structures in urban management are rooted and strengthened due to the profitability of a certain group, lack of serious determination to implement the governance principles in the form of strategic plan, Inaccuracy of governance principles and paradigms for executives and stakeholders, lack of training and sufficient mastery of the principles and concepts of governance and its institutionalization, and such cases need to be examined in further research. The evaluation of the plan included the following important points:- In spite of the proper status of the strategic plan, in practice this plan as well as its pre-(comprehensive) detailed plans has not been successful in the implementation phase.- The implementation mechanism in the CDS project area is not fabricated- Organizational strategies to implement other strategies are not seen in the plan- The monitoring and monitoring phase in the CDS project has not been prepared for unknown reasonsCompared to previous studies (in the background of research), similar results can be acknowledged; although CDS designs in Iran have sufficient standards, they face obstacles in the implementation phase that can implement and implement all the capacities mentioned in the plan. They don't.Keywords: Evaluation, Strategic-structural plan,Content Analysis, Good Governance, Realization

    Keywords: Evaluation, Strategic-structural plan, Content analysis, Good Governance, Realization
  • Abbasali Arvin *, Alireza Kiani Pages 1373-1389
    Introduction

    According to the international reports, more than half of the world's population had been settled in urban areas in 2007. Meanwhile only 13 % of the world’s population lived in urban areas until a century before. The growth of urban population is such that today, 4 percent of the Earth's surface is allocated to the urban areas. This is expected to reach 65 % in 2030. Rapid urban growth, physical development of the cities, and irregular and haphazard spatial development in the recent decades have all led to the disintegration of the spatial organization of the cities. Regrettably, the distribution of urban services has been studied more in terms of land use schemes and user per capita, and residents ' access to urban services has not been taken into account adequately. As one of the major cities of Iran, Yazd is not an exception. This city has experienced horizontal and fragmented expansion in the recent decades. This has caused some sort of imbalance in the use of urban services. So, the available evidence suggests that the outer and newly formed part of the city has low access to the public services. In fact, the distribution pattern is not proportional to the growth and development of the city. The present paper seeks to investigate and evaluate the distribution of the urban public services in the city of Yazd and determine the concentrated areas.

    Methodology

    In this research, based on the existing land use maps related to the detailed plan of Yazd city, different layers associated to the location of urban services were created in the Arc_GIS_10.3 software. Then, for weighting, a questionnaire was developed and distributed among experts to use the resulting information. Based on this questionnaire and Delphi technique, the primary and secondary services were also weighted. To analyze the level of urban services, we used the Euclidean distance and the layers overlay techniques in order to analyze the distribution of the urban public services in three regions of Yazd.

    Results and discussion

    Yazd city, as in many cities of Iran, due to the unbalanced development resulting from the migration flood from villages, faces the problem of poor distribution of urban services and facilities. Unplanned city development has led to the expansion of the provision of some services far from the city center, making it difficult for such areas to have access to these services. A survey of the distribution of services on the detailed maps of Yazd city indicates the inappropriate distribution of many urban services in the city. In addition, the physical expansion without the city's plan has led to some services far from the city's population centers, leading to difficult access. To begin, the analysis of the distribution of health care services shows that 8.5 percent of the city's area has a very poor distribution and 14.3 percent of the city's area suffers from the poor distribution. Distribution of educational services shows that about 34.7 of the total area of Yazd city is below the average level. Also, the distribution of urban facilities in more than 12.1 per cent of Yazd city level is at poor and very poor levels. Regarding the cultural services, the results suggest that the distribution of these services in 47.8 % of Yazd city is less than the average level. The analysis of the distribution of religious services also suggests that 24.7% of the total area of Yazd city has the average distribution. In the case of sport services, the results showed that the distribution of such services in an area equal to 20.4 percent of the city was at poor and very poor levels. The distribution of transportation services in 23.5% of the total area of Yazd city was average, while in 13 % of the city's area, it was at poor and very poor levels. Also, the distribution of green spaces and parks in an area equal to 10.6 percent of the total area of Yazd urban area was at poor and very poor levels. The spatial distribution of services on the map shows that religious services have been mostly focused in the center of the city, where the primary nucleus of Yazd has been located; as we get far from the center of city, the concentration of religious services is reduced. The distribution of the main services in 11 % of the city's area is at a poor level. The distribution of services in 21 % of the city’s surface area is at the average level, while 34 % of the city's area is at the good level; ultimately, an area equivalent to 30 % is at the very good level.

    Conclusion

    The beginning of any kind of planning leading to the proper distribution of public services in cities lies in identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the distribution in all parts of the city. In this study, the spatial distribution of primary and secondary public services of Yazd in nine main categories (health care, education, religion, culture, green spaces, sports, transportation, urban facilities and urban equipment) were analyzed using GIS software capabilities. Overall, the results of the study indicated that in 36 percent of the total area of Yazd, public services distribution was average and less. On the other hand, in 66.4 percent of the area of Yazd city, these services were the good and very good levels. The study of the maps of the study also showed that poor and very poor distributions had mostly occurred in the newly developed urban areas. In other words, as we move from the inner regions of the city to the outer ones, the distribution of services tends to be poor and very poor. Finally, it should be noted that to ensure public access to urban services, we need to locate all kinds of public services in the outer and newly developed areas of Yazd in order to ensure spatial justice and appropriate distribution of public services. To sum up, the best spatial distribution was related to green space services and the weakest one belonged to the cultural services.

