فهرست مطالب

پژوهشهای علوم دامی ایران - سال هشتم شماره 3 (1395)
  • سال هشتم شماره 3 (1395)
  • بهای روی جلد: 50,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/12/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • تغذیه نشخوار کنندگان
  • رضا ولی زاده، مهدی محمودی، ابیانه رضا گنجوی صفحه 403
    در این مطالعه اثر مرحله رشد و زمان چیدن بر ترکیب شیمیایی، تولید گاز و قابلیت هضم آزمایشگاهی، یونجه در قالب یک طرح کاملا تصادفی به روش فاکتوریل 2×3 مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. علف یونجه در سه مرحله رشد اوایل غنچه دهی، اواخر غنچه دهی و اوایل گلدهی و در دو زمان چیدن ساعت 06:00 و 18:00 برداشت شد. با افزایش سن گیاه یونجه و مرحله رشد، محتوای برگ و نسبت برگ به ساقه کاهش یافت، ولی ماده خشک و تولید گیاه در واحد سطح افزایش نشان داد. با افزایش مرحله رشد از مرحله اوایل غنچه دهی تا اوایل گلدهی محتوای پروتئین خام، قابلیت هضم ماده خشک، نرخ هضم NDF و نرخ تولید گاز کاهش یافت و الگوی تخمیر به روش تولید گاز بهبود پیدا کرد. چیدن یونجه در بعد از ظهر در مقایسه با صبح غلظت کربوهیدرات های محلول، مقدار پروتئین، نرخ تولید گاز و قابلیت هضم ماده خشک را به‏طور معنی داری افزایش داد. از نتایج به دست آمده چنین به نظر می‏رسد که چیدن یونجه در اوایل غنچه دهی و در بعد از ظهر برای تولید علوفه با کیفیت بهتر در تغذیه دام مناسب تر است.
    کلیدواژگان: تولید گاز، زمان برداشت، قابلیت هضم، مرحله رشد، یونجه
  • هادی قربانی، سید علیرضا وکیلی، محسن دانش مسگران صفحه 415
    این پژوهش به منظور بررسی اثر اسانس های گیاهی پونه کوهی، پرتقال و زیره سبز ( 50، 100 و 150 میلی گرم اسانس، به ازای کیلوگرم ماده خشک سیلاژ) بر ترکیب شیمیایی، فراسنجه های تولید گاز، پایداری هوازی و تجزیه پذیری ماده خشک سیلاژ ذرت انجام گرفت. سیلوکردن در کیسه های پلاستیکی انجام شد. سیلوها در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی بعد از 256 روز باز شدند. سیلا‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ژ های تیمار شده با پونه 150و زیره 150، pH سیلاژ ذرت را در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد کاهش دادند. تیمار پونه 150 پروتئین خام بیشتری نسبت به تیمارشاهد داشت. مقدار نیتروژن آمونیاکی در تیمارهای پونه 100، پونه 150 و زیره 150 نسبت به تیمار شاهد کاهش پیدا کرد. اسانس های پونه 100، پونه 150 و پرتقال 150 باعث افزایش فراسنجه های تولید گاز از بخش قابل تخمیردر مقایسه با تیمار شاهد شدند. هم چنین اسانس های زیره 50، زیره 150 و پرتقال 150 باعث کاهش معنی دار بخش قابل تخمیر نسبت به تیمار شاهد شدند . پونه 100 باعث افزایش، پونه 50 و پرتقال50 باعث کاهش ثابت نرخ تولید گاز شدند. پونه 100 و 150 باعث افزایش اسیدهای چرب کوتاه زنجیر، انرژی متابولیسمی و قابلیت هضم ماده آلی در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد شدند. زیره 100 و 150 باعث کاهش قابلیت هضم ماده خشک در ماده آلی، اسیدهای چرب کوتاه زنجیر و قابلیت هضم ماده آلی در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد شدند. سیلاژهای عمل آوری شده با زیره 150، زیره 100، پونه 150، پونه 100 و پرتقال 150 پایداری هوازی بیشتری در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد داشتند. تجزیه پذیری ماده خشک سیلاژ ذرت تحت تاثیر تیمارهای مختلف در شرایط آزمایشگاهی قرار نگرفت.
    کلیدواژگان: اسانس های گیاهی، پایداری هوازی، تولید گاز، سیلاژ ذرت
  • راحله رجبی علی آبادی، رضا طهماسبی، امید دیانی، امین خضری صفحه 428
    در این تحقیق، اثر تغذیه سیلاژ یونجه با مقادیر مختلف خرمای ضایعاتی بر سنتز پروتئین میکروبی، جمعیت پروتوزوآ و فراسنجه های خونی در هشت راس گوسفند نر کرمانی با میانگین وزنی 2±47 کیلوگرم در قالب طرح چرخشی در 2 دوره 21 روزه بررسی گردید. برای تهیه سیلاژ، یونجه با درصد های صفر، پنج، 10 و 15 درصد خرمای ضایعاتی با هم مخلوط و به مدت 45 روز در سطل هایی با گنجایش 40 لیتر سیلوگردید. پس از تعیین ترکیبات شیمیایی سیلاژ های یونجه ، از سیلاژها به میزان 30 درصد در جیره های آزمایشی شامل: 1) جیره شاهد (سیلاژ یونجه بدون خرمای ضایعاتی)، 2) جیره حاوی سیلاژ یونجه با 5 درصد خرمای ضایعاتی، 3) جیره حاوی سیلاژ یونجه با 10 درصد خرمای ضایعاتی و 4) جیره حاوی سیلاژ یونجه با 15 درصد خرمای ضایعاتی استفاده شدند. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که جمعیت کل پروتوزوآ و تمامی گونه های هولوتریش، سلولیتیک و انتودینیوم در مایع شکمبه با افزودن خرمای ضایعاتی به سیلاژ یونجه به صورت روند خطی افزایش یافت. هم چنین جیره حاوی سیلاژ یونجه با 15 درصد خرمای ضایعاتی سبب افزایش ابقا نیتروژن و پروتئین میکروبی شد. با افزایش مقدار خرمای ضایعاتی در سیلاژ یونجه در جیره های آزمایشی، سطح کلسترول و نیتروژن اوره ای خون به صورت معنی داری تغییر پیدا کرد و سطح تری گلیسیرید خون به صورت روند خطی تحت تاثیر جیره های آزمایشی قرار گرفت. به طور کلی با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده، استفاده از مقدار 15 درصد خرمای ضایعاتی در تهیه سیلاژ یونجه سبب بهبود ابقاء نیتروژن و افزایش سنتز پروتئین میکروبی شد. بنابراین می توان از این سیلاژ، در تغذیه دام استفاده نمود.
    کلیدواژگان: خرمای ضایعاتی، سنتز پروتئین میکروبی، سیلاژ یونجه، فراسنجه های خونی
  • منیره بابایی، فرزاد قنبری، آشور محمد قره باش، جواد بیات کوهسار صفحه 441
    این پژوهش به منظور بررسی اثر تیمارهای پرتو الکترون (150 و 200 کیلوگری)، پراکسید هیدروژن (132 میلی لیتر در کیلوگرم) و اسید هیدروبرومیک (60 میلی لیتر در کیلوگرم) بر ترکیب شیمیایی و تجزیه شکمبه ای ماده خشک بقایای ماش انجام شد. پس از عمل آوری، ماده خشک، ، ماده آلی، پروتئین خام، چربی خام و الیاف خام توسط روش های استاندارد تعیین شدند. آزمایش تجزیه پذیری با فن کیسه های نایلونی و با استفاده از سه راس گوسفند نر نژاد دالاق مجهز به فیستولای شکمبه ای انجام شد. از زمان های صفر، 4، 8، 12، 24، 48، 72 و 96 ساعت برای انکوباسیون شکمبه ای نمونه ها استفاده شد. درجه بلورینگی نمونه ها با استفاده از تکنیک پراش پرتو ایکس تعیین شد. همه تیمارها باعث افزایش مقدار خاکستر خام و کاهش مقدار ماده آلی شدند. پروتئین خام توسط تیمارهای اسید هیدروبرومیک، پرتو الکترون (150 و 200 کیلوگری) و اسید هیدروبرومیک+ پرتو الکترون (150 کیلوگری) افزایش یافت. عمل آوری مقدار الیاف خام را کاهش داد. بیش ترین کاهش در تیمار پرتو الکترون (150 کیلوگری) مشاهده شد. عمل آوری باعث افزایش تجزیه پذیری موثر ماده خشک در سرعت های عبور 2، 5 و 8 درصد در ساعت شد. پرتو الکترون (150 و 200 کیلوگری) و استفاده توام از پرتو الکترون و ترکیبات شیمیایی بیش ترین تاثیر را در افزایش تجزیه پذیری موثر ماده خشک داشتند. با بررسی الگوی پراش پرتو ایکس مشاهده شد که تمامی تیمارها باعث کاهش درجه بلورینگی نمونه های بقایای ماش شدند. در مجموع، تیمارهای پرتو الکترون، اسید هیدروبرومیک و ترکیب آن ها تاثیر بیشتری در بهبود ارزش تغذیه ای بقایای ماش داشتند.