    Keywords: Spatial Analyst, Public Services, Euclidean Distance, Overlap Model, Yazd City
  • Jahanbin Mirzayi, Yaghob Peyvastegar *, Hosein Kalantari Pages 1391-1408

    A general review shows that in most cities of Iran, objectives of urban comprehensive plans have not been realized; in other words, the realizability of these plans is in undesirable status. By plan unrealizability we mean that its objectives were not achieved. The goals of urban development plans pertain to population attraction, access network, passages, and public services. Public services include those that are normally not demanded in the market. The main problem of plan realizability is in the public services sector. These services are offered in five categories of parks and green spaces as well as educational, health-care, cultural, and sport spaces. Unfortunately, it was found in our studies that less than 10% of objectives was achieved in this sector. Implementation of such plans should be undertaken by the public sector (the government and municipality) and the market is not interested in doing so.As one of the most crucial urban hotspots of Iran, Shiraz is no exception and its urban comprehensive plan is facing significant unrealizability, particularly in service uses. The unrealizability can be clearly observed in per capita of park and green space, educational, sport, health-care, cultural, and religious uses. Surveys show that despite the importance of the studied subject and the role of Shiraz in economic, social, and cultural development of the southern part of the country, no research has been so far conducted on the subject. Accordingly, the essential questions that the researchers of the present study intend to explain include: what are the most important factors inhibiting the realization of service uses in the comprehensive plan of Shiraz? And what are the major executive strategies to remove the identified obstacles?

    Methodology

    The present research is an applied study in terms of nature and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. The study aims at identifying factors inhibiting the realization of urban plans in Iran’s metropolises, in this case Shiraz, Fars. Statistical population includes all urban managers and experts as well as the faculty members of Fars universities, who have scientific expertise and work experience in the studied subject. Due to the census limitations and the fact that no precise and authentic source was found for the size of the mentioned statistical population, to determine the sample size, a method is used in which no statistical sample size is required. Therefore, using the respective relation, 170 persons were considered as the statistical sample. In addition to interview, the main tool to collect the required field data was a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity was finally confirmed by referring to respective experts and being modified for several times. In order to check the reliability of the used tool, a pilot study with 30 questionnaires was conducted, and the reliability of the designed questionnaire was confirmed based on the obtained Cronbach’s alpha coefficient as 0.863. In order to analyze the data according to the research objectives, frequency distribution table, one-sample t test, and exploratory factor analysis were conducted in SPSS, and Amos was also used to consider the fitness of the obtained model.

    Results and discussion

    Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the most important factors inhibiting the realization of comprehensive plan of Shiraz in the form of several key, limited factors and determine the variance explained by each factor. Research results identified five important factors inhibiting the realization of comprehensive plan of the studied area, which could explain 69.7% of variance of the dependent variable. The identified factors and their explanation percent are respectively as follows in terms of importance: management weakness (20.09), weak points in plan preparation, compilation and approval process (13.9), weak financial and economic status of operating institutions (13.15), administrative and legal obstacles (11.38), and negligence of collaborative opportunities (11.18). Moreover, the research results indicated that the final experimental model of factors inhibiting the realization of comprehensive plan in Shiraz has good fitness and confirms the identified exploratory model.

    Conclusion

    Over the past years, various plans were prepared and implemented by scholars, policy-makers and planners to develop the urban spaces. One of the most important and common plans is urban comprehensive plan which can be traced back to the years before the Islamic Revolution in Iran. Despite the desirable visions devised for these plans, evidence of their past preparation and implementation in Iran indicates that despite enormous costs spent for these plans, they have not been well realized and this results from obstacles that the present research intends to identify, specifically in Shiraz. Research results showed that the most important factors inhibiting the realization of urban comprehensive plan in Shiraz include: management weakness; weak points in plan preparation, compilation and approval process; weak financial and economic status of operating institutions; administrative and legal obstacles; and negligence of collaborative opportunities. Although conforming the results of the present research to those of other studies confirms them, the results of the experimental model of confirmatory factor analysis also confirms the identified factors as the most important factors inhibiting the realization of urban comprehensive plan in Shiraz and similar urban spaces.In order to remove the factors inhibiting the realization of the urban comprehensive plan in the studied area, the following executive suggestions are presented according to the obtained results and the opinions of urban experts and professionals: specifying the tasks of operating organizations and institutions and preventing parallel work; integrating the urban management; proper punishment for violators of plan preparation, approval and implementation processes; excluding personal opinions and political attitudes from the plan preparation, approval and implementation processes; appointing qualified consulting engineers and experts to prepare the urban comprehensive plan; including citizens’ collaboration in all preparation, approval and implementation stages of the plan; carefully and technically supervising the plan preparation, approval and implementation processes; and obliging the operating institutions to enforce the approvals.Key words: sustainable development, urban spaces, comprehensive plan, Shiraz metropolis

    Keywords: Sustainable, Development, urban, spaces, comprehensive
  • Ali Raze Yosefi Moghadam *, Gholamreza Nabi Bidhendi, Hassan Hovidi Pages 1409-1432

    In recent years, planning efforts have focused on environmental issues, such as how to direct and manage development to minimize the damage to the environment. Decisions made at the planning stage, irrespective of the natural and physical environment, can move against the needs of proper land planning and planning. National planning should focus on the spatial tasks of each area, commensurate with its ecological potential and the allocation of physical development factors. Therefore, in designing strategies and policies for urban planning departments, one should consider the ecological potential of development and design the optimal model for it. Nowadays, research in the world of environmental modeling is of great importance. Environmental models represent the obvious aspects of complex and changing environments. In Iran, too, since the validity of ecological models has not been studied for urban development using GIS and landscape, despite decades of use, so with the advancement of technology, it is necessary to develop ecological modeling first. Complete the city and then conform to the landscape and its metrics.

    IntroductionIt

    is a city that has an identity in terms of its role and appearance in environmental planning and its location in space is quite evident. It is therefore considered to be an ecological structure that is governed by a system. The task of environmental planners is to study and analyze the ecological structure in the form of a set of components that interact with each other in an environmental system, in the form of organizing forms and populations, so that the urban complex is in the process of development and evolution. Due to its spatial context, its historical context manifests itself as an ecosystem in which these relationships manifest themselves. Therefore, urbanization and urban development can undoubtedly be one of the deepest aspects of modern civilization, one of the most important factors in environmental change, and this is the reason that the ever-increasing need for land for natural resources and products and products is growing. It causes food. But overcrowding has resulted in the concentration of activities and abundance of construction, the physical growth and expansion of urban hubs and the destruction of natural ecosystems. Although urban development in industrialized countries has been slow in the last centuries, it has intensified in developing countries after World War II, and these cities are expanding more rapidly than industrialized cities. As cities are growing in all dimensions, the growth of metropolis in developing countries is more than in developed countries.From an environmental point of view, the best location for a type of land use (urban, rural, industrial, conservation, agricultural, etc.) is the place where the least burden and pressure is put on the environment. Environmental assessment is a tool to help achieve sustainable development. The most important purpose of an environmental assessment is to ensure compliance with the policies and objectives set forth in the plans and activities of a plan or project in accordance with government environmental standards, criteria, laws and regulations Monvari, 2001). There are numerous methods to evaluate all of which attempt to standardize human use of nature on the basis of sustainable development. Common evaluation methods in the world are based on identifying the environmental resources that affect a region's power and suitability for given uses, integrating information, and ultimately using fitness models to determine the best use or uses. Land use models are useful tools for understanding land use process and supporting land planning and policy making (Verburg et al., 1999) and modeling is a valuable and useful method for understanding a process (Costanza and Ruth, 1998). ). In Iran, land evaluation and classification is done by comparing the ecological characteristics of environmental units and ecological models. The models presented for Iran are a general guide and, depending on the study site, the identified data and the purpose of the land use, it is appropriate to construct a specific model for the subject under evaluation in the framework of the Iranian Ecological Models and evaluate with the help of the model. Specifically reach the end (Makhdoom, 1999).

    Methodology

    In this research, it has been tried to make changes in Shiraz city and its range based on land use changes between three time periods and two periods of 2010 and 2015 and second period 2015 and 2019 based on satellite images extracted from Landsat series. After studying the changes and extraction and comparing them, three periods of Landscape changes of the study area and its changes in different skips have been studied and finally modeling of Shiraz city development with regard to ecological conservation and optimal development of the area has been discussed.

    Results and discussion

    As mentioned, one of the land uses that has been very important for human habitation since long ago is urban land use (Moharramnejad, 2004). In Iran, an ecological model with three classes of power has been proposed to evaluate the ecological potential of urban development land use. This model includes basic information such as climate, geographic direction, sea level, slope percentage, texture and soil type, soil drainage conditions, soil depth, soil structure, vegetation density, geology, water quantity, Grounding power and quality (land classification) are used to carry out urban development land use. In this research, it is intended to test the degree of validity of existing ecological models and to improve the statistical-mathematical relationship. This survey will be a milestone in environmental planning and land use planning in Iran and will begin the fourth stage of environmental assessment, namely the use of GIS.

    Conclusion

    It can be said that the implementation of the environmental case analysis process is highly dependent on the case analysis information. But in general, the study-analytical process showed the lack of spatial expansion in zones which in the present conditions strongly witnessed unplanned development without a city plan. Physically located, 38 percent of the area is suitable, while only 23 percent of the city's area is in an appropriate physical development area in terms of environmental hazards and ecological zones.

    Keywords: Shiraz, Ecological Development, Landscape, Land Use Change, Geographic Information System
  • Mohammad Reza Rezaei, Shahabadin Hajforoush * Pages 1433-1452

    Physically- Movement disabilities part of the community who are, like other citizens, need the desirability of designing of residential spaces are. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to Evaluation the Desirability of Designing of Residential Spaces for Physically- Movement Disabilities with the Approach of Disabilities Friendly City in Surface Yazd city is. This research in terms of applied purpose, in terms of nature and method, descriptive of survey type is. Field studies with questionnaire by 157 people Physically- Movement disabilities (Based on Morgan table) Randomly in the Surface Yazd city have been completed. To evaluate and rank the indicators Technique of UTA and for analyze the data to statistical tests in SPSS software were used. Based on the results Technique of UTA and weighting of the relevant indicators performed by Fuller Hierarchical Hierarchy Process, it was found that the safety criterion with weight of 0/437 is in the first rank and the accessibility criterion with weight of 0/183 is in the last rank. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that between income level of people with disabilities, their length of stay in residential Spaces and the level of their living space with their level of satisfaction there is no significant relationship, But between living standards with the level of satisfaction of the disabled there is a relationship. Regression analysis also shows that compliance with living standards is the first priority regarding the level of satisfaction of the disabled and the Surface of residential infrastructure, income and length of stay have the second, third and fourth priority, respectively. Finally, it can be concluded that the desirability of designing of residential spaces for physical- Movement disabilities can lead to the creation of a disability friendly city in Surface city Yazd.