    کلیدواژگان: ارزش تغذیه ای، اسید هیدروبرومیک، بقایای ماش، پراکسید هیدروژن، پرتو الکترون
  • تغذیه طیور
  • مهدیه مظفری، حسن کرمانشاهی، ابوالقاسم گلیان صفحه 455
    هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی اثر پروبیوتیک پدیوکوکوس اسیدی لاکتیسی بر عملکرد، قابلیت هضم مواد مغذی، بافت شناسی و فلور میکروبی روده در جوجه های گوشتی بود. این مطالعه با تعداد 260 قطعه جوجه گوشتی نر سویه راس 308 در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با چهار تیمار و پنج تکرار اجرا شد. پرورش جوجه ها در چهار گروه شامل: 1- بدون پروبیوتیک (شاهد) 2- اسپری محلول پروبیوتیک در کارتن جوجه های یک روزه (با غلظت یک گرم بر لیتر) 3- مصرف پروبیوتیک در خوراک در کل دوره (به میزان 100 گرم در تن) 4- مصرف پروبیوتیک به صورت اسپری به اضافه ی خوراک، انجام گرفت. بر اساس نتایج، جوجه هایی که پروبیوتیک را به روش اسپری دریافت کرده بودند، در مقایسه با آن ها یی که آن را در خوراک و یا اسپری به اضافه ی خوراک مصرف کردند، افزایش وزن روزانه ی بیشتر و ضریب تبدیل خوراک کمتری در دوره ی آغازین داشتند، ولی تفاوت قابل ملاحظه ای بین این جوجه ها با گروه شاهد، مشاهده نشد. قابلیت هضم مواد مغذی در جوجه های دریافت کننده ی پروبیوتیک به روش اسپری نسبت به دیگر گروه های دریافت کننده پروبیوتیک بیشتر بود، اما تفاوت قابل ملاحظه ای بین این جوجه ها با گروه شاهد مشاهده نشد. بیشترین ارتفاع ویلی و عمق کریپت مربوط به گروه اسپری به اضافه ی خوراک بود. جمعیت لاکتوباسیل ها در جوجه های دریافت کننده ی پروبیوتیک با روش اسپری و اسپری به اضافه ی خوراک نسبت به گروه شاهد، به طور قابل ملاحظه ای بیشتر بود. بنابراین به نظر می رسد، استفاده زود هنگام از پروبیوتیک پدیوکوکوس اسیدی لاکتیسی (اسپری در روز اول) در مقایسه با روش استفاده از آن در خوراک، نتایج بهتری در مولفه های اندازه گیری شده داشته است.
    کلیدواژگان: بافت شناسی، پدیوکوکوس اسیدی لاکتیسی، عملکرد، فلور میکروبی، قابلیت هضم مواد مغذی
  • محمد مهدی رجبی، محسن افشارمنش، الهه رستمی گوهری صفحه 468
    به منظور بررسی تاثیر پودر و اسانس رزماری بر عملکرد، جمعیت میکروبی، ریخت شناسی روده و کیفیت گوشت بلدرچین های گوشتی، آزمایشی در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با پنج تیمار و چهار تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل، 1) جیره شاهد بدون افزودنی خوراکی، 2 و 3) جیره شاهد به ترتیب حاوی سطوح 50 و 100 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم اسانس رزماری، 4 و5) جیره شاهد به ترتیب حاوی 5/2 و پنج گرم در کیلوگرم پودر رزماری بودند. پارامترهای مورد اندازه گیری شامل عملکرد، ، میکروبیولوژی روده و کیفیت گوشت بودند. نتایج نشان داد که در سن صفر-21روزگی، بلدرچین های تغذیه شده با 5/2 و پنج گرم پودر رزماری به ترتیب به طور معنی داری افزایش وزن روزانه بیشتری (367/5، 736/5) در مقایسه با گروه شاهد (136/5) داشتند. مصرف خوراک و ضریب تبدیل غذایی تحت تاثیر تیمارهای آزمایشی قرار نگرفت. جمعیت لاکتوباسیل ها در بلدرچین های تغذیه شده با پودر و اسانس رزماری (به جز 5/2 گرم در کیلوگرم پودر رزماری) به طور معنی داری در مقایسه با گروه شاهد افزایش یافت. هم چنین طول و عرض پرزها در تیمارهای دریافت کننده پودر و اسانس رزماری افزایش و عمق کریپت کاهش یافت. پودر رزماری سبب کاهش تیوباربیتوریک اسید4 و کاهش وزن لاشه در نتیجه پخت در مقایسه با گروه شاهد گردید. بیش ترین مقدار pH در بلدرچین های تغذیه شده با 100 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم اسانس رزماری مشاهده شد. ظرفیت نگه داری آب به طور معنی داری در تیمارهای دریافت کننده رزماری (به جز50 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم اسانس) در مقایسه با گروه شاهد بیشتر بود. افت خونابه تحت تاثیر تیمارهای آزمایشی قرار نگرفت. پودر رزماری در سن صفر-21 روزگی افزایش وزن روزانه را به طور معنی داری بهبود بخشید هم چنین سبب بهبود کیفیت گوشت گردید.
    کلیدواژگان: بلدرچین، رزماری، عملکرد، کیفیت گوشت
  • علی رضا حسابی نامقی، محمد رضا بیرجندی، اصغر محمدپور صفحه 479
    به منظور بررسی اثر سطوح مختلف محدودیت کمی خوراک بر عملکرد مرغان بومی استان خراسان، آزمایشی با استفاده از 350 قطعه مرغ بومی در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با هفت تیمار آزمایشی، پنج تکرار و 10 مرغ در هر تکرار از سن 36 الی 52 هفتگی در ایستگاه مرغ بومی خراسان اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی بر پایه ذرت، سویا، گندم و جیره ی یکسان بدین صورت بود که در گروه شاهد مصرف خوراک به صورت آزاد بود و در سایر تیمارها مصرف روزانه در حد 125، 120، 115، 110، 105 و 100 گرم محدود گردید. نتایج نشان داد که محدودیت خوراک تا سطح 110 گرم باعث کاهش معنی دار در درصد تولید تخم مرغ نشد، اما گروه های مصرف کننده کمتر از 110 گرم خوراک در روز، کاهش معنی دار درصد تولید را نشان دادند. سطوح 100 و 110 گرم محدودیت خوراک جیره غذایی در مقایسه با مصرف خوراک آزاد، اثر معنی داری بر وزن تخم مرغ نشان نداد. گروه های با محدودیت مصرف 100 و 105 گرم در روز، کاهش معنی دار وزن توده تخم مرغ را نسبت به گروه شاهد و سایر گروه ها نشان دادند. بهترین ضریب تبدیل غذایی در سطح 110 گرم محدودیت خوراک مشاهده شد. محدودیت خوراک در سطح 105 و 100 گرم در روز باعث کاهش درصد چربی حفره بطنی و وزن سنگدان شد؛ اما بر وزن لوله تخم بر و مجموعه تخمدانی اثری نداشت. محدویت خوراک در سطح 100 گرم در روز باعث افزایش نسبت هتروفیل به لنفوسیت گردید، اما سایر سطوح محدودیت خوراک اثری بر این نسبت نداشت. به طور کلی نتایج این بررسی نشان داد که میزان 110 گرم محدودیت خوراک در روز باعث کاهش تولید تخم مرغ و تغییر در نسبت هتروفیل به لنفوسیت در پرنده نشد و این میزان محدودیت در بهبود ضریب تبدیل غذایی در مرغان بومی موثر است.