    Introduction

    Location is one of the most important parts of the human environment. A well-designed environment and living space is of great importance for the disabled and disabled. The Disabled Friendly City provides the community with many techniques and methods to provide a comfortable and safe life for the disabled. In Iran, the needs of people with disabilities are often not fully met in new buildings, and most of the buildings are designed for healthy and capable individuals who have no adaptation and proportion to the disability of disabled people and cannot be used.

    Methodology

    The present study is applied in terms of purpose and in terms of nature and method it is a descriptive survey. Data were collected through library, documentary and survey methods. The statistical population of the study is Yazd's Disability Society and according to Morgan table, 157 persons are considered as sample according to the number of referrals per month to the Disabled Communities in Yazd. In this study, simple random sampling method was used. Initially, the necessary referrals were made with the individuals, for better cooperation, the subject and purpose of the research were clearly stated. The questionnaire was used to measure the accessibility of people to their living spaces and the size and dimensions of the spaces as well as the presence or absence of some spaces and facilities. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0/78 to determine the reliability of the instrument, indicating acceptable reliability of the questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire tool was confirmed by using the experts' opinions and summarizing the dimensions, components and variables influenced by Delphi and Pre-Test.

    Results and discussion

    Taken together, the results of this study are consistent with those of Kayama et al. (2019), Saita et al. (2019), Gorji Azandriani and Shirzad Nazarloo (2018), Ziyari and Karamuziyan (2018), and Soleimani et al. (2018). Attention to physical and physical disabilities should be built to support a disabled community, protect and protect urban parks, pay attention to their citizenship rights, maximize compliance with national and international standards and criteria, and appropriate walks for the disabled. It has been concluded that adherence to the standards of urban planning and architecture in designing Khtmanha is required. Consistent with the research of Kim Boa and Lee Yunsuk (2015), Shahram and Zieynal (2015) and Majidi (2012), housing design should be aware of the needs of people with disabilities, housing design guidelines, and utility, because in this study Due to the needs of people with disabilities in Yazd, the city has designed and designed housing.

    Conclusion

    Analysis of the presence or absence of correlation between the variables of income, length of stay in residential areas and the level of living infrastructure with the level of satisfaction of disabled people showed that there was no significant relationship between these variables. Finally, it was found that there is a significant relationship between the two variables of meeting the required standards in living space with the level of satisfaction of the disabled. Adherence to standards in the living space enhances the comfort of the handicapped and indicates a direct correlation. Regression test also shows the relation between compliance with living standards and level of satisfaction with the disability. Regression analysis (ANOVA) was used to correlate the desirability of designing residential spaces for physically-disabled people with disability-friendly cities. Therefore, it can be analyzed whether the utility design of residential spaces for persons with disabilities is in accordance with the law of engineering and building control such as adequate parking where the mouth of the car stop should be 3/50 meters wide, suitable for sanitary facilities which should be 1/50 × 1/70 meters or Its layout is such that it is possible to maneuver a wheelchair and ... with regard to disability-friendly city indicators can lead to the creation of a disability-friendly city in Yazd. This means that as the desirability of designing residential spaces for the disabled in Yazd increases, a positive and meaningful relationship is created to create a disability-friendly city.

    Keywords: Technique of UTA, Disabilities Friendly City, Yazd city, Residential Spaces, Physically- Movement Disabilities
  • Mohammad Ghasemi *, Farhad Aziz Pour Pages 1453-1474