    کلیدواژگان: پاسخ ایمنی، عملکرد، محدودیت غذایی، مرغان بومی خراسان
  • ژنتیک و اصلاح دام و طیور
  • مریم نصرتی، مجتبی طهمورث پور صفحه 489
    در سال های اخیر با پیشرفت تکنولوژی توالی یابی، مطالعات ژنومی به سمت شناسایی تنوع های جدید و نحوه تاثیر آن ها بر عملکرد صفات اقتصادی معطوف شده است. تنوع در تعداد کپی قطعه ژنومی با طول حداقل یک کیلو جفت باز و تشابه بیش از 90 درصد از جمله این تنوع ها است. در این پژوهش به هدف شناسایی این تنوع در ژنوم گوسفند از 360 راس گوسفند نمونه خون تهیه شد و با استفاده چیپ 50 کی گوسفندی شرکت ایلومینا، 54241 جهش تک نوکلئوتیدی در سراسر ژنوم شناسایی شد. تعداد 2180 تنوع در تعداد کپی قطعه ژنومی با استفاده از نرم افزار پنسی.ان.وی شناسایی شد. کل طول این تنوع در ژنوم 5/8 مگا جفت باز بود (32/0درصد). پس از ادغام نواحی مشترک 35 ناحیه تنوع در تعداد کپی قطعه ژنومی پرتکرار در کروموزوم های اتوزوم با میانگین و میانه طول به ترتیب 61/178 و 25/135کیلو جفت باز شناسایی شد. توزیع نواحی تنوع در ژنوم بیشتر در مناطق تلومری و سانترومری بود. از 35 ناحیه شناسایی شده 25 ناحیه به صورت کامل یا جزئی با 152 ژن مرجع در ژنوم انسان، گاو و گوسفند هم پوشانی داشت. این ژن ها در مسیرهای متابولیکی ترانس دوکسیون بویای، سرطان، متابولیسم پورین و پریمیدین، بیوسنتز استروئیدها و بیماری های از قبیل استئوپروسیز و کم خونی نقش داشتند. حضور این نواحی در مناطق ژنی این فرضیه را تقویت کرد که احتمالا این تنوع قادر است مسیرهای متابولیکی را تغییر دهد و منجر به تفاوت در عملکرد فنوتیپی بین افراد یک جمعیت شود. لذا به نظر می رسد شناسایی این تنوع می تواند افق های جدیدی را در برنامه های اصلاح نژادی باز کند.
    کلیدواژگان: پنسی ان وی، تنوع در تعداد کپی قطعه ژنومی، چیپ 50 کی گوسفندی، گوسفند
  • مجتبی نجفی، سید حسن حافظیان، محمد علی روحی، محسن گودرزی صفحه 502
    فرم پیچش غیر نرمال پروتئین پرایون باعث وجود بیماری های بیشماری در پستانداران از قبیل انسفالوپاتی اسفنجی گاوی (بیماری جنون گاوی) در گاو، بیماری کرتزفلد- جاکوب در انسان و بیماری اسکراپی در بز وگوسفند می شود. تمام این بیماری ها روی ساختار مغز و سیستم عصبی اثر گذاشته و تا به حال هیچ روش درمانی برای آن ها ارایه نشده است و در نهایت باعث مرگ دام می شود. با بررسی های بیشتر مشخص شد که حیوانات بر اساس تنوع ژنتیکی در ژن پرایون در گروه های مختلف از لحاظ حساسیت و مقاومت به بیماری قرار می گیرند. به منظور شناسایی فرم های مختلف اللی ژن پرایون در بز نژاد نائینی، از تعداد 120 راس بز نژاد نائینی نمونه خون تهیه شد. بعد از استخراج DNA با استفاده از روش نمکی بهینه یافته، قطعه مورد نظر تکثیر و با استفاده از روش های PCR-SSCP و تعیین توالی تعیین ژنوتیپ شدند. در پژوهش حاضر، نتایج تعیین ژنوتیپ با روش PCR-SSCP 9 الگوی باندی را نشان داد که در نهایت آنالیز ژنتیکی از نواحی کد کننده ژن پرایون، یک چند شکلی جدید را در کدون 186 (T- M or K) نشان داد. علاوه بر این، دو جهش خاموش نیز در کدون های 138 و 143 مشاهده شد. با توجه به آنالیز ژنتیکی کدون های 136، 154 و 171 تمامی بزهای نائینی مورد مطالعه دارای هاپلوتیپ ARQ بوده و احتمالا فراوانی بالای این هاپلوتیپ می تواند به علت همبستگی این آلل با صفات مهم و اقتصادی باشد و با توجه به پژوهش های پیشین احتمالا این نژاد مقاومت کمی نسبت به بیماری اسکراپی دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: تعیین توالی مستقیم، فرم های مختلف آللی، نواحی قابل کد گذاری ژن پرایون، PCR SSCP
  • رضا پسندید، ه محمدتقی بیگی نصیری، مسعودرضا صیفی آباد شاپوری، جمال فیاضی، هدایت الله روشنفکر، محسن لطفی صفحه 511
    تب بی‏دوام گاوی (BEF) یک بیماری ویروسی قابل انتقال توسط بندپایان در گاو و گاومیش می‏باشد که در مناطق گرمسیری و نیمه گرمسیری آسیا، استرالیا و افریقا پراکنده شده است. در سال‏های اخیر این بیماری در بسیاری از استان‏های ایران نیز شایع شده و موجب بروز خسارت‏های اقتصادی گردیده است. در این مطالعه ژن گلیکوپروتئین G ویروس تب بی‏دوام گاوی پس از تکثیر با واکنش PCR در ناقل pTZ57R/T کلون و تعیین توالی شد. پس از اطمینان از صحت همسانه‏سازی، محصول PCR با استفاده از آغازگر‏های دارای جایگاه برشی آنزیم BamHI تکثیر و به پلاسمید بیانی pMalc2x انتقال داده شد و سپس به سلول‏های پذیرا شده اشرشیاکلی (سویه‏های ‏DH5α و Rosetta) منتقل گردید. غربال گری کلونی‏های باکتریایی حاوی پلاسمید نوترکیب با روش PCR و هضم آنزیمی، نشان از ورود موفقیت‏آمیز سازه pMalc2x-G به اشرشیاکلی داشت. این مطالعه اولین گزارش از همسانه‏سازی ژن گلیکوپروتئین G ویروس تب بی‏دوام گاوی در ایران است که می‏تواند پایه‏ای برای تولید واکسن و ساخت کیت تشخیصی الایزا برای این بیماری در مطالعات آینده باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: اشرشیاکلی، تب بی دوام گاوی (BEF)، ژن گلیکوپروتئین G، همسانه سازی
  • فیزیولوژی
  • علیرضا ایوبی، رضا ولی زاده، آرش امیدی، عاطفه بابایی صفحه 520
    به منظور بررسی اثرات محافظتی پودر زردچوبه بر عوارض ناشی از سرب بر بافت بیضه و تغییرات هورمون تستوسترون در رت ها، تعداد 32 سر رت نر نژاد ویستار به طور تصادفی به چهار گروه هشت تایی شامل گروه های 1) شاهد، 2) شاهد دیابتی (تزریق 55 میلی‏گرم بر کیلوگرم استرپتوزوتوسین)، 3) دیابتی دریافت کننده سرب (تزریق 55 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم، استرپتوزوتوسین و100 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم استات سرب محلول در آب) و 4) دیابتی دریافت کننده سرب همراه با پودر زردچوبه (تزریق 55 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم استرپتوزوتوسین، 100 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم استات سرب محلول در آب، به علاوه پودر زردچوبه به مقدار 2درصد خوراک)، اختصاص داده شدند. طول دوره آزمایش چهار هفته بود و مقدار خوراک مصرفی و اضافه وزن روزانه اندازه‏گیری شد. در روز 29 آزمایش نمونه گیری بافتی از بیضه راست و خون گیری از قلب تمام رت ها انجام شد. آسیب بیضه ای با استفاده از رنگ آمیزی هماتوکسیلین-ائوزین بررسی شد. مصرف خوراک و وزن زنده در رت های دیابتی نسبت به رت های شاهد کاهش یافت. این کاهش در رت های دیابتی دریافت کننده استات سرب بیشتر بود، ولی اضافه شدن پودر زردچوبه روند مصرف خوراک را به طور معنی دار کاهش داد. ضخامت لایه های سلولی و تعداد سلول های اسپرماتوسیت و سرتولی در رت های دیابتی دریافت کننده سرب نسبت به تیمار شاهد به طور معنی داری کاهش یافت. میزان هورمون تستوسترون در تیمارهای دیابتی و سرب‏دار نسبت به تیمار شاهد کاهش یافت، اما تیمار دارای پودر زردچوبه سبب افزایش غلظت هورمون تستوسترون شد. حدس زده می شود که وجود ترکیبات آنتی اکسیدانی در پودر زردچوبه چون کورکومین می تواند از بروز برخی عوارض اکسیداتیو سرب در رت ها و بیماران دیابتی در جوامع انسانی بکاهد.