    The spatial organization of settlements is continuously changing from inside and outside the various forces (environmental, socio-economic, historical, and political)In this article, the metamorphism of the spatial organization of the villages of Banrood and Jolgeh section in Isfahan city has been investigated due to changes in the activity system . The research is a type of applied research and developmental research and has been identified by qualitative method and deep interviews. In order to achieve the research goal in order to answer the research questions, the spatial approach is to explain the structural-functional changes and the changes of the spatial organization of rural settlements located in The studied area is affected by the development of the activity system. The results indicate that due to factors such as the limitation of water resources, the weakening of the role of agricultural production, the weakening of the rural economy, the reduction of the role of active human resources in production, the weakening of the native structures of the water resources utilization system, the change in the structure of employment for the benefit of the service sector This has led to the growth of the earthquake, as a result of which the production activity in the region has collapsed. As a result, the regional spatial organization has become a regular and sustainable organization towards a polarized organization focused on urbanism with focal points.The spatial organization of settlements is continuously changing from inside and outside the various forces (environmental, socio-economic, historical, and political)In this article, the metamorphism of the spatial organization of the villages of Banrood and Jolgeh section in Isfahan city has been investigated due to changes in the activity system . The research is a type of applied research and developmental research and has been identified by qualitative method and deep interviews. In order to achieve the research goal in order to answer the research questions, the spatial approach is to explain the structural-functional changes and the changes of the spatial organization of rural settlements located in The studied area is affected by the development of the activity system. The results indicate that due to factors such as the limitation of water resources, the weakening of the role of agricultural production, the weakening of the rural economy, the reduction of the role of active human resources in production, the weakening of the native structures of the water resources utilization system, the change in the structure of employment for the benefit of the service sector This has led to the growth of the earthquake, as a result of which the production activity in the region has collapsed. As a result, the regional spatial organization has become a regular and sustainable organization towards a polarized organization focused on urbanism with focal points.The spatial organization of settlements is continuously changing from inside and outside the various forces (environmental, socio-economic, historical, and political)In this article, the metamorphism of the spatial organization of the villages of Banrood and Jolgeh section in Isfahan city has been investigated due to changes in the activity system . The research is a type of applied research and developmental research and has been identified by qualitative method and deep interviews. In order to achieve the research goal in order to answer the research questions, the spatial approach is to explain the structural-functional changes and the changes of the spatial organization of rural settlements located in The studied area is affected by the development of the activity system. The results indicate that due to factors such as the limitation of water resources, the weakening of the role of agricultural production, the weakening of the rural economy, the reduction of the role of active human resources in production, the weakening of the native structures of the water resources utilization system, the change in the structure of employment for the benefit of the service sector This has led to the growth of the earthquake, as a result of which the production activity in the region has collapsed. As a result, the regional spatial organization has become a regular and sustainable organization towards a polarized organization focused on urbanism with focal points.The spatial organization of settlements is continuously changing from inside and outside the various forces (environmental, socio-economic, historical, and political)In this article, the metamorphism of the spatial organization of the villages of Banrood and Jolgeh section in Isfahan city has been investigated due to changes in the activity system . The research is a type of applied research and developmental research and has been identified by qualitative method and deep interviews. In order to achieve the research goal in order to answer the research questions, the spatial approach is to explain the structural-functional changes and the changes of the spatial organization of rural settlements located in The studied area is affected by the development of the activity system. The results indicate that due to factors such as the limitation of water resources, the weakening of the role of agricultural production, the weakening of the rural economy, the reduction of the role of active human resources in production, the weakening of the native structures of the water resources utilization system, the change in the structure of employment for the benefit of the service sector This has led to the growth of the earthquake, as a result of which the production activity in the region has collapsed. As a result, the regional spatial organization has become a regular and sustainable organization towards a polarized organization focused on urbanism with focal points. the change in the structure of employment for the benefit of the service sector This has led to the growth of the earthquake, as a result of which the production activity in the region has collapsed. As a result, the regional spatial organization has become a regular and sustainable organization towards a polarized organization focused on urbanism with focal points.

    Keywords: Spatial Organization, activity system, BonRood, Jolgeh, Rural Areas, Isfahan
  • Mehrdad Estiri *, Somaye Hesami, Bibi Marjan Fayazi, Farzad Rezaali Pages 1475-1492
    Introduction

    The highest goal of urban development and management is to improve the quality of life and happiness of citizens. Improving the quality of life of citizens plays a variety of roles, among which the role of the municipality will be more prominent, because municipalities can provide a beautiful and pleasant view of the urban environment and landscape for the residents of the complex by providing facilities and infrastructure services in cities. In municipalities, as organizations providing public services to citizens, manpower is the most important asset of the organization and to the extent that this capital has a better quality, the chances of success, survival and promotion of the organization will increase. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the role of mediating and moderating variables that can influence organizational citizenship behaviors(OCB) of urban public service provider employees. Specifically, this study examined the effect of psychological contract fulfillment on OCB with regard to the mediating role of perceived organizational(POS) support and moderating role of job embeddedness in Tehran municipality employees (case study employees of district 6). Accordingly, this research is based on the theory of social exchange on the role of the realization of psychological contract, perceived organizational support and job cohesion in promoting OCB and tries to examine the relationship between these variables in the form of a conceptual model. This research can be considered as having the necessary innovations both from a theoretical and practical point of view. Theoretically, the relationships between research variables in previous research have received less attention, and studies of the psychological contract have focused mainly on violations and their consequences in a career relationship (Ryton and Yalabik, 2014). However, the realization of this contract and its effects on employees' attitudes and behaviors have received less attention (Rayton et al., 2015). From a practical point of view, this article can have significant executive and managerial functions.

    Methodology

    A non-experimental, quantitative design was used in a random sample of 291 employees of Tehran municipality district 6. To measure the realization of the psychological contract Robinson's scale (1996) and in order to measure POS, OCB, and job embeddedness, Afsar & Badir scale (2016) was used. The collected data were analyzed using structural equation modeling and hierarchical regression. To measure reliability and to estimate the internal consistency between questions and components, Cronbach's alpha coefficient calculation method was used in a pre-test. The scores obtained for the realization of the psychological contract, 0.78; perceived organizational support, 0.77; OCB, 0.73 and job embeddedness, 0.75 were obtained, all of which were calculated above 0.7, and this indicates acceptable reliability was a measure of this research.