    کلیدواژگان: بافت بیضه، تستوسترون، دیابت، رت ویستار، زردچوبه، سرب
  • سمیرا رضویان، حسین دقیق کیا، غلامعلی مقدم، صادق علیجانی صفحه 530
    آسکوربیک اسید عمده ترین آنتی اکسیدانت محلول در آب است که بعنوان جاروب کننده برای طیف وسیعی از رادیکال های آزاد عمل می کند. پژوهش حاضر بمنظور مطالعه تاثیر افزودن آسکوربیک اسید بر کیفیت اسپرم، پراکسیداسیون لیپید و فعالیت آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدانتی پلاسمای منی قوچ قزل پس از فرآیند انجماد-یخ گشایی انجام شد. نمونه های منی از پنج راس قوچ نژاد قزل هر سه روز یکبار و توسط واژن مصنوعی اخذ گردید. بمنظور حذف اثرات فردی، نمونه های منی با هم مخلوط شدند. سطوح مختلف آسکوربیک اسید (صفر، 5/0، یک، 5/1 و 2 میلی گرم بر میلی لیتر) به نمونه های منی رقیق شده با تریس-زرده تخم مرغ رقیق اضافه گردید. بعد از فرآوری و انجماد نمونه ها تا زمان ارزیابی در ازت مایع نگهداری شدند. پس از یخ گشایی نمونه های منی، فراسنجه های جنبایی اسپرم، زنده مانی، یکپارچگی غشاء، ناهنجاری مورفولوژیکی، پراکسیداسیون لیپید، فعالیت آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدانتی و ظرفیت کل آنتی اکسیدانتی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. نتایج ارزیابی نمونه ها نشان داد که افزودن یک و 5/1 میلی گرم بر میلی لیتر آسکوربیک اسید باعث بهبود معنی دار فراسنجه های تحرک، زنده مانی و یکپارچگی غشای پلاسمایی در مقایسه با گروه شاهد شد. درصد اسپرم های با مورفولوژی غیرطبیعی در رقیق کننده با 5/1 میلی گرم بر میلی لیتر آسکوربیک اسید، نسبت به گروه شاهد کاهش معنی داری یافت (05/0>P). میزان مالون دی آلدهید تولیدی در تیمار 5/1 میلی گرم بر میلی لیتر آسکوربیک اسید، کاهش نشان داد. میزان فعالیت آنزیم گلوتاتیون پراکسیداز و ظرفیت تام آنتی اکسیدانتی در سطوح یک و 5/1 میلی گرم بر میلی لیتر آسکوربیک اسید و مقدار آنزیم سوپر اکسید دیسموتاز در سطوح 5/0 و 5/1 میلی گرم بر میلی لیتر آسکوربیک بهبود معنی داری در مقایسه با گروه کنترل داشت. بطورکلی، بهترین نتایج در فراسنجه های مورد ارزیابی پس از انجماد-یخ گشایی در منی رقیق شده حاوی 5/1میلی گرم در میلی لیتر آسکوربیک اسید به دست آمد.
    کلیدواژگان: آسکوربیک اسید، انجماد، یخ گشایی، آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدانتی، قوچ
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  • Reza Valizadeh, Mahdi Mahmoodi Abyane, Reza Ganjavi Page 403
    Introduction
    Cultivated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the main, most of the time the only, forage for ruminants in Iran as well as many other parts of the world. Harvesting high quality forage is critical for Iranian dairy industry, because it affects the performance of animals and reduces amount of concentrates utilization in dairy diets. Unfortunately the most parts of the concentrates ingredients are imported. Growth stage and cutting time in the day are known as the main factors affecting alfalfa hay quality. Fiber content increases and protein fraction decrease with increasing the alfalfa maturity (31). Leaf: stem ratio, digestive behavior and availability of alfalfa hay are mainly influenced by stage of maturity and cutting time. However, there is limited published information on the effect of growth stage and cutting time on nutrient characteristics of alfalfa hay. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and fermentative gas production of alfalfa hay harvested at different growth stage and cutting time through in vitro experiments.
    Materials And Method
    This study was done at the Research Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Iran. The experimental farm was divided into 3 equal parts. Each part was allocated to one of the three growth stages (early bud, late bud and early bloom). Every main plot then was divided into 2 equal parts for allocation to two cutting times (at 6.00 and 18.00 hrs.). Therefore, the six plots were randomly assigned to six treatments in a factorial arrangement of 3x2. Oven dried (65◦C for 48 h) chopped alfalfa hay samples were ground to pass through a 1-mm screen. The samples were analyzed according to the standard procedures for chemical composition (2 , 27). Procedure of in vitro gas production was performed according to Menke and Steingass (1988). Rumen fluid was obtained from three fistulated Baluchi male sheep before morning feeding. The DM degradation data were fitted to the exponential equation p = a b (1 - e-ct) (21). The in vitro dry matter, NDF and organic matter digestibility were determined according to the Arroquy et al. (2005) procedure at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96 hrs ofter incubation.. Test samples were incubated for different hrs and then filtered through the nylon cloth with the pore size of 44 microns. The remaining materials were dried at 60 °C for 72 hrs and utilized for the subsequent analysis according to the procedure. The digestibility data were fitted to the exponential equation D(t) = D(i). e(-k. t) I (3).
    Results And Discussion
    Morphological characteristics and chemical composition of the alfalfa samples are shown in Table 1. With advancing the growth stage DM content was also increased but leaf to stem ratio reduced significantly
    Keywords: alfalfa, cutting time, gas production, growth stage, digestibility
  • Hadi Ghorbani, Seyyed Alireza Vakili, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran Page 415
    Introduction
    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of essential oils of oregano, sweet orange and cumin on chemical composition, parameters of gas production capacity, aerobic stability and degradability of dry matter corn silage carried. Secondary metabolites such as essential oils have antimicrobial properties that by adjusting ruminal fermentation in ruminants to improve the use of nutrients. Oils or extracts of medicinal plants studied could be a viable alternative to Ionophores and antibiotics. While improving energy efficiency and the use of nitrogen in the rumen and reduce the production of methane and nitrogen excretion as environmental pollutants, antibiotic resistance in human pathogens reduced to its minimum Essential oils may be used in ruminant nutrition because silage and rumen fermentation depends on the microbial activity that can be affected by essential oils. Studies show the effects of essential oils on different processes in the rumen. The positive effects of antimicrobial essential oils has led the researchers sought to evaluate the potential of these materials are for controlling and improving rumen fermentation as a method of improving feed efficiency . Given that the effective range of essential oils and their compounds are widespread and many of them have still not been studied, this study was to evaluate these essential oils on ruminal fermentation parameters.
    Materials And Methods
    Corn forage was harvested at 30 to 31% of dry matter (DM) content and chopped with a forage harvester to a theoretical of 50, 100 and 150 mgEOkg−1 DM. To determine dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and ash from the recommended methods AOAC (1990) was used. As well as to determine neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of Van Sousse and colleagues Van Soest et al.,(1991) were used. ADF was also the hemicellulose length of 1–2 cm. Essential oil (EO), Cumin (CUM), Oregano (ORE) was dissolved in 0.5 v/v aqueous ethanol and sprayed onto the forage at a rate of 5.56 mL kg−1 silage. The oils were applied to the forage to achieve final concentrations fraction of NDF (Chaves et al., 2012). The concentration of ammonia nitrogen were determined using the method Mu and by device (Kjeltec Auto 1030 Analyzer Tecator). Measurement parameters gas production with the method Menke and. Steingass (1988). Estimates OMD and ME According to equations (Makkar. 2004) were determined. Estimation of short chain fatty acids according to equation Gottschalk (1986) was determined. Determine the parameters of degradability matter in samples studied was by proposed equation Orskov and I. McDonald (1979). The data was analyzed considering a completely randomized design.
    Results And Discussion
    The pH of corn silage treated with oregano 150 and cumin 150 decreased in comparison with control treatment significantly (P
    Keywords: Aerobic stability, Corn silage, Essential oils, Gas production
  • Raheleh Rajabi Aliabadi, Reza Tahmasbi, Omid Dayani, Amin Khezri Page 428
    Introduction Ensiling is less dependent to weather condition and farmers are trying to ensile forages for preserving them for livestock feeding. Ensiling legumes because of their buffering capacity and high moisture content are difficult. Also, ensiling alfalfa will lose up to %85 of its nitrogen content as non-protein nitrogen. Adding some additives like carbohydrate sources will improve alfalfa silage quality and its physical characteristics. There are some agricultural byproducts which can be used in animal feeding. Waste date is being produced annually in Iran and it can be used as carbohydrate source during alfalfa ensiling. This experiment was conducted to investigate ensiling alfalfa with different levels of waste date and its feeding effect on rumen protozoa population, microbial protein synthesis and blood parameters in Kermani sheep.
    Materials and method Eight rams (47 ± 2 kg BW) were used in a 2×2 change over design experiment. Each experimental period was conducted for 21 days (16 days for adaptation and days for sampling). For ensiling, fresh alfalfa with different levels of waste date (0, 5, 10 and %15) were mixed together and ensiled in 100 L containers for 45 days. After opening chemical compositions of silages such as dry matter, crude protein, ammonia nitrogen, crude fat, organic matter, ash, NDF, ADF and pH were determined according to standard methods. Then, it was used %30% of diet in experimental diets as: 1) control diet (alfalfa silage without waste date); 2) alfalfa silage with 5% waste date; 3) alfalfa silage with 10% waste date and 4) alfalfa silage with 15% waste date. Treatment diets were mixed and fed as a TMR at 0800 and 1700 h. Amount of the TMR offered was recorded, and treatment diets were sampled daily for the last 5 d of each period. Orts were weighed, recorded, and sampled according to the same procedures followed for the treatment diets. Urine samples were acidified during collection to a pH key words:
    Keywords: Alfalfa silage, Blood parameters, Microbial protein synthesis, Waste date
  • Monire Babayi, Farzad Ghanbari, Ashoormohammad Gharehbash, Javad Bayat Kouhsar Page 441
    Introduction Recently, considering the fact that access to high quality feed stuffs is limited, using agricultural by-products in animal nutrition has taken to consideration. Effective use of these products as alternative energy source for ruminant feeding is important for economical and environmental reasons. Major limitation for using agricultural by-products as ruminant feed stuffs is their low digestibility because of cellulose crystallinity and close physical association between structural carbohydrates and lignin. Physical (soaking, milling and steaming), chemical (alkaline, acidic and oxidative agents), and biological (enzymes, white rot fungi and mushroom) processing methods have been used extensively to break down lignocellulose structure of crop residues. Irradiation is another physical processing because of its effectiveness without any side effects on environment. The concept of feedstuff irradiation refers to using ionizing radiations of gamma ray (GR) or electron beam (EB). The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of EB, hydrobromic acid (HBr) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the chemical composition and ruminal degradability of vetch wastes. Materials and method Vetch wastes were prepared from Fars province farms. For the EB processing, samples were subjected to 10 MeV EB of Rhodotron accelerator to doses of 150 and 200 kGy. Irradiated and unirradiated samples were sprayed with HBr and H2O2. 60 ml HBr diluted in 250 ml distilled water /kg of dry matter (DM). In order to processing with H2O2, first the samples pretreated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH, 80 g/kg DM) to attain and maintain a pH of 11.5, then 132 ml H2O2 (purity: 35%) were added. Treated samples were then placed into plastic bags, tied up and stored under anaerobic conditions for 18 days. Then the bags were opened and samples dried by exposure to air. Chemical composition of the samples was determined using the standard methods. Ruminal degradability trial was carried out by the nylon bag technique. Crystallinity degree of the samples was investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The resulting data of the study were analyzed by the SAS software.
    Results and Discussion Processing was effective on the chemical composition of the vetch wastes (P
    Keywords: Electron beam, Hydrobromic acid, Hydrogen peroxide, Nutritional value, Vetch waste
  • Mahdieh Mozafari, Hassan Kermanshahi, Abolghasem Golian Page 455
    Introduction In many countries, poultry industry is an important economic activity. Consequences of the use of antibiotics, as a growth-promoting additive, were the appearance of bacterial resistance, thus limiting the use of antibiotics led to find safer alternatives by researchers and probiotics have been introduced as a suitable alternative. According to the definition of the Fullers: probiotics are “a live microbial feed supplements, which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance”. Many bacterial species such as Lactobacillus spp, streptococcus, Bacillus, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Aspergillus have been used as a probiotics. Lactobacilli are one of the most important probiotic groups in poultry nutrition. The most important mode of action of probiotics in preventing growth of pathogens in intestine includes: Less favorable conditions for pathogens colonization and development and stimulation of positive (Lactic) flora. Also, Lactobacilli colonize the gut wall and block the binding sites of pathogenic bacteria by the use of the mechanism of competitive exclusion and it can affect pathogenic bacteria by producing lactic acid. As a general rule on when and how the use of probiotics for poultry must be taken to appropriate conditions for establishment and reproduction of these microorganisms in the digestive tract is provided. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Pediococcus acidilactici- based probiotic (PA) on performance, intestinal histomorphology, microflora and nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens from 1-42 days.
    Materials and methods A total of 260 male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided randomly into 4 experimental treatments. Each treatment had 5 replicates and each replicate was assigned to a pen with 13 birds (1*1m). Birds were given ad libitum access to water and diet. The experimental treatments received a basal diet that was supplemented as follows: control group(C) chicks were fed a basal diet with no probiotic added. In group spray(S), probiotic solution was sprayed above one day- old chicks. In diet (D) group, the basal diet was supplemented with PA at 100 mg.kg-1 of feed for whole trial period and in feed and spray (S-D) group chickens were treated with both of probiotic solution was sprayed above one day- old chicks and then diet was supplemented with PA at 100 mg.kg-1 of feed for whole trial period.
    Results and Discussion Feed intake was not affected by any of the treatments. Chickens sprayed with PA, had a higher daily weight gain them those fed diet supplemented with PA and chicks spray on day one and fed diet supplemented with PA. However, no significant difference observed between sprayed chickens and control birds. Was observed feed conversion ratio, in sprayed chickens, was significantly lower than those fed diet supplemented with PA and chickens that received PA through spray diet. Again, there was no significant difference between sprayed chickens and control ones. In sprayed chickens and those received PA through spray diet, crude protein digestibility was not significantly different from that in control chickens. But, crude protein digestibility in chickens fed diet supplemented with PA was significantly reduced when compared to those of the control chickens and chickens sprayed with PA and chickens than those received PA through spray diet. Ash digestibility significantly reduced in chickens fed diet supplemented with PA and chickens that received PA through spray diet, compared to control chickens. The chickens that received PA through spray diet had longer villus height and crypt depth in jejunum as compared to others at 42 days. Also, in chickens that received PA through spray diet, villus height to crypt depth ratio increased in compared with the chickens fed diet supplemented with PA. Among the chickens receiving PA with the different methods, chickens sprayed with PA and chickens that received PA through spray diet, increase Lactobacillus numbers of the ileum.
    Conclusion This study showed beneficial effects of early use of Pediococcus acidilactici- based probiotic on broiler chickens. The treated birds improved BW, FCR, crude protein digestibility and increase of Lactobacillus numbers of the ileum and villus height of jejunum when compared with chickens fed diet supplemented with PA. However, the positive impact resulting from the use of this probiotic in daily gain, feed conversion and crude protein digestibility in broilers receiving probiotics compared with those who received it were not observed.
    Keywords: Histomorphology, Microbial population, Nutrient digestibility, Pediococcus acidlactici, Performance
  • Mohammad Mehdi Rajabi, Mohsen Afsharmanesh, Elahe Rostami Gohari Page 468
    Introduction
    one of the aim of poultryscientist is to reduce cost feed along with increase in performance and improve in carcass characteristic poultry (1). In recent years, interest in use medicinal plants as feed additive to replace antibiotic growth promotor has increased. The plant additive through effect on the microbial flora of the gastro intestinal tract and the control pathogens improved growth. Components of essential oil have shown biological properties such as antioxidant and antimicrobial activity (34). In vitro, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of essential oils from labiate family such as oregano and rosemary has been reported (25). Rosemary is shrub sustainable belong to the family lamiaceae. The active ingredients of the plant are essential oil, tannins and bitter substances. The most importance compounds include cineole, camphor and bornyl acetate (28). In this study, effect of rosemary powder and essential oil on performance and meat quality in meat quails were investigated.
    Material and
    Method
    In these study 300 Japanese quailchicks were tested in completely randomized design with 5 treatment and 4 replicate per treatment from 1 to 35 days. In each experimental unit 15 quail chicks were reared in the same environmental condition. Five experimental diets (treatments) were included: 1) control diet without any additive, 2) control diet plus 50 mg/ kg essential oil of rosemary, 3) control diet plus 100 mg/ kg essential oil of rosemary, 4) control diet plus 0.25 % rosemary powder, 5) control diet plus 0.5 % rosemary powder. Extraction and separation of essential oil rosemary leaves was performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly and mortality was recorded daily and then used to calculate the performance parameters. At the end of experiment (35 days), one bird from each replicate was killed to determine the concentration of malonedialdehyde (MAD), pH, water holding capacity, dripping loss and cooking loss in thigh meat. Data from the experiment were analyzed in a completely randomized design by SAS software and comparison means were performed with using of Duncan’s multiple range tests at 5% level.
    Result and
    Discussion
    Introduction one of the aim of poultry scientist is to reduce cost feed along with increase in performance and improve in carcass characteristic poultry (1). In recent years, interest in use medicinal plants as feed additive to replace antibiotic growth promotor has increased. The plant additive through effect on the microbial flora of the gastro intestinal tract and the control pathogens improved growth. Components of essential oil have shown biological properties such as antioxidant and antimicrobial activity (42). In vitro, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of essential oils from labiate family such as oregano and rosemary has been reported (8,29). Rosemary is shrub sustainable belong to the family lamiaceae. The active ingredients of the plant are essential oil, tannins and bitter substances. The most importance compounds include cineole, camphor and bornyl acetate (36). In this study, effect of rosemary powder and essential oil on performance and meat quality in meat quails were investigated.