    Results and discussion

    The results of this study confirmed that the realization of the psychological contract has a positive effect on employee’s OCBs. In this regard, it is argued that greater adherence of managers to psychological contracting promotes OCB in employees. Since organizational citizenship behavior is a form of social exchange between the employees and organization, it will be enhanced by providing the necessary incentives. Thus, employees' perceptions of the fairness of employment relationships lead to improving their organizational citizenship behaviors. When employees feel that the organization has done more for them than it has promised them, they are more likely to participate in activities that benefit the organization.Research findings was also confirmed the second hypothesis, which tested the realization of the psychological contract on perceived organizational support. In other words, the implementation of such psychological contracts leads employees to consider the organization as their sponsor and support according to the theory of social exchange. In fact, part of the perceived organizational support is achieved when the employee feels that the majority organization has fulfilled its contractual requirements and that the integrity of the psychological contract generally prevails in healthy working relationships.Perceived organizational support also has a positive effect on organizational citizenship behavior. In this context, it can be said that if the managers of the organization create the feeling in the employees that the organization values them and their future work, it can lead to the formation of a positive attitude in the employees towards the organization. As a result, it promotes a sense of altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy, and civic virtue, and creates a sense of respect and esteem between employees and the organization, which ultimately leads to the promotion of organizational citizenship behaviors.Indeed, further findings revealed that Perceived organizational support also mediates the relationship between psychological contract fulfillment and organizational citizenship behavior. Therefore, it can be argued that with increasing level of implementation and realization of psychological contract, organizational citizenship behavior in the organization is improved and subsequently perceived organizational support leads to positive consequences in the workplace, the most important of which is organizational citizenship behavior. finally, the results of the study showed that job embeddedness has a positive moderating role on the relationship between perceived organizational support and organizational citizenship behavior. Job entanglement consists of the underlying and perceptual forces that bind employees to co-workers, job positions, and occupational issues and accordingly, it can multiply the effects of variables such as organizational support and citizenship behavior.

    Conclusion

    Given the important role of the municipality in providing services to citizens and providing their welfare, the results of such research can be very useful. According to research limitations and future research directions, in this study, questions related to the independent and dependent variables were answered by one person and this can increase the possibility of bias. Especially in the case of variable organizational citizenship behavior that was answered by the employees themselves. One of the most important limitations of research is the use of questionnaire instrument. Since questionnaires often measure employee's perceptions, it is possible that these perceptions do not correspond to reality and that care must be taken to generalize them. Indeed, the participants of this study were the employees of Tehran Municipality District 6. Differences in the environment of different organizations and geographical locations at different times make the results more accurate and require more caution in their use in other organizations and communities.

    Keywords: Psychological Contract Fulfillment, Organizational citizenship behaviors, Perceived organizational support, Job embeddedness, Public organization Management
  • Mohammadreza Jelokhani-Niaraki *, Alireza Sarsangi-Aliabad, Narjes Mahmoody Vanolya Pages 1493-1509

    Finding the right public parking lot for car parking is one of the major problems for citizens. Drivers spend a lot of time and distance finding the right public parking lot, which increases traffic, air pollution, fuel consumption, driver fatigue and confusion. In this regard, this article attempts to improve the process of parking searches and routing for citizens by providing a mobile GIS-based application. The location-aware program consists of three main modules, including two local parking management modules and comprehensive web-based parking management and a mobile-based parking locator module. The local parking management and comprehensive parking management modules collect information about each parking lot and transfer it to the Parking Finder module. Citizens can get the most appropriate parking and access path by prioritizing any of the criteria found in the Parking Finder module. The program was used to improve the routing of the park in Yazd. Then, a survey of 55 citizens using the system to find parking was conducted to evaluate the proposed plan. Survey results show that 36.4% of participants used the program more than 10 times a month and more in the afternoon (63.6%) and on weekends (20%). It has also reduced the time spent searching (54.5% less than 10 minutes and 16.4% more than 15 minutes) and increased the efficiency of using parking systems in Yazd.

    Introduction

    Finding the right public parking lot for car parking is one of the major problems for citizens. Drivers spend a great deal of time and distance finding the right public parking lot, which increases traffic, air pollution, fuel consumption, driver fatigue and confusion. On the other hand, the growing population of cities, especially in tourist areas, has led to the issue of finding a suitable parking spot and finding a lot of attention due to the lack of adequate parking lots and lack of adequate parking information. At the city level, this is facing many problems. Many cities are currently developing location-aware parking systems using ICT. These systems combine telecommunications, geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning systems (GPS) to make parking information accessible to drivers when needed and the most effective way to navigate the empty spaces of parking lots. Designed as web applications, these systems are available from mobile devices or personal computers (laptops) .The main task of these applications is to select the most suitable parking lot based on the evaluation of available parking lots. To this end, these systems combine a set of criteria that affect the selection of a parking lot with the weight of each parking lot, using Multi-criteria Location Decision Analysis (GIS-MCDA). Introduce the largest parking lot.

    Methodology

    The proposed citizen-centered parking system consists of three main functional areas: local parking management, comprehensive parking management, and a functional parking lot. The information recorded in the local parking database is transmitted online to the comprehensive parking management system database and is provided through the embedded web services to the parking finder application to provide location and descriptive services.

    Results and discussionIn

    this article, systems are designed and implemented as a mobile based application to service drivers to determine the most appropriate parking and access path. The program is made up of three main application areas, identifying the current location of each user and utilizing mobile device positioning technology, combining user-specific preferences to fit each of the criteria in the application. Provides the most secure parking. After applying weight and determining the importance of each of the existing criteria by the drivers, the proposed program introduces the most suitable parking lot among the available parking lots using WLC Multi-criteria Decision Analysis. The route to the desired parking lot is displayed on the map as text, audio and graph. Showing the shortest route to the parking lot can be very useful for drivers in busy traffic and busy hours, preventing additional routes and increasing traffic.In order to evaluate the proposed program, 55 users of the questionnaire program were prepared in the form of 5 questions. The first question relates to how often the program is used during a month. 20 participants (36.4%), more than 10 times a month and more in the afternoon (35 people, 63.6%) and weekends (11%, 20%) of this program to find out They have used parking. This indicates that people in Yazd are facing severe parking problems at certain times of the day due to the increased traffic and intra-city traffic, and this program can be very useful and effective in finding suitable parking.

    Conclusion

    This article proposes a citizen-centered parking tracking system to improve parking search and routing in Yazd city. The innovative program combines instant parking information with drivers' personal preferences using mobile features to provide the most appropriate parking and accessibility. The program consists of three main application sections, two of which are web-based and one mobile-application. The web applications section is used by parking officials and the general manager of parking lots, and information about each parking lot is stored and recorded at any time. The mobile application segment is used by drivers and receives instant parking information online. In addition, this section shows the most suitable parking and the route of access to each driver, by prioritizing the criteria in the program through each driver. Implementation of this proposed city-wide program has shown that time spent searching for parking spaces has been significantly reduced, saving drivers time and money. Using this program also allows drivers to find the best parking in terms of distance, cost and number of vacancies by registering minimal information on their mobile phones. Providing parking location and access can also help drivers in busy city hours. However, in this research, no analysis has been conducted on the level of simplicity and usability of this system by citizens.

    Keywords: citizen-centric system, multi-criteria decision analysis, location-aware GIS, parking locator, Routing
  • Zahra Pishghahifard *, M. Vasegh, Mohsen Zamani Pages 1511-1528
     Introduction

    Iran’s regionalism policy and strategies has different versions during the times. During most of the 20th century, the two successor states of the Ottoman and Persian Empires played only a limited role in Middle Eastern politics. Iran did have foreign policy ambitions, and his impact on the Middle East was felt mostly in the region’s east and in its petro-politics. Iran’s ability to project power and influence in its immediate environment and beyond was constrained by Soviet pressure and domestic problems. Turkey, for its part, was ruled by a secular elite oriented toward Europe. As such, during most of the latter half of the 20th century, the regional politics of the Middle East were shaped mostly by the dynamics of inter-Arab relations and by the Arab-Israeli conflict. Iran’s quest for regional hegemony after 1979 and Turkey’s shift away from Europe to its neighborhood transformed the region. The Middle East was now joined by two, large, powerful Muslim states. One important illustration of the new regional reality is the Astana Forum that since 2017 has been the major arena of the efforts to resolve the Syrian crisis. Not a single Arab state is a participant in that forum. Of the two new actors, Iran is the more ambitious and more active. It is driven by religious zeal; the geopolitical ambitions of a successor state to a great imperial past; and the anxieties of a regime worried by the enmity of the United States and such regional enemies as Israel, Saudi Arabia and, until 2003, Iraq. The Iranian leadership may well see some of its actions as defensive, but they serve in fact to exacerbate the anxieties of its rivals, thus creating a vicious cycle of defensive-offensive action and reaction.

    Methodology

    Methodology of this study is descriptive- analytical and required information has been collected through library research. The information gathered from sources such as books, magazines, online articles, etc.

    Result and Discussion

    As it marks the 40th anniversary of the Islamic Revolution, Iran finds itself as a major actor in a transformed Middle Eastern system shaped to a considerable extent by its own actions. Forty years after its birth, the Islamic Republic is still fueled by a blend of religious zeal, geopolitical ambitions, and vested interest. The question remains open as to when—as has been the case with other great revolutions—a phase of consolidation and moderation will set in. Revolutions are often defined as mass-based movements that violently, over a relatively short span of time, bring down a regime and often lead to a restructuring of the polity and the transformation of the class structure of a society. As a result, it is commonly assumed that the country's foreign policy will also undergo fundamental changes. Iran has made many mistakes in its long diplomatic history. In the post-revolutionary period, and particularly in the early years of the Islamic revolution, Iran’s foreign policy was often characterized by provocation, agitation and subversion. Yet, while the dominant understanding of revolution is heavily intertwined with change, there has been a good deal of continuity in regional policy when it comes to post-revolutionary Iran. To trace this continuity, it is important to understand the ways in which Iran’s regional policies are viewed by elites in the country. The present paper, actually argues that both domestic and regional changes have combined to make of Iran an exceptional case study of how an Islamic revolutionary state might set about managing the post-cold war order. Accordingly, in the 1990s it was the new geopolitical realities which came to dominate the agenda of the Islamic republic, bringing Iran closer to its Eurasian hinterland (Central Asia and Cuacasia). In the new millennium, however, geopolitical complexities which has emerged as the single most significant source of threat to Iran, as well as to the West's regional interests. Attacks on both the Shi’a communities and the West have made tacit, unacknowledged allies of Iran and the West in containing its impact on the status quo in the Middle East. This has been the case, remarkably, despite the ongoing rift between Iran and the United States. The chapter traces Iran's responses to this dynamic environment and analyzes its impact on Iran's elites, outlook, and policies.