    Material and method In this study 300 Japanese quail chicks were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatment and 4 replicate in each treatment from 1 to 35 days. In each experimental unit 15 quail chicks were reared in the same environmental condition. Five experimental diets (treatments) included: 1) control diet without any additive, 2) control diet plus 50 mg/ kg essential oil of rosemary, 3) control diet plus 100 mg/ kg essential oil of rosemary, 4) control diet plus 2.5 g/kg rosemary powder, 5) control diet plus 5 g/kg rosemary powder. Extraction and separation of essential oil rosemary leaves was performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly and mortality was recorded daily and then used to calculate the performance parameters. At the 35 days, 4 bird from each treatment were selected to investigate morphology of villus and determinate microbial colonies was killed and the samples were taken. Also At the end of experiment (35 days), one bird from each replicate was killed to determine the concentration of malonedialdehyde (MAD), pH, water holding capacity, dripping loss and cooking loss in thigh meat. Data from the experiment were analyzed in a completely randomized design by SAS software and comparison means were performed with using of Duncan’s multiple range tests at 0.05 level.
    Result and discussion The result showed that at 0 to 21 day of age quails fed with rosemary powder improved body weight gain compared to control group. At the 21 to 35 days and whole rearing period, body weight gain was not affected by experimental treatment. In other study, supplementation of the basal diet broiler chicks with avilamycin or essential oil improved body weight, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio compared with the control group (29). In addition, adding 250 mg/ kg rosemary essential oil to quails diet improved the body weight than the control group (11). In contrast, no effect plant additive on body weight gain and performance has been reported in the result Hernandez et al (19) and Amad et al (3). Feed intake and feed conversion ratio in quails fed with rosemary essential oil and powder was not affected by experimental treatment. Adding 0.5 and 1 % rosemary powder in the broiler diet did not affect body weight gain and feed intake (15). In addition, in the study Jang et al (23), there was no different in growth performance, feed intake and feed conversion rate in broiler fed with herbal essential oil. The effects of plant extracts on performance are obviously variable. This may be attributable to differences in composition of the various phytogenic additives and the concentration of the active substances and their biological activity, respectively. In addition, the response of chickens to a phytogenic feed additive might be affected by other factors, such as the diet type, animal age, environmental factors and product quality (33).
    Fed with powder and essential oil to increase the papulation lactobacillus and coliforms were reduced. In addition the villus length and width in treatments receiving rosemary increase and the crypt depth were reduced. The antibacterial activity of medicinal herbs is related with concentration and composition essential oil in them (5). It seems that the active compounds of rosemary improve the bird performance by decreasing the small intestine thickness and also harmful microbial population (32).
    Use of rosemary powder decreased thiobarbituric acid compare with control group. The highest pH was observed in treatment fed with 100 mg/kg rosemary essential oil. Water holding capacity increased in treatments receiving rosemary (expect 50 mg/kg essential oil) compared with control group. The use different levels of rosemary powder in quail diet were reduced cooking loss percent. Dripping loss was not affected by experimental treatments. Poultry meat is particularly prone to oxidative deterioration due to its high concentration of poly unsaturated fatty acid (28). Yesilbag et al (44) reported that quails fed with diet containing rosemary decreased thiobarbituric acid in breast meat. In experiment Mirshekar et at (31), fed of various plant extracts (green tea, rosemary, aktynh) in broiler diets had no effect on pH and water hold capacity, but the thiobarbituric acid was lower in this group. Rosemary with antioxidant properties prevent oxidation meat and consequently increase the water holding capacity.
    Conclusion In the present study, the using of rosemary in quail diet improved the performance during 0-21days, and also improved the quality meat parameters in the whole period of study.
    Meat quality: Rosemary powder decreased thiobarbituric acid compare with control group. The highest pH was observed in treatment fed with 100 mg/kg rosemary essential oil. Water holding capacity was increased in treatments receiving rosemary (expect 50 mg/kg essential oil) compared with control group. The use different levels of rosemary powder in quail diet were reduced cooking loss percent. Dripping loss was not affected by experimental treatments. Poultry meat is particularly prone to oxidative deterioration due to its high concentration of poly unsaturated fatty acid (24).Yesilbag et al (36) reported that quails fed with diet containing rosemary decreased thiobarbituric acid in breast meat. In experiment Mirshekaret at (26), fed of various plant extracts (green tea, rosemary, aktynh) in broiler diets had no effect on pH and water hold capacity, but the thiobarbituric acid was lower in this group. Rosemary with antioxidant properties prevent oxidation meat and consequently increase the water holding capacity.
    Conclusion
    in the present experiment, however the uses of rosemary in diet (except at the 0 to 21 days of age) didnot affect the performance parameter, but was improved meat quality. Thus the use of rosemary as a natural antioxidant to improve the quality meat can be recommended.
    Keywords: Meat quality, Performance, Quail, Rosemary
  • Alireza Hessabi Nameghi, Mohammad Reza Birjandi, Asghar Mohammadpoor Page 479
    Introduction
    Under commercial conditions broiler are feed restricted during rearing to limit growth rate. This quantitative restriction of feed intake aims at avoiding rapid growth and high body weights, which are associated with pathological conditions, such as ascites, lameness, and mortality. Feed restriction (FR) in breeder layer hens was rarely and FR used for poor reproductive results and low fertility. Native poultry population is developing and the role of these birds in the production of animal protein is increasing. Native hens of Khorasan breeding station and most stations in country feed adlibitum. Add feed intake on the one hand leads to economic loss and also leads to increase weight in laying hens that may interfere with the process of egg production and hatchability. This experiment was conducted to evaluate of different levels of quantitative feed restriction (FR) on performance, stress index and reproduction properties of native hens of Khorasan station.
    Materials and Methods
    to investigate the effects of feed restriction, an experiment with 350 hens in the form of completely randomized design with seven treatments, five replicates and 10 hens in each replicate of age 36 to 52 Weekly implemented. Treatments based on corn, soybean and wheat with different levels of FR, including 125,120,115,110,105 and 100 g/ days for layer hens and control groups feed intake was adlibitum. During the trial period, all eggs produced by hens in each pen were measured on a daily basis. Amounts of feed added to the feed troughs were recorded daily. After each week, the weights of feed in the troughs of adlibitum fed birds were recorded. From these data, daily mean intakes per bird were calculated for this pen. During the experimental period the birds were free of water and 16 hours of light and 8 hours of darkness were used. At the end of the experiment (52 weeks) two birds of each experimental pens were slaughtered and immediately different organs weight of each birds were measured. On the same day, three hens per pen were randomly collected blood from the vein under the wing. Blood containing EDTA anticoagulant were then transferred to the laboratory and a development staining by method of May Grunwald- Giesma were prepared.
    Results and Discussion
     the results showed that FR as soon as 110 g/days had no significant effect on egg production (EP), but in another groups of FR (105 and 100 g/days) decreased EP. The results showed that native hens feed intake less than 110 g/ day, decreased EP. The results of this study indicated when we are to the end of the weeks of experimental periods, the EP more decline caused by FR. Levels of 100 and 110g/days FR and control group (adlibitum feed intake) has no significant effect on egg weight (p>0.05). The best feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed in 110 g/days of FR (p
    Keywords: Feed restriction, Immune response, Native hens of Khorasan, Performance
  • Maryam Nosrati, Mojtaba Tahmorespur Page 489
    Introduction Recently, genomic research in livestock is focused on genomic variation and its effect on phenotypic performance in economic traits. Copy number variation (CNV) is one of these variations in genome including insertion, deletion and duplication of 1 kb to 1 Mb segment with more than 90% similarity. CNVs can change gene structure and dosage, can regulate gene expression and function and (1, 4). In mammals, it is important source of variability in genomes and it contains 0.4-25% of whole genome variation. Some researches carried out in livestock have been demonstrated that CNV affecting genes or gene regions are associated with several phenotypic traits. For example, CNV in intron 1 of the SOX5 gene causes the pea-comb phenotype in chicken. CNV affects also the Agouti locus in sheep and goats and contributes to the variability of coat color in these two species. The late feathering locus in this avian species includes a partial duplication of the PRLR and SPEF2 genes and Dominant white locus in pigs includes alleles determined by duplications of the KIT gene (2, 5, 6). In spite of, many researches carried out in human represent association between CNV with both complex genetic diseases and traits; however, far too little attention has been paid to CNV in farm animal. This paper will focused on detecting of CNV in sheep genome.
    Materials and method The sheep genomic DNA was extracted from blood of 360 Italian ewes using DNA Purification kit (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI). Markers were genotyped by Illumina ovineSNP50 BeadChip according to instructions. It is containing 54,241 markers that uniformly span the entire ovine genome (Illumina, Inc., USA). After completion of the assay, the BeadChips were scanned with a two-color, confocal Bead Array reader. Scanned image intensities were loaded directly into Illumina’s BeadStudio 1.2 software. When normalization was completed, the clustering process was performed to assess cluster position for each marker and to determine individual genotypes. LRR and BAF of sample were reported. The PFB file was calculated based on the BAF of each marker in these populations. The sheep GC model file was generated by calculating the GC content of the1 Mb genomic region surrounding each marker (500 Kb each side). CNVs were inferred using a PennCNV (http: //www.openbioinformatics. org/penncnv/). Penn CNV quality filters were applied after CNV detection. High quality samples with a standard deviation (SD) of LRR
    Keywords: CNV, Ovine Illumina 50k BeadChip, Penncnv, Sheep
  • Mojtaba Najafi, Seyed Hasan Hafezian, Mohammad Ali Rouhi, Mohsen Godarzi Page 502
    Introduction The accumulation of improperly folded forms of host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPc) in the central nervous system (CNS) lead to a fatal neurodegenerative disease in sheep and goats, namely Scrapie. The application of genetic breeding programs to eradicate transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in goats is an important aim for reasons of animal welfare as well as human food safety and food security. Scrapie and scrapie-like diseases are associated with polymorphisms and mutations of the gene coding for PrP, a host neuronal membrane glycoprotein which is found in an aggregated form (scrapie-associated fibrils) in extracts of brain tissues from all mammals affected by these diseases. The different allelic forms of PrP gene have been shown to make animals variably susceptible to this disease. It has been established that presence of abnormal forms of the prion protein (PrP) is associated with scrapie. Several amino acid polymorphisms caprine PrP encoding genes have been reported to be associated with scrapie susceptibility. Sheep exposed to Scrapie have been shown to gain highest scrapie resistance in the presence of Q171R polymorphism and maximum scrapie susceptibility in the presence of A136V polymorphism. Based on A136V, R154H and Q171R/H polymorphisms and their five alleles (ARQ, VRQ, AHQ, ARR and ARH) sheep and goats can be classified into five groups (R1-R5). The most resistant genotype (R1) is ARR/ARR and the most susceptible genotypes (R5) are VRQ/VRQ, VRQ/ARQ, VRQ/ARH and VRQ/AHQ. Additionally, other caprine PrP polymorphisms I142M, H143R, N146S/D, R154H, R211Q and Q222K have been shown to be associated with low scrapie risk. Although scrapie is an animal health issue, its presence has not been investigated in Iranian goat breeds, where sheep and goats are major livestock species. Based on the positive impact of PrP genetics on sheep scrapie in Europe in the past decade, we have established caprine PrP gene variation in 120 Naeinian goats from the Isfahan, Iran to evaluation of genetic variation in this important region of PrP gene.
    Material and Methods The DNA was extracted from 120 blood samples of Naeinian goats from Isfahan province using modified salting out method. After amplification of the desired fragment by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), genotyping of samples was carried out by PCR-SSCP Analysis (Single-Strand conformation Polymorphism). In the following, direct sequencing method was used to confirm the genotyping results. Obtained sequences were analyzed by Chromas Pro and BioEdit. In order to evaluate the amino acid polymorphisms caprine PrP encoding gene was used from Expasy server site. In addition, to evaluate the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, we used the chi square test in SAS 9.1 software. All statistical tests were considered significant with a level of P≤0.05.
    Results and Discussion The results of the present study showed that nine binding patterns were observed at PrP locus in studied goat population. The results of direct sequencing were confirmed the PCR-SSCP analysis results. Genetic analysis on protein sequences revealed an amino acid polymorphism in codon 186 (T- M or K) and two silent polymorphisms in codons 138 and 143. Based on codons 136, 154 and 171, all goats showed ARQ haplotype and there is no variation in these three codons. Additionally, the results of Hardy-Weinberg test confirmed that this population was not compatible with the HWE (P Material and
    Methods
    The DNA was extracted from 120 blood samples of Naeinian goats from Esfahan province using modified salting out method. After amplification of the desired fragment by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), genotyping of samples was carried out by PCR-SSCP Analysis. In the following, direct sequencing method was used to confirm the genotyping results. Then, obtained sequences were analyzed by bioinformatics softwars, for example, Chromas Pro, BioEdit. In order to evaluation of amino acid polymorphisms caprine PrP encoding gene was used from Expasy server site.
    Results
    The results of the present study showed that nine binding patterns were observed at PrP locus in studied goat population. The results of direct sequencing was confirmed the PCR-SSCP analysis results. Genetic analysis revealed an amino acid polymorphism in codon 186 (T- M or K) and two silent polymorphism in codons 138 and 143.
    Conclusion
    it is noticed that all of polymorphisms in exon 3 of PrP gene are important and can be used to improve the breeding programs. According to three codon system (codons 136, 154 and 171), all of the studied goats had shown ARQ haplotype which offer Naeinian goats were classified in low resistance group (R3).
    Keywords: Different Allelic Forms, Direct Sequencing, Naeinian goat, PCR, SSCP
  • Reza Pasandideh, Mohammad Taghi Beygi Nassiri, Masoud Reza Seyfi Abad Shapouri, Jamal Fayazi, Hedayatollah Roshanfekr, Mohsen Lotfi Page 511
    Introduction Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is an arthropod-borne viral disease of cattle and water buffalo, spanning tropical and subtropical zones in Asia, Australia, and Africa continents. The clinical signs of BEF disease in cattle are acute febrile reaction, stiffness, lameness, depression, cessation of rumination, and constipation. This disease was caused by Ephemerovirus of the Rhabdoviridae. Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) has a negative single stranded RNA genome and viral particles are bullet or cone-shaped. Five structural proteins of BEFV have been described comprising a nucleoprotein (N), a polymerase-associated protein (P), a matrix protein (M), a large RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) and a surface glycoprotein (G) spanning the viral envelope. The G protein is a class I transmembrane glycoprotein that forms clear projections on the virion surface. The protein G is main protective antigen and there are four antigenic sites (G1, G2, G3, and G4) on its surface. The G glycoprotein of BEFV is a type-specific neutralizing antigen and induces protective immunity in cattle. It has been shown to induce virus-specific neutralizing antibodies that confer passive protection against intracerebral infection of suckling mice and protect cattle against experimental intravenous BEFV challenge. In recent years, BEF has been distributed in many provinces of Iran such as Tehran, North Khorasan, Golestan, Mazandaran, Ardebil, Ilam, Khuzestan, Fars, and Yazd and caused economic losses. Treatment will be very effective if BEF is diagnosed early. The blocking ELISA test is preferred for the diagnosis and monitoring of clinical bovine ephemeral fever. On the other hand, vaccination has been suggested as an effective approach for control and prevention against to BEF. Nevertheless, no effort has yet been accomplished for production of a vaccine and development of an ELISA kit for BEF diagnosis in Iran. Hence, the aim of this study was molecular cloning and sequencing of G glycoprotein gene of bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) in Escherichia coli. These findings provide the basis for the production of a vaccine and development of an ELISA kit for BEF diagnosis in future studies.
    Materials and method The strain of BEFV used in this study was provided of Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute (Hesarak, Karaj, Iran). BLAST analysis based on G gene sequence showed that this strain had the most identity with the YHL strain isolated in Japan’s Yamaguchi prefecture in 1966. DH5α and Rosetta Strains of E. coli were used for cloning of G gene. Total RNA was extracted from the supernatant of BEFV-infected cells and reverse-transcribed into cDNA. The cDNA template was amplified by PCR using the primer pairs GF and GR in order to amplify the full length of G gene. The amplified G fragment was cloned into pTZ57R/T vector and then transferred into E. coli DH5α. Insert-positive clones were isolated by blue/white screening of bacterial colonies using X-gal and IPTG on LB ampicillin plates. The transformed colonies were screened for desired gene performing colony PCR. In order to confirm of cloning accuracy, the recombinant plasmids were sequenced. Then a recombinant pTZ57R/T plasmid (pTZ57R/T-G) was used as the template for PCR amplification using primers containing the BamHI restriction endonuclease sequence. A pMalc2x vector was used in this study. In order to introduce the amplified gene into pMalc2x vector, plasmid DNA and purified PCR products were digested with BamHI restriction enzyme through the sites created by the primers. After ligation, pMalc2x-G construct was transformed into susceptible E.coli (DH5α and Rosetta strains) cells.