    Conclusion

    Regionalism and understanding its dimensions and foundations is one of the necessities of achieving an efficient and national interest-based foreign policy. In the geopolitical codes of the First Powers, regionalism is defined as an active strategy and a basis for increasing interaction with the world system. The history of Iranian foreign policy shows that regionalism and its patterns have not been on the agenda of designers and decision makers of Iran's political apparatus before and after Islam. Historically, regionalism has been overlooked as an approach and policy in the various governments ruling Iran. The neglect of geographical approaches and policies is to the extent that even the Achaemenes and Sassanid governments did not feel the need to interact and regionalize with their subordinate countries. However, to achieve its geopolitical goals and interests, the Islamic Republic of Iran has to develop and apply regionalism principles and approaches. In the current situation, the Islamic Republic's insistence on a purely ideological approach to its foreign relations has, to a certain extent, neglected the peripheral realities and depleted its geographical and geopolitical capacities. The present study, using a descriptive-analytical approach and based on a complementary approach, explores the principles and approaches for activating the regionalism approach in the foreign policy structure of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the Caucasus and Central Asia. The results show that among the regionalization approaches, there are three cultural complementarity, civilization complementarity and geo-economic complementarity including the most important approaches and patterns of regionalization of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the Caucasus and the Central Asia.

    Keywords: Regionalism, Complementary, Caucasia, Central Asia, Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Yashar Zaki, Sajad Najafi * Pages 1529-1549

    The weakness in efficient management of water resources , especially in common international watersheds , lack of efficient water diplomacy , inappropriate use of international water resources in 21st century – which due to severe shortage , we witness a growing increase in role and importance of water and water resources in the process of nations living especially in Middle - East region , can underlie the development of inclusive regional crises . One of common water basins is the Arvandrood , which has a special criticality and position according to current geopolitical status . It is necessary to adopt a suitable strategy in diplomatic relations between Iran and Iraq on how to manage and operate this common water basin. In the following research , using experts opinions , we collected influential environmental factors in the Arvandrood hydropolitics and with application of SWOT Matrix analysis , it is determined that at the current situation the country’s strategy toward the Arvandrood hydropolitics against Iraq should be aggressive ; and then we prioritized strategies obtained from expert opinions with application of Analytic Hierarchy Process ( AHP ) . “ Emphasizing the governors for special attention and allocating appropriate funds in order to promote and develop relative strategic and infrastructural economic , nuclear and military equipment and industries with application of inland scientific and academic potentials and capacities in order to reach balance and relative superiority against Iraq ” has been selected as the most preference and effective strategy gaining a weight of ( 0.412 ) .

    Introduction

    Arvandrood as a joint border river between Iran and Iraq in different time and historical periods , especially in recent years due to the specific geopolitical situation of Iraq has caused the conflict of two countries over the ownership and exploitation of the river . Sometimes these conflicts has led to the formation of military conflict and war . The last example for this situation was an imposing eight - year war that has caused a great deal of human , structural and economic casualties , especially for Iran . In the future , this shared watershed could also pave the way for divergence and re-disputation , especially from the Iraqi government , given its limited access to easy access to Persian Gulf waters . One of common water basins is the Arvandrood , which has a special criticality and position according to current geopolitical status . It is necessary to adopt a suitable strategy in diplomatic relations between Iran and Iraq on how to manage and operate this common water basin .Therefore , in the current research , in order to answer the question , what is the most important and effective Iranian strategy towards Arvandrood hydropolitics? While trying to determine the strategy of our country , we present effective strategies for the hydropolitics of Arvandrood and in the continue to prioritize the strategies ahead.

    Methodology

    The type of this research in terms of purpose is functional , and in terms of research method is a combination of descriptive - analytical methods and the use of survey methods is interview with experts and questionnaires . In the current study 14 knowledgeable experts in the field of research are used to identify the internal ( IFE ) and external ( EFE ) factors affecting the Arvandrood hydropolitic and to analyze the data , we use the analysis of strengths , weaknesses, opportunities , and threats matrix ( SWOT ) and the Analytical Hierarchy Process ( AHP ) .

    Results and Discussion

    With application of analysis of SWOT Matrix , it is determined that at the current situation the country’s strategy toward the Arvandrood hydropolitic against Iraq should be aggressive ; and then we prioritized declared strategies from expert opinions by using of Analytical Hierarchy Process ( AHP ) . “ Emphasizing the governors for special attention and allocating appropriate funds in order to promote and develop relative strategic and infrastructural economic , nuclear and military equipment and industries with application of inland scientific and academic potentials and capacities in order to reach balance and relative superiority against Iraq ” has been selected as the most preference and effective strategy gaining a weight of ( 0.412 ( . and in the Finally , the strategies obtained were prioritized based on expert opinion and weight .

    Conclusion

    Regarding the Arvand water basin , government officials should pay special attention and allocate appropriate funds to promote and develop relative strategic and infrastructural economic , nuclear and military equipment and industries using the country's scientific , technical , and academic capacities and capabilities by achieving relative balance and superiority over Iraq by providing diplomacy and consulting to provide motivation and interest in the Iraqi government to participate in the management and operation of the Arvandrood joint watershed .In the next step , the diplomacy and foreign policy apparatus of the country would have to formulate a special working group and conduct regular negotiations with the Iraqi and Turkish governments to consider the solutions in order to maximize the use of water basin as much as possible . Consulting and cooperating with Turkey as an influential country in supplying water to Arvandrood in view of its large dam projects, through formal and legal agreement to review extensive dam projects and water supply to the Arvandrood River .Therefore the cooperation of the three countries Iran , Iraq and Turkey on how to use Arvand correctly It will bring peace and stability to the region , And it will prevent any conflict between Iran and Iraq in the future .Key words :Hydropolitic , Arvandrood , Strategy , Water Diplomacy , Frontier River .

    Keywords: Hydropolitic, Arvandrood, Strategy, Water Diplomacy, Frontier River