    Results and Discussion The 1823 bp fragment of G gene was successfully amplified in RT-PCR and visualized on 1.5% agarose gel. The transformed DH5α colonies (with recombinant pTZ57R/T vector) were confirmed and selected for having 1823 bp fragment using colony PCR method. The result of sequencing of pTZ57R/T-G showed that the predicted amino acid sequence of G gene had four amino acid substitutions in sequence that have no significant effect on antigenic sites. Amplification of a recombinant pTZ57R/T plasmid (pTZ57R/T-G) using primers containing the BamHI restriction endonuclease sequence produced an amplified fragment of G gene to introduce into pMalc2x vector. After verification, the recombinant plasmid was extracted and then transformed into E. coli Rosetta competent cells. Screening of bacterial colonies containing recombinant plasmid by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion showed that pMalc2x-G construct was successfully transformed into E.coli.
    Conclusion This study is the first report of cloning of G glycoprotein gene of bovine ephemeral fever virus using pTZ57R/T and pMalc2x vectors into E.coli in Iran. The pMalc2x-G construct can be used for production of G recombinant protein for development of an ELISA kit for diagnosing BEF in future studies. Furthermore, each of these recombinant plasmids can be used as the basis for transformation and expression of G gene into a eukaryotic expression system in order to production of a vaccine for BEF in future studies.
    Keywords: Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF), Cloning, Escherichia coli, G glycoprotein gene
  • Alireza Ayyoubi, Reza Valizade, Arash Omidi, Atefe Babayi Page 520
    Introduction Hyperglycemia increase oxidative stress which contributes to development and progression of diabetic complications. Oxidative stress refers to an imbalance between the free radicals production and antioxidant defenses that led to tissue damage. Lead is known to induce a broad range of physiological, biochemical, and behavioral dysfunctions on nervous systems, haemopoietic system, cardiovascular system, kidneys, liver and reproductive systems in animals as well as humans. Furthermore, Lead absorbed through the digestive tract, respiratory system, and skin of animals. Lead can apply its toxic effects on various parts of the body. Some feed additives can protect animal body against adverse effects of the absorbed lead. This study investigated the protective effects of turmeric on adverse consequences of lead acetate in diabetic Wistar rat.
    Materials and method Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to 4 groups of 8. The experimental groups were 1) the Control, 2) diabetic control (streptozotocin injected in dose of 55 ppm), 3) diabetic rats received lead acetate (55 ppm streptozotocin injected, 100 ppm of Lead acetate dissolved in water) and 4) diabetic rats received lead acetate and turmeric powder (55 ppm of streptozotocin injected, 100 ppm lead acetate dissolved in water, and 2% of feed turmeric powder). Streptozotocin (STZ) was dissolved in 0.1 M sodium citrate buffer at pH 4.5 just before use, and injected intraperitoneally (IP). Three days after STZ administration, the diabetic rats with blood glucose concentration more than 300 mg/dl were selected and divided into 4 groups. The experimental period was 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment (day 29) the rats were anesthetized with Ketamine (50 mg/kg) after withholding food for 12 h. The blood samples were taken from the heart apex to assess lipids, enzymes and hormone concentrations. The right testis was removed after collecting the blood, washed in saline, and fixed in 10% formalin at room temperature for 72 h. After fixing the tissue, it was thoroughly washed under running water and dehydrated in ascending grades of ethyl alcohol, cleared, and embedded in soft paraffin. Tissue sections of about 5μm were obtained, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and examined under light microscope. Twenty seminiferous tubular sections were selected from stained testes of rats and then some parameters such as seminiferous tubule diameter, lumen, cell thickness and number of Leydig cells and Sertoli cells were measured and recorded.
    Results and Discussion Feed intake and live weight gain significantly reduced in diabetic rats, in comparison with the control group. Lead acetate led to more reduction in feed intake although, turmeric feeding showed a positive response in this parameter (feed intake). Moreover, higher basal metabolic rate in diabetic rats led to increase in lipid and protein degradation. Based on histological findings, the activity of spermatogenous tissue was affected by diabetes treatment. The cell thickness and cell number of spermatocytes and sertoli cells reduced significantly in diabetic and lead exposure rats compared to the control group. This reduction was exacerbated in diabetic rats exposed to lead acetate. The number of sertoli cells and spermatocytes in diabetic and lead acetate rats showed a reduction trend. Decreasing seminiferous cell wall thickness is probably due to the effects of lead oxidation through increasing free radical production in the testes. Shrunken and narrow thickened basement membrane, sharp decrease in seminiferous cell wall thickness, increased the diameter of the lumen, interstitial tissue destruction and reducing the number of layers of spermatogenesis were seen in diabetic- lead acetate. These changes may affect sperm production and reproductive performance. Shrunken but organized seminiferous was observed in diabetic and lead acetate with turmeric rats than diabetic and lead treatment. Testosterone level reduced in lead acetate and diabetic rats in comparison with the control animals, but turmeric feeding led to an increment in testosterone concentration. Antioxidant activity effects of turmeric and binding with lead acetate decrease free radicals and reduce damage to the testes.
    Conclusion Lead acetate probably increases oxidation in the testis tissue of diabetic rats with damages in the cell layers and reduced testosterone production and exacerbates the effects of diabetes on reducing reproductive performance. It was concluded that turmeric supplementation protect rats from some harmful effects of lead toxicity in form of lead acetate or other lead containing chemicals. The presence of special ingredients such as curcumin in turmeric powder with its antioxidative stress property was the main reason for this protective effects although more study are needed.
    Keywords: Diabetes, Lead, Turmeric, Testosterone, Testicular tissue, Wistar rat
  • Samira Razavian, Hossein Daghigh Kia, Gholamali Moghaddam, Sadegh Alijani Page 530
    Introduction
    The cryopreservation of spermatozoa has provided special opportunities for the preservation of genetic resources and improving breed programs by the artificial insemination technique (Holt, 1996). Sperm cryopreservation stimulates intracellular ice crystals formation, increasing osmotic and chilling injury that causes sperm cell damage (Isachenko et al. 2003). Freezing and thawing processes impose physical and chemical insults on the sperm membrane that decrease sperm viability and fertilizing ability (Alvarez and Storey, 1992). Both damages are associated with excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxidation of the phospholipids in the membrane (Wang et al. 1997; Lasso et al. 1994). High concentrations of ROS have a negative effect on sperm quality and increased degradation of DNA, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress which inhibits sperm motility and changes the structure of sperm and finally the reduces the fertility (Aitken et al., 1997; Agarwal and Saleh, 2002; Khosrowbeygi and Zarghami, 2007; Zalata et al., 1995). Seminal plasma contains enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) which have an important role in the inhibition of the deleterious effects of ROS. Lipid peroxidation may be done due to lack of coordination between SOD, GPX, and CAT in seminal plasma or deficiency of total antioxidant capacity of the cell (Tavilani et al., 2008). Ascorbic acid is the main water-soluble antioxidant which acts as a scavenger for a whole range of reactive oxygen species. Ascorbic acid acts as a strong electron donor reacts with superoxide, peroxide and hydroxyl to form dehydroascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid protects sperm DNA against damage caused by H2O2 radical and reduces the amount of nitrite. This study was conducted to study the effects of adding ascorbic acid on sperm quality, plasma lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities of ram semen after freeze- thawing process.
    Material and
    Methods
    Five sexually mature Ghezel rams (3 to 4 years of age) were used. Semen samples were collected every three days using an artificial vagina. In order to eliminate the individual differences, ejaculates containing sperm with >80% progressive motility, volume of 0.75 to 2 mL, sperm concentrations greater than 3 × 109 sperm/mL and sperm abnormalities of less than 10%, were pooled. Different levels of Ascorbic acid (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg mL-1) were added in tris-egg yolk based diluent. After processing and freezing, the samples were stored in liquid nitrogen until the time of evaluation. After thawing of semen samples, Sperm motility characteristics were analyzed using computer-assisted sperm analysis. The sperm viability was determined by means of the nigrosin–eosin staining method. The hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS-test) was used to evaluate functional sperm plasma membrane integrity after freeze-thawing. Sperm abnormalities were assessed using Hancock solution. Lipid peroxidation was measured with determining malondialdehyde and the seminal plasma antioxidant enzymes of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity using the RANDOX Laboratories kit. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS software (9.1.3) software using GLM procedures. The least square means were calculated to determine the differences between the experimental treatments for the post-thaw evaluation times.
    Results And Discussion
    The results showed that the 1 and 1.5 mg/mL ascorbic acid significantly improved the total motility (TM), progressive motility (PM), curvilinear velocity (VCL) compared to the control group (P
    Keywords: Ascorbic acid, Freeze, thawing, Antioxidant enzymes, Ram